हितोपदेश संस्कृत का एक कथा ग्रन्थ है जिसमें पशु-पक्षियों को पात्र बनाकर कथाएँ रची गयीं है जो लोगों को नीति-निपुण बनाने में सक्षम हैं।


सिद्धिः साध्ये सतामस्तु प्रसादात् तस्य धूर्जटेः ।
जाह्नवीफेनलेखेव यन्मूर्ध्नि शशिनः कला ॥ १॥
May success attend the good in their undertakings (in the object they wish to accomplish) by the favour of that Dhurjati, on whose head there is a digit of the moon looking like a streak of the foam of the Ganges.
श्रुतो हितोपदेशोऽयं पाटवं संस्कृतोक्तिषु ।
वाचां सर्वत्र वैचित्र्यं नीतिविद्यां ददाति च ॥ २॥
This Hitopadesa (the work inculcating salutary instruction) when studied (lit., carefully attended to) gives (the student) proficiency in elegant speeches, a variety of expression in every department and a knowledge of the conduct of human affairs.
अजरामरवत् प्राज्ञो विद्यामर्थं च चिन्तयेत् ।
गृहीत इव केशेषु मृत्युना धर्ममाचरेत् ॥ ३॥
A wise man should think of (acquiring) knowledge and money as though he were not subject to old age or death: but he should perform his religious duties as if Death had seized him by the hair.
सर्वद्रव्येषु विद्यैव द्रव्यमाहुरनुत्तमम् ।
अहार्यत्वादनर्घ्यत्वादक्षयत्वाच्च सर्वदा ॥ ४॥
Learning, of all things, (the wise) declare to be without a superior (the best of them all ), because of its incapability of being taken away, or valued or exhausted.
संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् ।
समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्यमतः परम् ॥ ५॥
Learning, although possessed by a low man, introduces him to the king who is (ordinarily) inapproachable, just as a river, although flowing through a low region, takes one to the inaccessible sea : (sources) from which floweth great fortune (or, the future rests with fortune).
विद्या ददाति विनयं विनयाद्याति पात्रताम् ।
पात्रत्वाद्धनमाप्नोति धनाद्धर्मं ततः सुखम् ॥ ६॥
Learning endows one with modesty ; from (having) modesty one passes on to (gets) worthiness ; being worthy one obtains riches ; from riches religious merit and from that happiness.
विद्या शस्त्रस्य शास्त्रस्य द्वे विद्ये प्रतिपत्तये ।
आद्या हास्याय वृद्धत्वे द्वितीयाद्रियते सदा ॥ ७॥
The knowledge of arms and that of the Sastras - these two lores conduce to glory: but the former exposes one to ridicule in old age, while the latter is ever respected.
यन्नवे भाजने लग्नः संस्कारो नान्यथा भवेत् ।
कथाच्छलेन बालानां नीतिस्तदिह कथ्यते ॥ ८॥
As an impression made upon a raw (earthen or so) pot can undergo no change afterwards -- so (following the same principle) in this work the science of conduct (or policy) is taught to youths under the guise of stories.
मित्रलाभः सुहृद्भेदो विग्रहः संधिरेव च ।
पञ्चतन्त्रात्तथान्यस्माद्ग्रन्थादाकृष्य लिख्यते ॥ ९॥
[The subjects of] "The acquisition of friends", "The separation of friends", "Making war" and "Concluding peace" are written upon, extracts being made from Panchatantra and other works.
अस्ति भागीरथीतीरे पाटलिपुत्रनामधेयं नगरम् । तत्र सर्वस्वामिगुणोपेतः सुदर्शनो
नाम नरपतिरासीत् । स भूपतिरेकदा केनापि पाठ्यमानं श्लोकद्वयं शुश्राव --
On the bank of the Bhagirathi there is a city named Pataliputra. In it there was a king, Sudarshana by name, endowed with all princely qualities. That king once heard a couple of Slokas (stanzas) chanted by some one ; (viz.)
अनेकसंशयोच्छेदि परोक्षार्थस्य दर्शकम् ।
सर्वस्य लोचनं शास्त्रं यस्य नास्त्यन्ध एव सः ॥ १०॥
He who does not possess (a knowledge of) Sastra, the universal eye, which totally removes various doubts and discusses things hidden from view, is surely blind.
यौवनं धनसम्पत्तिः प्रभुत्वमविवेकिता ।
एकैकमप्यनर्थाय किमु यत्र चतुष्टयम् ॥ ११॥
Youth, abundance of wealth, sovereignty and inconsiderateness are the source of calamity even singly; what then, where all these four are combined !
इत्याकर्ण्यात्मनः पुत्राणामनधिगतशास्त्राणां नित्यमुन्मार्गगामिनां
शास्त्राननुष्ठानेनोद्विग्नमनाः स राजा चिन्तयामास ।
On hearing this, the king, who was distracted at heart, on account of the non-attendance to (the commands of the) Sastras of his sons who had no knowledge of the Sastras and who always followed the wrong path, thought to himself:
कोऽर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन यो न विद्वान् न धार्मिकः ।
काणेन चक्षुषा किंवा चक्षुःपीडैव केवलम् ॥ १२॥
What is the good of (what benefit can accrue from) having a son who is neither learned nor pious (dutiful); (for) what is the use of an eye that is blind? It simply causes occular pain.
अजातमृतमूर्खाणां वरमाद्यौ न चान्तिमः ।
सकृद्दुःखकरावाद्यावन्तिमस्तु पदे पदे ॥ १३॥
Of sons, not born, (born and) dead and foolish, the first two are to be preferred and not the last: (for) the first two cause pain (but) once ; the last at every step.
किं च । स जातो येन जातेन याति वंशः समुन्नतिम् ।
परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते ॥ १४॥
Moreover . He is (really) born by whose birth the family is exalted. In this revolving world who does not die and is not born again?
गुणिगणगणनारम्भे न पतति कठिनी सुसम्भ्रमाद्यस्य ।
तेनाम्बा यदि सुतिनी वद वन्ध्या कीदृशी नाम ॥ १५॥
If the mother of the boy, for whom the little finger does not bend down hastily at the commencement of the enumeration of the number of meritorious men, be said to have given birth to a son, then say, what a barren woman would be like to (i.e., she is as good as a barren woman).
दाने तपसि शौर्ये च यस्य न प्रथितं यशः ।
विद्यायामर्थलाभे च मातुरुच्चार एव सः ॥ १६॥
He, who is not well known for his charity, penance, bravery, learning and the acquisition of wealth, is but the excrement of his mother.
अपरं च । वरमेको गुणी पुत्रो न च मूर्खशतान्यपि ।
एकश्चन्द्रस्तमो हन्ति न च तारागणोऽपि च ॥ १७॥
Also, It is better to have one meritorious son than a hundred of foolish ones; the single moon dispels darkness; and not the whole firmament of stars.
पुण्यतीर्थे कृतं येन तपः क्वाप्यतिदुष्करम् ।
तस्य पुत्रो भवेद्वश्यः समृद्धो धार्मिकः सुधीः ॥ १८॥
The son of him, who has practised religious austerities, extremely difficult to perform, at some holy place, will be obedient, prosperous, righteous and talented.
अर्थागमो नित्यमरोगिता च प्रिया च भार्या प्रियवादिनी च ।
वश्यश्च पुत्रोऽर्थकरी च विद्या षड् जीवलोकस्य सुखानि राजन् ॥ १९॥
An influx of money, constant health (lit., freedom from disease), a beloved wife, and one sweet-speaking (of gentle manners), an obedient son, and learning productive of wealth -- these six, o king, are the pleasures of the mortal world.
को धन्यो बहुभिः पुत्रैः कुशूलापूरणाढकैः ।
वरमेकः कुलालम्बी यत्र विश्रूयते पिता ॥ २०॥
Who will be (considered) blessed by having sons who are like (no better than, the adhakas* (a kind of measure) filling up (** i.e., Simply making up a particular number) a granary? It is better to have one son, who is the prop of the family and who brings fame to his father.
ऋणकर्ता पिता शत्रुर्माता च व्यभिचारिणी ।
भार्या रूपवती शत्रुः पुत्रः शत्रुरपण्डितः ॥ २१॥
A father who contracts debts (i.e., leaves nothing to his son but a legacy of debt) is an enemy, and so is a mother, false to her bed; a beautiful wife is an enemy; and such is an illiterate son.
अनभ्यासे विषं विद्या अजीर्णे भोजनं विषम् ।
विषं सभा दरिद्रस्य वृद्धस्य तरुणी विषम् ॥ २२ ॥
Learning if not kept up by constant study is poison ; taking food after indigestion is poison; to a poor man a public assembly is poison; and to an old man a youthful wife is poison.
यस्य कस्य प्रसूतोऽपि गुणवान्पूज्यते नरः ।
धनुर्वंशविशुद्धोऽपि निर्गुणः किं करिष्यति ॥ २३॥
A man of merits, born of whatever parents, is honoured ; (for) what is the use of a bow that is without string though made of a faultless bamboo staff (or, what can a man of pure Kshatriya extraction do if wanting in martial vigour)?
हा हा पुत्रक नाधीतं सुगतैतासु रात्रिषु ।
तेन त्वं विदुषां मध्ये पङ्के गौरिव सीदसि ॥ २४॥
Alas! poor child, thou, who leadest an easy life, didst not acquire knowledge in these (bygone) nights, on this account dost thou come to grief (fare ill) in the society of the learned like a cow stuck in mud.
तत् कथमिदानीमेते मम पुत्रा गुणवन्तः क्रियन्ताम् । यतः ।
Then how shall I now make my sons accomplished ! For: --
आहारनिद्राभयमैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत्पशुभिर्नराणाम् ।
धर्मो हि तेषामधिकः विशेषो धर्मेण हीनाः पशुभिः समानाः ॥ २५॥
Food, sleep, fear and the enjoyment of carnal pleasures -- these men share in common with beasts ; surely the sense (or performance) of duty is their special attribute (distinguishing mark): devoid of this they are degraded to the level of (stand on a level with) beasts.
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां यस्यैकोऽपि न विद्यते ।
अजागलस्तनस्येव तस्य जन्म निरर्थकम् ॥ २६॥
The life of him, who has not achieved any one of Dharma (the discharge of religious duties), Artha (the acquisition of money by fair means), Kama (the gratification of desires so as not to trespass on Dharma) and final emancipation, is as without its purpose (useless) as that of the nipple on the neck of a she-goat.
यच्चोच्यते -- आयुः कर्म च वित्तं च विद्या निधनमेव च ।
पञ्चैतान्यपि सृज्यन्ते गर्भस्थस्यैव देहिनः ॥ २७॥
Now, (as to) the declaration (doctrine) that -- (The period of) life, (the kinds of) action (one has to perform), (the amount of) wealth (to be acquired), (the degree of) knowledge (to be attained), and (the time of) death -- even these five are created (determined) while a man is yet in the womb.
किं च । अवश्यं भाविनो भावा भवन्ति महतामपि ।
नग्नत्वं नीलकण्ठस्य महाहिशयनं हरेः ॥ २८॥
And that, Things, which are fated, do happen even in the case of the great: (as) Siva's nakedness and Hari's having to sleep on a huge serpent.
अपि च । यदभावि न तद् भावि भावि चेन्न तदन्यथा ।
इति चिन्ताविषघ्नोऽयमगदः किं न पीयते ॥ २९॥
And further . What is not to be can never be, and if it is to be, it can never be otherwise -- why is this antidote against the poison of anxiety not swallowed ? --
एतत्कार्याक्षमाणां केषांचिदालस्यवचनम् ।
These are the idle words of some, incapable of doing anything.
न दैवमपि संचिन्त्य त्यजेदुद्योगमात्मनः ।
अनुद्योगेन तैलानि तिलेभ्यो नाप्तुमर्हति ॥ ३०॥
Even thinking fate to be favourable one should not give up one's industry ; (for) one can never get oil from sesamum without exertion.
अन्यच्च । उद्योगिनं पुरुषसिंहमुपैति लक्ष्मी-
र्दैवेन देयमिति कापुरुषा वदन्ति ।
दैवं निहत्य कुरु पौरुषमात्मशक्त्या
यत्ने कृते यदि न सिध्यति कोऽत्र दोषः ॥ ३१॥
Moreover . Fortune approaches him, the lion among men, who is industrious. It is the weak-minded who say "Fate gives". Dismissing all idea about (lit., killing) fate, put forth manly efforts depending upon your own strength; and if, after an exertion is made, success attend not, where is the blame (i.e., you are not to blame; or, find out where the fault lay)?
यथा ह्येकेन चक्रेण न रथस्य गतिर्भवेत् ।
एवं पुरुषकारेण विना दैवं न सिद्ध्यति ॥ ३२॥
Just as a chariot can not move with one wheel, so without manly exertion, fate does not succeed.
तथा च । पूर्वजन्मकृतं कर्म तद्दैवमिति कथ्यते ।
तस्मात् पुरुषकारेण यत्नं कुर्यादतन्द्रितः ॥ ३३॥
And further. What is called fate is (but) the (sum of one's) actions in a previous life; one should, therefore, make an effort manfully without being slothful.
यथा मृत्पिण्डतः कर्ता कुरुते यद्यदिच्छति ।
एवमात्मकृतं कर्म मानवः प्रतिपद्यते ॥ ३४॥
Just as a potter makes whatever he likes out of a lump of clay, so does a man reap the fruit of the action done by himself.
काकतालीयवत्प्राप्तं दृष्ट्वापि निधिमग्रतः ।
न स्वयं दैवमादत्ते पुरुषार्थमपेक्षते ॥ ३५ ॥२
Even seeing a treasure found quite by accident in front of a man, fate does not take it up itself, but expects a manly effort of his part.
उद्यमेन हि सिध्यन्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः ।
नहि सुप्तस्य सिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मृगाः ॥ ३६॥
Works are accomplished by industry and not by (idle) wishes; for the deer enter not the mouth of a sleeping lion.
मातापितृकृताभ्यासो गुणितामेति बालकः ।
न गर्भच्युतिमात्रेण पुत्रो भवति पण्डितः ॥ ३७ ॥
A boy who is educated by his parents becomes accomplished. A son does not become a learned man by merely being dropped out of the womb.
माता शत्रुः पिता वैरी येन बालो न पाठितः ।
न शोभते सभामध्ये हंसमध्ये बको यथा ॥ ३८॥
That mother is an enemy and that father a foe of the son by whom he is not taught; for he (such a son) shines not in an assembly just as a crane does not in the midst of swans.
रूपयौवनसम्पन्ना विशालकुलसम्भवाः ।
विद्याहीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः ॥ ३९॥
Men, endowed with beauty and youth and born of a very noble race but deficient in learning, do not shine as (do not) the scentless Kimshuka flowers.
मूर्खोऽपि शोभते तावत्सभायां वस्त्रवेष्टितः ।
तावच्च शोभते मूर्खो यावत्किंचिन्न भाषते ॥ ४० ॥
Even a fool, dressed in fine garments, shines in an assembly; but he shines only so long as he does not open his lips.
एतच्चिन्तयित्वा स राजा पण्डितसभां कारितवान् । राजोवाच भो भोः पण्डिताः ।
श्रूयतां । अस्ति कश्चिदेवम्भूतो विद्वान्यो मम पुत्राणां नित्यमुन्मार्गगामिनामनधिगतशास्त्राणामिदानीं
नीतिशास्त्रोपदेशेन पुनर्जन्म कारयितुं समर्थः । यतः ।
Having thus meditated the king convened a council of the learned. The King said -- Ye Pandits, listen. Is there such a learned man among you, as is able to make my sons who are always going astray and who are ignorant of the Sastras, undergo a second birth (as it were) by giving them instruction in the science of conduct? For,
काचः काञ्चनसंसर्गाद्धत्ते मारकतीं द्युतिं ।
तथा सत्संनिधानेन मूर्खो याति प्रवीणताम् ॥ ४१॥
A piece of glass, by being in contact with gold, possesses the lustre of emerald ; similarly a fool attains proficiency by being in the company of the good.
उक्तं च । हीयते हि मतिस्तात हीनैः सह समागमात् ।
समैश्च समतामेति विशिष्टैश्च विशिष्टताम् ॥ ४२॥
It is also said -- The intellect is impaired, O friend, by the society of inferiors; it remains what it is with one's equals and is improved by association with one's superiors.
अत्रान्तरे विष्णुशर्मनामा महापण्डितः सकलनीतिशास्त्रतत्त्वज्ञो बृहस्पतिरिवाब्रवीत् --
देव महाकुलसम्भूता एते राजपुत्राः । तन्मया नीतिं ग्राहयितुं शक्यन्ते । यतः ।
Then a great Pandit, Visnusharman by name, who knew all the principles of the Science of conduct (or, who knew the very essence of the entire science of conduct) spoke like a second Brihaspati -- My lord, these princes are born of an exalted race. They are, therefore, capable of being instructed by me in the Nitishastra. For,
नाद्रव्ये निहिता काचित्क्रिया फलवती भवेत् ।
न व्यापारशतेनापि शुकवत्पाठ्यते बकः ॥ ४३॥
No action exercised upon an unfit object can bear fruit: a crane cannot be taught (to speak) like a parrot even with hundreds of efforts.
अन्यच्च । अस्मिंस्तु निर्गुणं गोत्रे नापत्यमुपजायते ।
आकरे पद्मरागानां जन्म काचमणेः कुतः ॥ ४४॥
And this other thing -- In this (royal) family a child devoid of merits cannot be born; whence can a piece of glass be produced in a mine of rubies ?
अतोऽहं षण्मासाभ्यन्तरे तत्र पुत्रान् नीतिशास्त्राभिज्ञान्करिष्यामि ।
राजा सविनयं पुनरुवाच --
I will, therefore, make your sons well versed in the Nitishastra within the space of six months. The king spoke again respectfully --
कीटोऽपि सुमनःसङ्गादारोहति सतां शिरः ।
अश्मापि याति देवत्वं महद्भिः सुप्रतिष्ठितः ॥ ४५॥
Even an insect ascends the head of the good by being in contact with flowers; a stone also attains divinity when well consecrated by the great.
अन्यच्च । यथोदयगिरेर्द्रव्यं संनिकर्षेण दीप्यते ।
तथा तत्संनिधानेन हीनवर्णोऽपि दीप्यते ॥ ४६॥
Moreover, As objects on the rising mountain appear bright by the near presence of the sun, so a person of humble rank too shines by being in the company of the good.
गुणा गुणज्ञेषु गुणा भवन्ति ते निर्गुणं प्राप्य भवन्ति दोषाः ।
आस्वाद्यतोयाः प्रभवन्ति नद्यः समुद्रमासाद्य भवन्त्यपेयाः ॥ ४७॥
Merits pass as merits with those who know how to appreciate them: coming in contact with one devoid of merits they are turned into faults. Rivers, as they rise, have their water sweet, but on reaching the sea they cease to be drinkable.
तदेतेषामस्मत्पुत्राणां नीतिशास्त्रोपदेशाय भवन्तः प्रमाणम् । इत्युक्त्वा तस्य
विष्णुशर्मणो बहुमानपुरःसरं पुत्रान्समर्पितवान् ।
I, therefore, give you Carte blanche as regards giving instruction to my sons in the science of conduct. Having said so the king entrusted his sons to Vishnusharman with great respect.
इति प्रस्ताविका ।
Thus, the introduction.
॥ मित्रलाभः ॥
Obtaining Friends.
अथ प्रासादपृष्ठे सुखोपविष्टानां राजपुत्राणां पुरस्तात् प्रस्तावक्रमेण पण्डितोऽब्रवीत् --
Now as the princes were sitting at ease on the terrace of their palace the Pandit said before them by way of introduction --
काव्यशास्त्रविनोदेन कालो गच्छति धीमताम् ।
व्यसनेन च मूर्खाणां निद्रया कलहेन वा ॥ ॥
The wise pass their time in amusement derived from (the study of) poetry and Shastra, while fools pass theirs in vicious pursuits, in sleep or in quarrelling.
तद् भवतां विनोदाय काककूर्मादीनां विचित्रां कथां कथयामि । राजपुत्रैरुक्तमार्य
कथ्यतां । विष्णुशर्मोवाच -- शृणुत । संप्रति मित्रलाभः प्रस्तूयते यस्यायमाद्यः श्लोकः --
I will, therefore, relate, for your diversion, the wonderful tale of the crow, the tortoise and others. The princes said -- Sir, tell it. Vishnusharman said -- Listen. I now begin Mitralabha of which the following is the introductory verse.
असाधना वित्तहीना बुद्धिमन्तः सुहृत्तमाः ।
साधयन्त्याशु कार्याणि काककूर्ममृगाखवः ॥ २॥
Though destitute of means and without wealth, the crow, the tortoise, the deer and the mouse, who were the best of friends and gifted with intellect quickly accomplished their purposes.
राजपुत्रा ऊचुः । -- कथमेतत् । विष्णुशर्मा कथयति --
The princes asked "How was this ?" Vishnusharma related --
अस्ति गोदावरीतीरे विशालः शाल्मलीतरुः । तत्र नानादिग्देशादागत्य रात्रौ पक्षिणो निवसन्ति ।
There is, on the bank of the Godavari, a large silk-cotton tree. There, coming from regions in different quarters, birds were wont to roost at night.
अथ कदाचिद् अवसन्नायां रात्रावस्ताचलचूडावलम्बिनि भगवति कुमुदिनीनायके चंद्रमसि
लघुपतननामा वायसः प्रबुद्धः कृतान्तमिव द्वितीयमायान्तं व्याधमपश्यत् ।
Once, when the night was almost spent, and the divine Moon, lord of the night-lotus, was pending on the crest of the setting mountain, a crow, Laghupatanaka (Swift-flier) by name, who was awake, saw a fowler advancing like a second god of death.
तमालोक्याचिन्तयत् -- अद्य प्रातरेवानिष्टदर्शनं जातम् ।
न जाने किमनभिमतं दर्शयिष्यति । इत्युक्त्वा तदनुसरणक्रमेण व्याकुलश्चलति । ।
Seeing him he reflected "To-day I have had an unwelcome sight in the early morning. I know not what evil it forebodes." Saying so he set out, much disturbed at heart, following up his (the fowler's) course. For,
शोकस्थानसहस्राणि भयस्थानशतानि च ।
दिवसे दिवसे मूढमाविशन्ति न पण्डितम् ॥ ३॥
Thousands of occasions for sorrow, and hundreds for fear, day by day, overtake the fool and not the wise man.
अन्यच्च । विषयिणामिदमवश्यं कर्तव्यम् ।
Moreover, worldly people must do this --
उत्थायोत्थाय बोद्धव्यं महद्भयमुपस्थितम् ।
मरणव्याधिशोकानां किमद्य निपतिष्यति ॥ ४॥
Every day on rising, they should think that a great calamity is at hand -- which of death, disease or sorrow would befall (them)! (So that in case of an emergency one should be fore-warned and prepared to meet it).
अथ तेन व्याधेन
तण्डुलकणान्विकीर्य जालं विस्तीर्णम् । स च प्रच्छन्नो भूत्वा स्थितः ।
Now the hunter, having scattered the grains of rice, spread out his net, and himself remained concealed.
तस्मिन्नेव काले चित्रग्रीवनामा कपोतराजः
सपरिवारो वियति विसर्पंस्तण्डुलकणानवलोकयामास ।
Just at that time a king of pigeons, Chitragriva (the Speckle-necked) by name, who was sailing in the sky with his retinue, noticed the grains of rice.
ततः कपोतराजस्तण्डुलकणलुब्धान्कपोतान् प्रत्याह -- कुतोऽत्र निर्जने
वने तण्डुलकणानां सम्भवः । तन् निरूप्यतां तावत् । भद्रमिदं न
पश्यामि । प्रायेणानेन तण्डुलकणलोभेनास्माभिरपि तथा भवितव्यम् ।
Then the pigeon-king said to the pigeons that were attracted by the grains of rice -- Whence can there be the possibility of rice-grains being found in this lonely (tenantless) forest? So let the matter be first carefully examined. I do not see any good will come out of this. Probably by this our desire for the rice-grains, we shall fare similarly (meet with a fate similar) to that of --
कङ्कणस्य तु लोभेन मग्नः पङ्के सुदुस्तरे ।
वृद्धव्याघ्रेण सम्प्राप्तः पथिकः स मृतो यथा ॥ ५॥
The traveller, who through the lust of a bracelet, sank in deep mire and being caught by an old tiger, lost his life.
कपोता ऊचुः -- कथमेतत् । सोऽब्रवीत् --
॥ कथा १ ॥
The pigeons asked how it was ; whereupon he related --
अहमेकदा दक्षिणारण्ये चरन्नपश्यम् ।
एको वृद्धव्याघ्रः स्नातः कुशहस्तः सरस्तीरे ब्रूते --
Once while roaming in the southern forest I saw -- A certain old tiger, having bathed and taken Kusa grass in his paw, used to address (the passers by sitting) on the margin of a lake (thus) --
भो भोः पन्थाः इदं सुवर्णकङ्कणं गृह्यताम् ।
ततो लोभाकृष्टेन केनचित् पान्थेनालोचितम् -- भाग्येनैतत् सम्भवति ।
किं त्वस्मिन्नात्मसंदेहे प्रवृत्तिर्न विधेया । यतः ।
"Ho, ho, travellers, take this gold bracelet." Then a certain traveller, attracted by greed, thought to himself -- This happens by good luck. But I must not proceed in a matter where there is personal risk. For,
अनिष्टादिष्टलाभेऽपि न गतिर्जायते शुभा ।
यत्रास्ते विषसंसर्गोऽमृतं तद् अपि मृत्यवे ॥ ६॥
Although a desired object be obtained from an undesirable source, the result is not good ; even nectar (or sweet-food), which is contaminated with poison, leads to death.
किंतु सर्वत्रार्थार्जने प्रवृत्तिः संदेह एव । तथा चोक्तम् --
But an attempt to get wealth is in every case, attended with peril. And it is said in connection with this --
न संशयमनारुह्य नरो भद्राणि पश्यति ।
संशयं पुनरारुह्य यदि जीवति पश्यति ॥ ७॥
Without embarking upon an adventure a man does not see good fortune ; but if he does embark upon it and lives (survives it), he sees it.
तन्निरूपयामि तावत् ।
प्रकाशं ब्रूते -- कुत्र तव कङ्कणम् । व्याघ्रो हस्तं प्रसार्य
दर्शयति । पान्थोऽवदत् -- कथं मारात्मके त्वयि विश्वासः ।
Let me therefore carefully see it. He said aloud -- "Where is thy bracelet?" The tiger stretched forth his paw and showed it. The traveller said - How am I to trust thee who art ferocious ?
व्याघ्र उवाच -- शृणु रे पान्थ प्राग् एव
यौवनदशायामतिदुर्वृत्त आसम् । अनेकगोमानुषाणां वधान्मे
पुत्रा मृता दाराश्च । वंशहीनश्चाहम् ।
The tiger replied -- Listen, O traveller. Formerly, indeed, in the days of youth, I was extremely wicked. On account of my slaughter of many a cow and man, my sons and wife perished ; and I am without issue.
ततः केनचिद् धार्मिकेणाहमादिष्टः -- दानधर्मादिकं चरतु भवान् ।
तदुपदेशादिदानीमहं स्नानशीलो दाता
वृद्धो गलितनखदन्तो न कथं विश्वासभूमिः । यतः ।
I was then advised by a holy man to practice charity and do such other holy deeds. Following his counsel, I am now in the habit of bathing and giving gifts ; I am old and have lost my nails and teeth ; how can I not be an object of confidence then! For,
इज्याध्ययनदानानि तपः सत्यं धृतिः क्षमा ।
अलोभ इति मार्गोऽयं धर्मस्याष्टविधः स्मृतः ॥ ८॥
Sacrificing, studying one's prescribed portion (of the Vedas), charity, penance, truthfulness, patience, forgiveness and freedom from avarice -- this is the eightfold way of doing religious duties as laid down in the Smritis.
तत्र पूर्वश्चतुर्वर्गो दम्भार्थमपि सेव्यते ।
उत्तरस्तु चतुर्वर्गो महात्मन्येव तिष्ठति ॥ ९॥
Out of these the first four may be practised even for display, while the last four are found in the magnanimous-hearted only.
मम चैतावांल्लोभविरहो येन
स्वहस्तस्थमपि सुवर्णकङ्कणं यस्मैकस्मैचिद्दातुमिच्छामि ।
तथापि व्याघ्रो मानुषं खादतीति लोकापवादो दुर्निवारः । यतः ।
And so great is my freedom from desire, that I wish to give away, to any body whatsoever, the gold bracelet although secure in my hand. Yet the (indiscriminate) talk of the people that a tiger eats men is difficult to be avoided (lit., warded off). For,
गतानुगतिको लोकः कुट्टनीमुपदेशिनीम् ।
प्रमाणयति नो धर्मे यथा गोघ्नमपि द्विजम् ॥ १०॥
People, who are the blind followers of one another, regard not a preaching bawd as an authority in religious matters, as they do a Brahmana although (he happens to be) a cow-killer.
मया च धर्मशास्त्राण्यधीतानि । शृणु --
I, on my part, have studied the codes of religious law. Hear me.
मरुस्थल्यां यथा वृष्टिः क्षुधार्ते भोजनं तथा ।
दरिद्रे दीयते दानं सफलं पाण्डुनन्दन ॥ ११॥
O son of Pandu, as is a shower of rain to the Maru (desert) land, or food to one afflicted with hunger, so is a gift to the poor, full of fruit.
प्राणा यथात्मनोऽभीष्टा भूतानामपि ते तथा ।
आत्मौपम्येन भूतेषु दयां कुर्वन्ति साधवः ॥ १२॥
As life is dear to oneself so it is to (other) creatures. The good show pity to creatures by comparing (them) to themselves.
अपरं च । प्रत्याख्याने च दाने च सुखदुःखे प्रियाप्रिये ।
आत्मौपम्येन पुरुषः प्रमाणमधिगच्छति ॥ १३॥
Moreover. In refusing and giving, in pleasure and pain, and in things (or acts) agreeable and disagreeable, a man knows the standard (of action) by self-comparison.
अन्यच्च । मातृवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत् ।
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु यः पश्यति स पण्डितः ॥ १४॥
Also. He, who looks upon another's wife as a mother, another's wealth as a clod of earth, and upon all creatures as his own self, is a (truly) wise man.
त्वं चातीव दुर्गतस्तेन तत्तुभ्यं दातुं सयत्नोऽहम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
You are in hard distress (lit., extremely ill-situated) and hence I am endeavouring to give it to you.
दरिद्रान्भर कौन्तेय मा प्रयच्छेश्वरे धनम् ।
व्याधितस्यौषधं पथ्यं नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः ॥ १५॥
Enrich the poor, O son of Kunti ; bestow not wealth upon the rich; medicine is wholesome to him who is diseased; what need of medicine has he that is whole ?
अन्यच्च । दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद् दानं सात्त्विकं विदुः ॥ १६॥
And again. A gift, which is given for the sake of charity, to one who is not a benefactor (or who cannot make a return for it), and in the proper place, at the proper time and to a proper recipient is, (the sages) consider, a gift of the best sort.
तद् अत्र सरसि स्नात्वा सुवर्णकङ्कणं गृहाण ॥ ततो यावदसौ
तद्वचः प्रतीतो लोभात्सरः स्नातुं प्रविशति तावन्महापङ्के निमग्नः पलायितुमक्षमः ।
Therefore, bathe in this lake and accept this gold bracelet. Thereupon, placing confidence in his words, no sooner did the traveller enter the lake for bathing than he stuck in deep mud and was unable to run away.
पङ्के पतितं दृष्ट्वा व्याघ्रोऽवदत् --
अहह महापङ्के पतितोऽसि । अतस्त्वामहमुत्थापयामि । इत्युक्त्वा
शनैः शनैरुपगम्य तेन व्याघ्रेण धृतः स पान्थोऽचिन्तयत् --
The tiger seeing him plunged into the mire said -- Ha, thou art fallen into deep mud. I will lift thee out of it. Saying so he approached him gently : and the traveller being seized by the tiger reflected --
न धर्मशास्त्रं पठतीति कारणं
न चापि वेदाध्ययनं दुरात्मनः ।
स्वभाव एवात्र तथातिरिच्यते
यथा प्रकृत्या मधुरं गवां पयः ॥ १७॥
That he reads the texts of religious law or studies the Vedas, is no reason why confidence should be reposed in a villain : it is the nature that predominates in such a case : just as by nature the milk of cows is sweet.
किं च
अवशेन्द्रियचित्तानां हस्तिस्नानमिव क्रिया
दुर्भगाभरणप्रायो ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना ॥ १८॥
Also, the actions of those, whose senses and mind are not under control, are like the bath of an elephant [which is useless, as the animal is sure to cover his body the next moment with mud]; knowledge without action is a burden, like feeding an ill-natured (lit. unlucky) woman or like ornaments on an ugly woman.
तन् मया भद्रं
न कृतम् यदत्र मारात्मके विश्वासः कृतः । तथा ह्युक्तम् --
I, therefore, did not do well in that I placed confidence in this ferocious beast. For, says the precept --
नदीनां शस्त्रपाणीनां नखिनां शृङ्गिणां तथा ।
विश्वासो नैव कर्तव्यः स्त्रीषु राजकुलेषु च ॥ १९॥
Trust should never be placed in rivers, in persons having weapons in their hands, in animals armed with claws, and horns, as well as in women and royal families.
अपरं च । सर्वस्य हि परीक्ष्यन्ते स्वभावा नेतरे गुणाः ।
अतीत्य हि गुणान् सर्वान् स्वभावो मूर्ध्नि वर्तते ॥ २०॥
Again. It is the natural disposition of every one that is tested, and not his other qualities; for having surpassed all (other) qualities, disposition stands at the head.
अन्यच्च । स हि गगनविहारी कल्मषध्वंसकारी
दशशतकरधारी ज्योतिषां मध्यचारी ।
विधुरपि विधियोगाद्ग्रस्यते राहुणासौ
लिखितमपि ललाटे प्रोज्झितुं कः समर्थः ॥ २१॥
And further. That well-known sporter in the sky, the destroyer of sin (darkness), possessor of a thousand rays (bands), and marching in the midst of the stars. Even he, the Moon, is devoured (eclipsed) by Rahu, by the decree of fate: who is able to efface what is written on the forehead ?
इति चिन्तयन्नेवासौ व्याघ्रेण व्यापादितः
खादितश्च । अतोहं ब्रवीमि -- कङ्कणस्य तु लोभेन इत्यादि ।
अतः एव सर्वथाऽविचारितं कर्म न कर्तव्यम् । यतः ।
While thus musing he was killed by the tiger, and eaten. Therefore I say "Through the lust of a bracelet &c." For this reason nothing rash should at all be done. For,
सुजीर्णमन्नं सुविचक्षणः सुतः
सुशासिता स्त्री नृपतिः सुसेवितः ।
सुचिन्त्य चोक्तं सुविचार्य यत्कृतं
सुदीर्घकालेऽपि न याति विक्रियाम् ॥ २२॥
Food well digested, a son very wise (well educated), a wife well disciplined, a king served faithfully, what is spoken after being well thought over and what is done after due consideration -- these do not lead to a bad result even after a very long time.
श्रुत्वा कश्चित्कपोतः सदर्पमाह -- आः किमेवमुच्यते ।
On hearing these words a certain pigeon said arrogantly -- Ah, why is it so said ?
वृद्धानां वचनं ग्राह्यमापत्काले ह्युपस्थिते ।
सर्वत्रैवं विचारेण भोजनेप्यप्रवर्तनम् ॥ २३॥
The words (counsel) of the aged should be acted upon (followed) only when the time of calamity is at hand : if we consider thus in all matters, we can hardly proceed to take our food.
यतः । शङ्काभिः सर्वमाक्रान्तमन्नं पानं च भूतले ।
प्रवृत्तिः कुत्र कर्तव्या जीवितव्यं कथं नु वा ॥ २४॥
For. Everything on the surface of the earth, food and drink, is involved in doubt: to what should an attempt be directed and how should life be supported ?
ईर्ष्यी घृणी त्वसंतुष्टः क्रोधनो नित्यशङ्कितः ।
परभाग्योपजीवी च षडेते दुःखभागिनः ॥ २५॥
One who is envious, one given to reviling, one (ever) discontented, one who is irascible and one who is always suspicious , one who lives upon another's fortune -- these six have misery for their lot.
एतच्छ्रुत्वा सर्वे कपोतास्तत्रोपविष्टाः । यतः ।
On hearing this the pigeons alighted on (the grains ). For,
सुमहान्त्यपि शास्त्राणि धारयन्तो बहुश्रुताः ।
छेत्तारः संशयानां च क्लिश्यन्ते लोभमोहिताः ॥ २६॥
Even those, who are masters of the great Shastras, well-informed, and able to remove doubts, experience trouble when (their judgment is) blinded by avarice.
अन्यच्च । लोभात्क्रोधः प्रभवति लोभात्कामः प्रजायते ।
लोभान्मोहश्च नाशश्च लोभः पापस्य कारणम् ॥ २७॥
Again -- From greed proceeds disquietude, from greed springs up the desire (for pleasures), and from greed result infatuation and (finally) ruin; greed is the root of sin.
अन्यच्च । असंभवं हेममृगस्य जन्म तथापि रामो लुलुभे मृगाय ।
प्रायः समापन्नविपत्तिकाले धियोऽपि पुंसां मलिना भवन्ति ॥ २८॥
And again. The existence of a gold deer was impossible and yet Rama coveted (such) a deer; as a general rule when (some) calamity is impending the talents of men become clouded.
अनन्तरं सर्वे जालेन बद्धा बभूवुः ।
ततो यस्य वचनात्तत्रावलम्बितास्तं सर्वे तिरस्कुर्वन्ति । यतः ।
After that they were all caught in the net. Then all of them began to revile him, by whose advice they had descended there. For,
न गणस्याग्रतो गच्छेत्सिद्धे कार्ये समं फलम् ।
यदि कार्यविपत्तिः स्यान्मुखरस्तत्र हन्यते ॥ २९॥
One should not go at the head of (lead) a multitude; if the undertaking succeeds, the fruit is the same to (equally shared by) all; but if it fails, the leader is killed.
तस्य तिरस्कारं श्रुत्वा चित्रग्रीव उवाच -- नायमस्य दोषः । यतः ।
Hearing how he was reproached, Chitragriva said -- It is not his fault. For,
आपदामापतन्तीनां हितोऽप्यायाति हेतुताम् ।
मातृजङ्घा हि वत्सस्य स्तम्भीभवति बन्धने ॥ ३०॥
Of misfortunes about to befall, even a friend becomes the cause: when a calf is to be tied down the leg of the mother serves as a post.
अन्यच्च । स बन्धुर्यो विपन्नानामापदुद्धरणक्षमः ।
न तु दुर्विहितातीतवस्तूपालम्भपण्डितः ॥ ३१॥
He is a friend of the afflicted who is able to deliver them from misery, and not he, who is clever (only) in condemning a thing ill done or omitted to be done. (With the reading न तु भीत -- clever in finding fault with the manner of protecting the distressed.)
विपत्काले विस्मय एव कापुरुषलक्षणम् ।
तद् अत्र धैर्यमवलम्ब्य प्रतीकारश्चिन्त्यताम् । यतः ।
In the time of adversity, perplexity itself is the sign of a weak-minded man. Therefore, taking courage in this case, think out a remedy. For,
विपदि धैर्यमथाभ्युदये क्षमा सदसि वाक्यपटुता युधि विक्रमः ।
यशसि चाभिरुचिर्व्यसनं श्रुतौ प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् ॥ ३२॥
Fortitude in adversity and again forbearance in prosperity, eloquence in an assembly and valour on the battle-field, a liking for fame (good name) and a strong attachment to study -- these are the natural possessions of the magnanimous.
सम्पदि यस्य न हर्षो विपदि विषादो रणे च धीरत्वम् ।
तं भुवनत्रयतिलकं जनयति जननी सुतं विरलम् ॥ ३३॥
A mother rarely gives birth to a son, an ornament of the three worlds, who does not rejoice in prosperity or feel sorrow in adversity and is firm in battle. Moreover,
अन्यच्च । षड् दोषाः पुरुषेणेह हातव्या भूतिमिच्छता ।
निद्रा तन्द्रा भयं क्रोध आलस्यं दीर्घसूत्रता ॥ ३४॥
A man, wishing for welfare in this world, should avoid these six faults ; viz., sleepiness, slothfulness, timidity, anger, idleness and dilatoriness.
इदानीमप्येवं क्रियताम् । सर्वैरेकचित्तीभूय जालमादायोड्डीयताम् । यतः ।
Even now let this be done. Let us all, being of one mind, fly away with the net. For,
अल्पानामपि वस्तूनां संहतिः कार्यसाधिका ।
तृणैर्गुणत्वमापन्नैर्बध्यन्ते मत्तदन्तिनः ॥ ३५॥
The union of even small things leads to the accomplishment of an object ; infuriated (rutting) elephants are tied down by means of grass twisted (made) into a rope.
संहतिः श्रेयसी पुंसां स्वकुलैरल्पकैरपि ।
तुषेणापि परित्यक्ता न प्ररोहन्ति तण्डुलाः ॥ ३६॥
Union with the members of their family, although insignificant, is for the good of men ; rice stripped of even its husk will not grow.
इति विचिन्त्य पक्षिणः सर्वे जालमादायोत्पतिताः । अनन्तरं स व्याधः
सुदूराज्जालापहारकांस्तानवलोक्य पश्चाद्धावन्नचिन्तयत् --
The birds, having thus taken counsel, flew up all with the net. Thereupon the fowler, seeing them, from afar, carrying off the net, and running after them, thought to himself,
संहतास्तु हरन्तीमे जालं मम विहङ्गमाः ।
यदा तु विवदिष्यन्ते वशमेष्यन्ति मे तदा ॥ ३७॥
These birds, being combined, are bearing away my net ; but when they will fall down (or, out among themselves), they will fall into my power.
ततस्तेषु चक्षुर्विषयआतिक्रान्तेषु पक्षिषु स व्याधो निवृत्तः ।
अथ लुब्धकं निवृत्तं
दृष्ट्वा कपोता ऊचुः -- किमिदानीं कर्तुमुचितम् ।
चित्रग्रीव उवाच --
Then, when the birds had passed beyond the range of the eye, the fowler returned. Now the pigeons, seeing that the fowler had turned back, said -- What is proper to be done now? Chitragriva said --
माता मित्रं पिता चेति स्वभावात् त्रितयं हितम् ।
कार्यकारणतश्चान्ये भवन्ति हितबुद्धयः ॥ ३८॥
A mother, a friend and a father -- these three are naturally friendly ; others are well-disposed according to the law of cause and effect.
तदस्माकम् मित्रं हिरण्यको नाम मूषकराजो
गण्डकीतीरे चित्रवने निवसति । सोऽस्माकं पाशांश्छेत्स्यति ।
Now our friend, Hiranyaka by name, the king of mice, dwells in Chitravana (a beautiful forest) on the bank of the Gandaki. He will cut off our bonds.
इत्यालोच्य सर्वे हिरण्यकविवरसमीपं गताः । हिरण्यकश्च
सर्वदापायशङ्कया शतद्वारं विवरं कृत्वा निवसति ।
Having thus deliberated, they all went to the hole of Hiranyaka. Hiranyaka, on his part, always apprehensive of danger, had made a burrow with a hundred passages and lived in it.
ततो हिरण्यकः कपोतावपातभयाच्चकितस्तूष्णीं स्थितः ।
चित्रग्रीव उवाच -- सखे हिरण्यक किमस्मान्न सम्भाषसे ।
Then Hiranyaka, startled with fear at the descent of the pigeons, stood silent. Chitragriva said -- Dear Hiranyaka, why don't you talk to us?
ततो हिरण्यकस्तद्वचनं प्रत्यभिज्ञाय
ससम्भ्रमं बहिर्निःसृत्याब्रवीत् --
आः पुण्यवानस्मि । प्रियसुहृन्मे चित्रग्रीवः समायातः ।
Then Hiranyaka, having recognised his voice, rushed out in haste and said -- Ah, happy am I! my beloved friend Chitragriva has come.
यस्य मित्रेण सम्भाषो यस्य मित्रेण संस्थितिः ।
यस्य मित्रेण संलापस्ततो नास्तीह पुण्यवान् ॥ ३९॥
No one is more meritorious in this world than he, who talks with his friend, who lives with his friend and who holds a friendly discourse (or, chats) with his friend.
सविस्मयः क्षणं स्थित्वोवाच -- सखे किमेतत् ।
चित्रग्रीवोऽवदत् --
सखे अस्माकं प्राक्तनजन्मकर्मणः फलमेतत् ।
Seeing them caught in the snares he stood astonished for a moment and said -- Friend, what is this ? Chitragriva replied -- Friend, this is the fruit of our deeds in a previous life.
यस्माच्च येन च यथा च यदा च यच्च
यावच्च यत्र च शुभाशुभमात्मकर्म ।
तस्माच्च तेन च तथा च तदा च तच्च
तावच्च तत्र च विधातृवशादुपैति ॥ ४०॥
From whatever cause, by whatever means, in whatever manner, at whatever time, of whatever kind, in whatever proportion and at whatever place, one may do a deed, good or bad, one reaps the fruit of it, in obedience to the will of providence, from that cause, by that means, &c.
रोगशोकपरीतापबन्धनव्यसनानि च ।
आत्मापराधवृक्षाणां फलान्येतानि देहिनाम् ॥ ४१॥
Disease, sorrow, affliction, restraint and calamities -- these are the fruits of the trees in the form of the faults committed by men.
एतच्छ्रुत्वा हिरण्यकश्चित्रग्रीवस्य बन्धनं छेत्तुं सत्वरमुपसर्पति ।
चित्रग्रीव उवाच -- मित्र । मा मैवं ।
The mouse quickly proceeded to sever the bonds of Chitragriva. Chitragriva said -- Friend, do not do so.
अस्मदाश्रितानामेषां तावत्पाशांश्छिन्धि
तदा मम पाशं पश्चाच्छेत्स्यसि ।
First cut the bonds of these my followers ; and then you will cut mine.
हिरण्यकोऽप्याह -- अहमल्पशक्तिः । दन्ताश्च मे कोमलाः । तद्
तदेतेषां पाशांश्छेत्तुं कथं समर्थः ।
Hiranyaka too replied -- I have little strength and my teeth are delicate, how then can I gnaw asunder the snares of these all?
तद्यावन्मे दन्ता न त्रुट्यन्ति तावत्तव पाशं छिनद्मि ।
तदनन्तरमेषामपि बन्धनं यावच्छक्यं छेत्स्यामि ।
So as long as my teeth are not broken, I will cut your bonds and then sever those of the rest too as far as my strength will allow.
चित्रग्रीव उवाच -- अस्त्वेवम् । तथापि यथाशक्त्येषां बन्धनं खण्डय ।
हिरण्यकेनोक्तम् -- आत्मपरित्यागेन
यदाश्रितानां परिरक्षणं तन्न नीतिविदां संमतम् । यतः ।
Chitragriva said -- Be it so; but cut the bonds of these to the best of your strength. Hiranyaka replied -- The protection of dependents at the cost of one's life is not approved of by those conversant with the science of conduct (or, policy). For,
आपदर्थं धनं रक्षेद्दारान्रक्षेद्धनैरपि ।
आत्मानं सततं रक्षेद्दारैरपि धनैरपि ॥ ४२॥
One should save money (as a provision) against the time of trouble, save one's wife even at the expense of wealth and save one's own self even at the cost of one's wife and wealth.
अन्यच्च । धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां प्राणाः संस्थितिहेतवः ।
तान्निघ्नता किं न हतं रक्षता किं न रक्षितम् ॥ ४३॥
Another consideration is -- Life is the cause of the proper maintenance of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. *{* See. p. 3, 11, 23-26.} What does he not deprive himself of who deprives himself of it, or what does he not save who saves it?
चित्रग्रीव उवाच -- सखे नीतिस्तावदीदृश्येव ।
किं त्वहमस्मदाश्रितानां दुःखं सोढुं सर्वथाऽसमर्थः ।
तेनेदं ब्रवीमि । यतः ।
Chitragriva said -- Friend, as for (the principle of) Policy it is such, indeed! But I am not, at all, able to bear the affliction of these my followers (lit., protegees). Hence I say this. For,
धनानि जीवितं चैव परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् ।
सन्निमित्ते वरं त्यागो विनाशे नियते सति ॥ ४४॥
A wise man should give up his wealth and also his life for another's sake; their abandonment in a good cause is desirable as destruction is certain.
अयमपरश्चासाधारणो हेतुः ।
And this is another special reason.
जातिद्रव्यगुणानां च साम्यमेषां मया सह ।
मत्प्रभुत्वफलं ब्रूहि कदा किं तद्भविष्यति ॥ ४५॥
They bear an equality to me as regards kind, substance and qualities : say then, when and what will be the fruit of my being their lord ?
अन्यच्च । विना वर्तनमेवैते न त्यजन्ति ममान्तिकम् ।
तन्मे प्राणव्ययेनापि जीवयैतान्ममाश्रितान् ॥ ४६॥
Even without wages they do not leave my side (forsake me); therefore, save these my dependents, even at the sacrifice of my life.
किं च । मांसमूत्रपुरीषास्थिर्निर्मितेऽस्मिन्कलेवरे ।
विनश्वरे विहायास्थां यशः पालय मित्र मे ॥ ४७॥
Moreover. Giving up all regard for this perishable body which is made of flesh, urine, ordure, and bones, save my reputation, O friend.
अपरं च । पश्य । यदि नित्यमनित्येन निर्मलं मलवाहिना ।
यशः कायेन लभ्येत तन्न लब्धं भवेन्नु किम् ॥ ४८॥
See. If lasting and unsullied fame be gained at the expense of the body which is perishable and a vehicle of dirt, what would not be gained ?
यतः । शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् ।
शरीरं क्षणविध्वंसि कल्पान्तस्थायिनो गुणाः ॥ ४९॥
For. Very great is the distance that separates the body from the qualities: the body is liable to destruction in a moment, while the qualities endure to the end of the universe.
इत्याकर्ण्य हिरण्यकः प्रहृष्टमनाः पुलकितः सन्नब्रवीत् -- साधु
मित्र साधु । अनेनाश्रितवात्सल्येन त्रैलोक्यस्यापि प्रभुत्वं त्वयि युज्यते ।
Having heard this, Hiranyaka, being delighted at heart and with his hair standing on end, said -- Noble, friend, noble ! By this your affection for your followers, you deserve the sovereignty of even the three worlds.
एवमुक्त्वा तेन सर्वेषां बन्धनानि छिन्नानि ।
ततो हिरण्यकः सर्वान् सादरं सम्पूज्याह -- सखे चित्रग्रीव
सर्वथात्र जालबन्धनविधौ दोषमाशङ्क्यात्मन्यवज्ञा न कर्तव्या । यतः ।
With these words, he cut off the bonds of them all. Then Hiranyaka, having cordially received all, said -- Dear Chitragriva, in regard to this your being caught in a net you should not blame yourself by suspecting any fault on your part. For,
योऽधिकाद्योजनशतात्पश्यतीहामिषं खगः ।
स एव प्राप्तकालस्तु पाशबन्धं न पश्यति ॥ ५०॥
That very bird, who sees his prey from a distance of more than a hundred yojanas, sees not the snares (laid for him) when his time has arrived.
अपरं च । शशिदिवाकरयोर्ग्रहपीडनं गजभुजङ्गमयोरपि बन्धनम् ।
मतिमतां च विलोक्य दरिद्रतां विधिरहो बलवानिति मे मतिः ॥ ५१॥
Moreover, When I behold the oppression of the moon and the sun by the monsters (Rahu and Ketu), the imprisonment of even the elephant and the cobra, and the poverty of the talented, I come to think -- Fate, alas, is powerful!
अन्यच्च । व्योमैकान्तविहारिणोऽपि विहगाः सम्प्राप्नुवन्त्यापदं
बध्यन्ते निपुणैरगाधसलिलान्मत्स्याः समुद्रादपि ।
And again. Even birds moving (or, sporting) in a part of (or exclusively in) the sky meet with calamity; and the fishes, too, are caught by experts from the sea with its unfathomable waters.
दुर्नीतं किमिहास्ति किं सुचरितं कः स्थानलाभे गुणः
कालो हि व्यसनप्रसारितकरो गृह्णाति दूराद् अपि ॥ ५२॥
So what is an evil act or a good one in this world, or of what avail is a position of advantage ? For, the god of destruction, with his hand in the form of a calamity stretched forth, seizes even from afar.
इति प्रबोध्यातिथ्यं कृत्वालिङ्ग्य च
चित्रग्रीवस्तेन सम्प्रेषितो यथेष्टदेशान्सपरिवारो ययौ ।
हिरण्यकोऽपि स्वविवरं प्रविष्टः ।
Having thus enlightened him, he entertained him hospitably, embraced him and dismissed him to go; whereupon Chitragriva, with his attendant train, went to the regions he liked to go to. Hiranyaka too entered his burrow.
यानि कानि च मित्राणि कर्तव्यानि शतानि च ।
पश्य मूषिकमित्रेण कपोता मुक्तबन्धनाः ॥ ५३॥
One should make hundreds of friends, of whatever description they may be: behold, the pigeons were released from bonds by their friend, the mouse.
अथ लघुपतनकनामा काकः सर्ववृत्तान्तदर्शी
साश्चर्यमिदमाह -- अहो हिरण्यक श्लाघ्योऽसि । अतोऽहमपि
त्वया सह मैत्रीमिच्छामि ।
Now the crow Laghupatanaka, the witness of the whole affair, said this in astonishment: Ho, Hiranyaka, you are praiseworthy. I, therefore, desire friendship with you.
अतो मां मैत्र्येणानुग्रहीतुमर्हसि ।
एतच्छ्रुत्वा हिरण्यकोऽपि विवराभ्यन्तराद् आह -- कस्त्वम् ।
Kindly then favour me with your friendship. On hearing this, Hiranyaka asked from within his hole -- who are you?
स ब्रूते -- लघुपतनकनामा
वायसोऽहम् । हिरण्यको विहस्याह -- का त्वया सह मैत्री । यतः
He said I am a crow, Laghupatanaka by name. Hiranyaka smilingly observed -- What friendship can there be with you ? For,
यद्येन युज्यते लोके बुधस्तत्तेन योजयेत् ।
अहमन्नं भवान्भोक्ता कथं प्रीतिर्भविष्यति ॥ ५४॥
Whatever is fit to be united with another, in this world, the same a wise man should unite with that: I am the food and you the feeder: how can love (friendship) exist between us?
अपरं च । भक्ष्यभक्षकयोः प्रीतिर्विपत्तेरेव कारणं ।
शृगालात्पाशबद्धोऽसौ मृगः काकेन रक्षितः ॥ ५५॥
And again. Friendship between the food and its eater is simply the cause of misfortune: the deer that was caught in a snare, through (the stratagem of) a jackal was delivered by a crow.
वायसोऽब्रवीत् -- कथमेतत् ।
हिरण्यकः कथयति --
॥ कथा २ ॥
The crow asked -- How was that ? Hiranyaka related -- Second Fable --
अस्ति मगधदेशे चम्पकवती नामारण्यानी । तस्यां चिरान्महता
स्नेहेन मृगकाकौ निवसतः । स च मृगः स्वेच्छया भ्राम्यन्
हृष्टपुष्टाङ्गः केनचिच्छृगालेनावलोकितः ।
There is, in the country of Magadha, a vast wilderness, called Champakavati. In it there long lived in great friendship a deer and a crow. The deer, plump and sleek in body, was spied by a certain jackal, while roaming at will.
तं दृष्ट्वा शृगालोऽचिन्तयत् -- आः
कथमेतन्मांसं सुललितं भक्षयामि । भवतु । विश्वासं
तावदुत्पादयामि । इत्यालोच्योपसृत्याब्रवीत् --
On seeing him, the jackal said to himself -- Ah, how shall I come by his delicious flesh ! Well, let me first create confidence (in him). Having thus reflected, he went up to him and said --
मित्र कुशलं ते । मृगेणोक्तम् -- कस्त्वम् । स ब्रूते
क्षुद्रबुद्धिनामा जम्बुकोऽहम् । अत्रारण्ये बन्धुहीनो मृतवन्निवसामि ।
Friend, is it all well with you? The deer asked -- Who are you? He replied -- I am a jackal, Kshudrabuddhi (Little-wit) by name. I live here, like one dead, having lost all my relatives.
इदानीं त्वां मित्रमासाद्य पुनः
सबन्धुर्जीवलोकं प्रविष्टोऽस्मि । अधुना तवानुचरेण मया सर्वथा भवितव्यम् ।
Now that I have found a friend in you and have (thus) a relative, I have once more entered the world of the living. Now I will, in every way, be your attendant.
मृगेणोक्तम् -- एवमस्तु । ततः पश्चादस्तं गते
सवितरि भगवति मरीचिमालिनि तौ मृगस्य वासभूमिं गतौ ।
The deer said -- Be it so. Thereafter, when the divine Sun, the wearer of a wreath of rays, had set, the two went to the residence of the deer.
तत्र चम्पकवृक्षशाखायां सुबुद्धिनामा काको मृगस्य
चिरमित्रं निवसति । तौ दृष्ट्वा काकोऽवदत् --सखे चित्राङ्ग ।
कोऽयं द्वितीयः ।
There on the branch of a Champaka tree, lived a crow, named Subuddbi (Good-wit), an old friend of the deer. Seeing the two the crow asked -- Friend, who is this second ?
मृगो ब्रूते -- जम्बुकोऽयम् । अस्मत्सख्यमिच्छन्नागतः ।
काको ब्रूते -- मित्र अकस्मादागन्तुना सह मैत्री न युक्ता । तथा चोक्तम् --
The deer said -- This is a jackal who comes here desiring our friendship. The crow said, friend, friendship, all of a sudden, with a stranger, is not advisable. For it is said --
अज्ञातकुलशीलस्य वासो देयो न कस्यचित् ।
मार्जारस्य हि दोषेण हतो गृध्रो जरद्गवः ॥ ५६॥
Shelter should not be given to any one whose family and disposition are not known; for the fault of a cat, the vulture, Jaradgava, suffered death.
तावाहतुः -- कथमेतत् ।
काकः कथयति --
॥ कथा ३ ॥
The two asked how it was, whereupon the crow related Fable 3
अस्ति भागीरथीतीरे गृध्रकूटनाम्नि पर्वते महान्पर्कटीवृक्षः ।
तस्य कोटरे दैवदुर्विपाकात् गलितनखनयनो जरद्गवनामा
गृध्रः प्रतिवसति । अथ कृपया तज्जीवनाय तद्वृक्षवासिनः
पक्षिणः स्वाहारात्किंचित्किंचिदुद्धृत्य ददति । तेनासौ जीवति ।
There is a large Parkati tree on the hill, named Gridhrakut (the peak of Vultures), on the bank of the Bhagirathi. In its hollow dwelt, with his talons and eyes gone through an adverse turn of fate, a vulture, Jaradgava by name. Now, out of pity, the birds, roosting in the tree, spared small portions from their food and gave them to him. He lived on that.
शावकानां रक्षणं करोति । अथ कदाचिद्दीर्घकर्णनामा
मार्जारः पक्षिशावकान्भक्षयितुं तत्रागतः ।
He looked after the young birds. Now, once a cat, named Dirghakarna (the long-eared) came there to eat the young of the birds.
ततस्तमायान्तं दृष्ट्वा पक्षिशावकैर्भयार्तैः कोलाहलः कृतः ।
तच्छ्रुत्वा जरद्गवेनोक्तम् -- कोऽयमायाति । दीर्घकर्णो
गृध्रमवलोक्य सभयमाह -- हा हतोऽस्मि । यतः ।
Seeing him coming, the nestlings being terror-stricken, raised a cry. Hearing it Jaradgava asked -- Who is this that is coming? Dirghakarna, seeing the vulture, said in alarm -- Alas, it is all up with me. However,
तावद्भयस्य भेतव्यं यावद्भयमनागतम् ।
आगतं तु भयं वीक्ष्य नरः कुर्याद्यथोचितम् ॥ ५७॥
One should dread a danger only as long as it has not arrived; but seeing that the danger has come, a man should do what the occasion demands.
अधुनास्य संनिधाने पलायितुमक्षमः । तद्यथा भवितव्यं
तद्भवतु । तावद्विश्वासमुत्पाद्यास्य समीपमुपगच्छामि ।
Now that I am in his presence, I cannot run away. So let things take what course they may. I will first create confidence in him and then approach him.
इत्यालोच्योपसृत्याब्रवीत् -- आर्य त्वामभिवन्दे ।
गृध्रोऽवदत् -- कस्त्वम् ।
सोऽवदत् -- मार्जारोऽहम् ।
Thus resolved, he went forth and said -- Sir, I salute you. The Vulture asked -- Who are you? He replied -- A cat.
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- दूरमपसर । नो चेद्धन्तव्योऽसि मया ।
मार्जारोऽवदत् -- श्रूयतां
तावदस्मद्वचनम् । ततो यद्यहं वध्यस्तदा हन्तव्यः । यतः ।
The Vulture said -- Get away, else I shall have to kill you. The cat said -- In the first place, hear me, and then, if you deem me to be worthy of death, let me not live. For,
जातिमात्रेण किं कश्चिद्धन्यते पूज्यते क्वचित् ।
व्यवहारं परिज्ञाय वध्यः पूज्योऽथवा भवेत् ॥ ५८॥
Is any one killed or honoured merely because he belongs to a particular caste? It is only on one's actions (conduct) being fully known that one is found fit to merit death or respect.
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- ब्रूहि किमर्थमागतोऽसि ।
सोऽवदत् -- अहमत्र गङ्गातीरे नित्यस्नायी
ब्रह्मचारी चान्द्रायणव्रतमाचरंस्तिष्ठामि ।
The Vulture said –- Explain why you have come here. The cat replied -- I dwell here on the bank of the Ganges, bathing every day, living a life of celibacy and practising the vow of Chandrayana.
यूयं धर्मज्ञानरता इति विश्वासभूमयः पक्षिणः सर्वे
सर्वदा ममाग्रे प्रस्तुवन्ति । अतो भवद्भ्यो विद्यावयोवृद्धेभ्यो
धर्मं श्रोतुमिहागतः ।
All birds, worthy of confidence, always declare before me that you are devoted to the study of religious law. Hence did I come here to hear from you, who are advanced both in knowledge and years (lit. old both as regards knowledge and age), the holy law.
भवन्तश्चैतादृशा धर्मज्ञा यन्मामतिथिं हन्तुमुद्यताः । गृहस्थधर्मश्चैषः ।
But your honour is so well versed in that law that you are ready to kill me, a guest. While the duty of a house-holder is this.
अरावप्युचितं कार्यमातिथ्यं गृहमागते ।
छेत्तुः पार्श्वगतां छायां नोपसंहरते द्रुमः ॥ ५९॥
Fitting hospitality should be shown even to a foe coming to the house: the tree withdraws not its shade from its cutter.
यदि वा धनं नास्ति तदा प्रीतिवचसाप्यतिथिः पूज्य एव । यतः ।
And if there be no wealth, a guest should be honoured with kind words at least. For,
तृणानि भूमिरुदकं वाक् चतुर्थी च सूनृता ।
एतान्यपि सतां गेहे नोच्छिद्यन्ते कदाचन ॥ ६०॥
Grass (a seat made of grass), place, water and the fourth (thing), agreeable speech, these, at any rate, are never refused in the house of the good.
अपरं च । निर्गुणेष्वपि सत्त्वेषु दयां कुर्वन्ति साधवः ।
न हि संहरते ज्योत्स्नां चन्द्रश्चाण्डालवेश्मनः ॥ ६१॥
Moreover, The good show pity even to creatures devoid of merits: the moon does not, indeed, withhold her light from the pariah's residence.
अन्यच्च । गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः ।
पतिरेको गुरुः स्त्रीणां सर्वत्राभ्यागतो गुरुः ॥ ६२ ॥
Also, Fire is the object of worship to the twice-born (Brahmanas), and the Brahmana to the (four) castes; the husband is the only object of adoration to his wife, while a guest is the object of reverence everywhere.
अतिथिर्यस्य भग्नाशो गृहात्प्रतिनिवर्तते ।
स तस्मै दुष्कृतं दत्त्वा पुण्यमादाय गच्छति ॥ ६३॥
When a guest turns back from a man's house, disappointed in his hopes, he does so, having transferred his sin to him and taken his merit with him.
अन्यच्च। उत्तमस्यापि वर्णस्य नीचोऽपि गृहमागतः ।
पूजनीयो यथायोग्यं सर्वदेवमयोऽतिथिः ॥ ६४॥
And again. Even a low-born person, coming to the house of one of a high caste, should be honoured as he deserves ; (for) a guest represents in himself all the gods.
गृध्रोऽवदत् -- मार्जारो हि मांसरुचिः ।
पक्षिशावकाश्चात्र निवसन्ति । तेनाहमेवं ब्रवीमि ।
The vulture said –- The cat is fond of flesh; and the young of birds live here: therefore, I say so.
तच्छ्रुत्वा मार्जारो भूमिं स्पृष्ट्वा कर्णौ स्पृशति । ब्रूते च --
मया धर्मशास्त्रं श्रुत्वा वीतरागेणेदं दुष्करं व्रतम् चान्द्रायणम् अध्यवसितम् ।
The cat, on hearing this, touched the ground and then his ears and said I having learnt the code of religious ordinances and being free from passion have undertaken this arduous vow of the Moon.
परस्परं विवदमानानामपि
धर्मशास्त्राणाम् अहिंसा परमो धर्मः इत्यत्रैकमत्यम् । यतः ।
Although the religious texts disagree with one another (in other respects) they are quite at one in this that abstinence from killing is the highest religious duty. For,
सर्वहिंसानिवृत्ता ये नराः सर्वसहाश्च ये ।
सर्वस्याश्रयभूताश्च ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ॥ ६५॥
Those men, who are averse to all sort of killing, who bear all things and who are the refuge of all, go to heaven.
एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधनेऽप्यनुयाति यः ।
शरीरेण समं नाशं सर्वमन्यत्तु गच्छति ॥ ६६॥
Religious merit is the only friend who follows one even in death: everything else goes to destruction along with the body.
अन्यच्च । योऽत्ति यस्य यदा मांसमुभयोः पश्यतान्तरम् ।
एकस्य क्षणिका प्रीतिरन्यः प्राणैर्विमुच्यते ॥ ६७॥
Moreover. When one eats the flesh of another, mark the difference between the two -- the one enjoys momentary pleasure; while the other loses his life.
अपि च । मर्तव्यमिति यद्दुःखं पुरुषस्योपजायते ।
शक्यते नानुमानेन परेण परिवर्णितुम् ॥ ६८॥
Besides, The agony that a man suffers, at the thought that he has to die, cannot be described by another by guessing.
शृणु पुनः । स्वच्छन्दवनजातेन शाकेनापि प्रपूर्यते ।
अस्य दग्धोदरस्यार्थे कः कुर्यात्पातकं महत् ॥ ६९॥
Hear me again. Who will commit great sin for this accursed belly when it can be filled with herbs growing spontaneously in the forest?
एवं विश्वास्य स मार्जारस्तरुकोटरे स्थितः । ततो दिनेषु गच्छत्सु
पक्षिशावकान् आक्रम्य कोटरमानीय प्रत्यहं खादति ।
Having thus inspired confidence (in the vulture) the cat abode in the hollow of the tree. Thereafter, as days passed on, he attacked the young birds, brought them into the hollow and devoured them every day.
येषामपत्यानि खादितानि तैः शोकार्तैर्विलपद्भिरितस्ततो
जिज्ञासा समारब्धा । तत् परिज्ञाय मार्जारः कोटरान्निःसृत्य बहिः पलायितः ।
(Now) an inquiry was set on foot by those birds whose young nestlings were eaten and who being sorrow-stricken were lamenting. On perceiving this, the cat slipped out of the hollow and escaped.
पश्चात् पक्षिभिरितस्ततो निरूपयद्भिस्तत्र तरुकोटरे
शावकास्थीनि प्राप्तानि । अनन्तरमनेनैव जरद्गवेनास्माकं
शावकाः खादिता इति सर्वैः पक्षिभिर्निश्चित्य गृध्रो व्यापादितः ।
After that, the birds, who were making a close search here and there, discovered the bones of their nestling in the hollow of the tree. Then all the birds having come to the conclusion - our young ones have been eaten by this very Jaradgava -- put him to death.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि अज्ञातकुलशीलस्य इत्यादि ॥
Therefore, I say -- "To one of unknown family and disposition &c."
इत्याकर्ण्य स जम्बुकः सकोपमाह -- मृगस्य प्रथमदर्शनदिने
भवान् अप्यज्ञातकुलशील एव । तत्कथं
भवता सहैतस्य स्नेहानुवृत्तिरुत्तरोत्तरं वर्धते ।
On hearing this the jackal said angrily -- On the day the deer saw you first, your honour too was one whose family and disposition were not known. How comes it then that this friendly behaviour towards you is gaining strength day by day?
यत्र विद्वज्जनो नास्ति श्लाघ्यस्तत्राल्पधीरपि ।
निरस्तपादपे देशे एरण्डोऽपि द्रुमायते ॥ ७०॥
Where there is absence of learned men, even a man of little intellect is lauded ; in a country destitute of trees even the castor-oil plant stands out as a tree.
अन्यच्च । अयं निजः परो वेति गणना लघुचेतसाम् ।
उदारचरितानां तु वसुधैव कुटुम्बकम् ॥ ७१॥
Also, This is mine : this is a stranger -- such is the counting of the little-minded : while to the large-minded the whole world is their family.
यथायं मृगो मम बन्धुस्तथा भवानपि ।
Just as the deer is my friend, so are you too.
मृगोऽब्रवीत् -- किमनेनोत्तरोत्तरेण ।
सर्वैरेकत्र विश्रम्भालापैः सुखिभिः स्थीयताम् । यतः ।
The deer said -- What is the use of this altercation? Let us all live happily together in friendly discourse. For,
न कश्चित्कस्यचिन्मित्रं न कश्चित्कस्यचिद् रिपुः ।
व्यवहारेण मित्राणि जायन्ते रिपवस्तथा ॥ ७२॥
No one is anybody's friend or anybody's foe: it is the behaviour (or, intercourse) that makes friends or foes.
काकेनोक्तम् -- एवमस्तु । अथ प्रातः सर्वे यथाभिमतदेशं गताः ।
The crow said -- Be it so. Then in the morning, they all went to places where their will led them.
एकदा निभृतं शृगालो ब्रूते -- सखे अस्मिन्वनैकदेशे
सस्यपूर्णक्षेत्रमस्ति । तदहं त्वां नीत्वा दर्शयामि ।
Once the jackal said to the deer in solitude -- Friend, in a corner of this wood there is a field full of corn. I shall take you there and show it to you.
तथा कृते सति स मृगः प्रत्यहं तत्र गत्वा सस्यं
खादति । अथ क्षेत्रपतिना तद् दृष्ट्वा पाशो
नियोजितः । अनन्तरं
पुनरागतो मृगः पाशैर्बद्धोऽचिन्तयत् --
That being done, the deer went there every day and ate the corn. Now, the master of the field observed this and set a snare. Then the deer going there again was caught into the snare; whereapon he reflected --
को मामितः कालपाशादिव व्याधपाशात्त्रातुं मित्रादन्यः समर्थः ।
तत्रान्तरे जम्बुकस्तत्रागत्योपस्थितोऽचिन्तयत् --
फलिता तावदस्माकं कपटप्रबन्धेन मनोरथसिद्धिः ।
Who but a friend can deliver me from the hunter's snare as from the snare of Death? Presently the jackal came up and standing near reflected -- As to the success of my wish, it has borne fruit by my well-arranged scheme.
एतस्योत्कृत्यमानस्य मांसासृग्लिप्तान्यस्थीनि
मयावश्यं प्राप्तव्यानि । तानि बाहुल्येन भोजनानि भविष्यन्ति ।
When he will be cut up, I am sure to get his bones covered with flesh and blood which will serve me as food plentifully.
मृगस्तं दृष्ट्वोल्लसितो ब्रूते --
सखे छिन्धि तावन्मम बन्धनम् । सत्वरं त्रायस्व माम् । यतः ।
The deer, delighted at his sight, said, Friend, cut my bonds at once ; quickly save me. For,
आपत्सु मित्रं जानीयाद्युद्धे शूरमृणे शुचिम् ।
भार्यां क्षीणेषु वित्तेषु व्यसनेषु च बान्धवान् ॥ ७३॥
One should know (the sincerity of) a friend in calamities, a warrior in battle, an honest man when in debt, a wife when fortune declines and relatives in difficulties.
अपरं च । उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे राष्ट्रविप्लवे ।
राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः ॥ ७४॥
Also. He is a kinsman who stands (by one) in joy as well as in misery, when there is a famine or when a kingdom is overthrown, at the royal gate or in a cemetery.
जम्बुकः मुहुर्मुहुः पाशं विलोक्याचिन्तयत् -- दृढस्तावदयं बन्धः ।
ब्रूते च -- सखे स्नायुनिर्मिता एते पाशाः तदद्य भट्टारकवारे
कथमेतान्दन्तैः स्पृशामि । मित्र यदि चित्ते नान्यथा
मन्यसे तदा प्रभाते यत्त्वया वक्तव्यं तत्कर्तव्यम् ।
The Jackal having again and again looked at the net, thought to himself -- As for this net it is very strong; and said -- Friend, these snares are made of sinews. How then, can I touch these with my teeth to-day, it being Sunday ? Friend, if you will not think otherwise (i.e. will not have any misconception about me) tomorrow morning I will do whatever you will bid me do.
इत्युक्त्वा तत्समीप आत्मानमाच्छाद्य स्थितः । अनन्तरं स काकः प्रदोषकाले मृगमनागतमवलोक्येतस्ततोऽन्विष्य
तथाविधं तं दृष्ट्वोवाच -- सखे किमेतत् । मृगेणोक्तम् --
अवधीरितसुहृद्वाक्यस्य फलमेतत् । तथा चोक्तम् -
With these words, he concealed himself near him and remained (waiting). Afterwards the crow, seeing that the deer did not return in the evening, looked for him here and there, and having discovered him in that condition, said -- Friend, what is this? The deer replied –- This is the result of my disregard of a friend's advice. For, it is said
सुहृदां हितकामानां यः शृणोति न भाषितम् ।
विपत्संनिहिता तस्य स नरः शत्रुनन्दनः ॥ ७५॥
Adversity stands close to him who listens not to the words of well-meaning friends: such a man is the delight of his enemies.
काको ब्रूते -- स वञ्चकः क्वास्ते ।
मृगेणोक्तं -- मन्मांसार्थी तिष्ठत्यत्रैव ।
काको ब्रूते -- उक्तमेव मया पूर्वम् ।
The crow asked -- Where is that traitor? The deer said -- Desirous of my flesh he waits just here. The crow said I had already said (as much).
अपराधो न मेऽस्तीति नैतद्विश्वासकारणम् ।
विद्यते हि नृशंसेभ्यो भयं गुणवतामपि ॥ ७६॥
"I have committed no fault" -- this is no reason for putting confidence (in a wicked man) : for, even the meritorious have fear from the wicked.
दीपनिर्वाणगन्धं च सुहृद्वाक्यमरुन्धतीम् ।
न जिघ्रन्ति न शृण्वन्ति न पश्यन्ति गतायुषः ॥ ७७॥
Those, whose life has ended, perceive not the smell of an extinguished lamp, listen not to the words of a friend, and see not the star Arundhati.
परोक्षे कार्यहन्तारं प्रत्यक्षे प्रियवादिनम् ।
वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुम्भं पयोमुखम् ॥ ७८॥
He who defeats one's object in one's absence and speaks sweetly in one's presence -- such a friend one should avoid, like a vessel full of poison with milk at the surface.
ततः काको दीर्घं निःश्वस्य
अरे वञ्चक किं त्वया पापकर्मणा कृतम् । यतः ।
Then the crow, having heaved a deep sigh, said -- Ah villain, what hast thou done in acting so wickedly ? For,
संलापितानां मधुरैर्वचोभिर्मिथ्योपचारैश्च वशीकृतानाम् ।
आशावतां श्रद्दधतां च लोके किमर्थिनां वञ्चयितव्यमस्ति ॥ ७९॥
What (glory or credit) is there in deceiving supplicants, in this world, who are made to converse (with you) by using sweet words, who are won over by false attentions, and who (thereby) entertain hopes and have placed confidence (in you)?
उपकारिणि विश्रब्धे शुद्धमतौ यः समाचरति पापम् ।
तं जनमसत्यसंधं भगवति वसुधे कथं वहसि ॥ ८०॥
O divine Earth, how dost thou bear (on thy surface) that man, treacherous to his promise, who practises evil upon a benevolent, unsuspecting (lit., full of confidence) and simple-hearted person ?
दुर्जनेन समं सख्यं प्रीतिं चापि न कारयेत् ।
उष्णो दहति चाङ्गारः शीतः कृष्णायते करम् ॥ ८१॥
One should not form friendship or feel affection for a wicked man: a charcoal, when alive, burns; when cold, it soils the hand.
अथवा स्थितिरियं दुर्जनानाम् ।
Or rather, such is the settled course of conduct of the wicked.
प्राक्पादयोः पतति खादति पृष्ठमांस
कर्णे कलं किमपि रौति शनैर्विचित्रम् ।
छिद्रं निरूप्य सहसा प्रविशत्यशङ्कः
सर्वं खलस्य चरितं मशकः करोति ॥ ८२॥
First he falls at the feet and then bites the back; gradually he sings wonderfully some sweet indistinct hum into the ear; and having noticed some hole (a weak point) he at once enters it (takes advantage of it) fearlessly : -(thus) does a gnat imitate all the actions of wicked man.
दुर्जनः प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वासकारणम् ।
मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदि हालाहलं विषम् ॥ ८३॥
That a wicked man speaks sweetly is no reason why confidence should be reposed in him : (for) on the tip of his tongue there is honey, but in his heart the deadliest poison.
अथ प्रभाते क्षेत्रपतिर्लगुडहस्तस्तं प्रदेशमागच्छन्काकेनावलोकितः ।
तमालोक्य काकेनोक्तम् -- सखे मृग त्वमात्मानं
मृतवत्संदर्श्य वातेनोदरं पूरयित्वा पादान्स्तब्धीकृत्य तिष्ठ ।
Then at dawn, the crow observed the owner of the field coming towards the place, stick in hand. On seeing him the crow said -- Friend deer, feign yourself dead, fill your belly with wind and so remain, with your legs stiffened.
यदाहं शब्दं करोमि तदा त्वमुत्थाय सत्वरं पलायिष्यसे ।
मृगस्तथैव काकवचनेन स्थितः ।
When I make a noise, you shall get up and bound off quickly. Following the advice of the crow, the deer stood in that posture.
ततः क्षेत्रपतिना हर्षोत्फुल्ललोचनेन तथाविधो
मृग आलोकितः । आः स्वयं मृतोऽसि । इत्युक्त्वा
मृगं बन्धनान्मोचयित्वा पाशान्ग्रहीतुं सयत्नो बभूव ।
Now the master of the field saw the deer in that condition, his eyes beaming with joy. Saying "Ah, thou art dead of thyself", he released him from confinement and was busied in collecting his nets.
ततः काकशब्दं श्रुत्वा मृगः सत्वरमुत्थाय पलायितः । तमुद्दिश्य तेन क्षेत्रपतिना
क्षिप्तेन लगुडेन शृगालो हतः । तथा चोक्तम् --
Then hearing the sound of the crow, the deer quickly got up and ran away, while the jackal was killed by the stick flung at him (the deer) by the owner of the field. For it is said --
त्रिभिर्वर्षैस्त्रिभिर्मासैस्त्रिभिः पक्षैस्त्रिभिर्दिनैः ।
अत्युत्कटैः पापपुण्यैरिहैव फलमश्नुते ॥ ८४॥
In three years, or three months, or three fortnights, or (even) in three days, a man reaps the fruit of his good or bad actions when reaching their extreme.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- भक्ष्यभक्षकयोः प्रीतिरित्यादि ।
काकः पुनराह
Hence I say "Friendship between the victim and the eater etc." The crow observed again,
भक्षितेनापि भवता नाहारो मम पुष्कलः ।
त्वयि जीवति जीवामि चित्रग्रीव इवानघ ॥ ८५॥
Even though I eat you I shall not get ample food; but if you live, I live, O sinless one, like Chitragriva.
अन्यच्च । तिरश्चामपि विश्वासो दृष्टः पुण्यैककर्मणाम् ।
सतां हि साधुशीलत्वात्स्वभावो न निवर्तते ॥ ८६॥
Again. Confidence (in one another) is observed even amongst those lower animals whose actions are invariably (wholly) good : for the disposition of the good ever remains true to (lit. does not vary from) their inborn goodness.
किं च । साधोः प्रकोपितस्यापि मनो नायाति विक्रियाम् ।
न हि तापयितुं शक्यं सागराम्भस्तृणोल्कया ॥ ८७॥
Moreover. The mind of a good man, although made to fly into a great passion, is not affected (by anger); it is not possible to heat the water of the sea with a torch of straw.
हिरण्यको ब्रूते -- चपलस्त्वम् ।
चपलेन सह स्नेहः सर्वथा न कर्तव्यः । तथा चोक्तम् ।
Hiranyaka said -- You are fickle-minded (or, mischievous); and, with the fickle-minded, friendship should not at all be formed. For it is said .
मार्जारो महिषो मेषः काकः कापुरुषस्तथा ।
विश्वासात्प्रभवन्त्येते विश्वासस्तत्र नोचितः ॥ ८८॥
A cat, a buffalo, a ram, a crow, and a bad man -- these get the upper hand (get the better of as) through confidence : confidence in them is out of place (lit. it is not proper to put trust in them).
किं चान्यत् । शत्रुपक्षो भवानस्माकम् । उक्तं चैतत् ।
Another consideration is this -- you belong to the side of our enemies. And thus says the precept --
शत्रुणा न हि संदध्यात्सुश्लिष्टेनापि सन्धिना ।
सुतप्तमपि पानीयं शमयत्येव पावकम् ॥ ८९॥
One should not make peace with an enemy even by a compactly-formed treaty: water, although greatly heated, does extinguish fire. Nevertheless,
दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययालङ्कृतोऽपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितः सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकरः ॥ ९०॥
A wicked man should be shunned although he be adorned with learning; the cobra is decked with a gem : but is he not dreadful?
यदशक्यं न तच्छक्यं यच्छक्यं शक्यमेव तत् ।
नोदके शकटं याति न च नौर्गच्छति स्थले ॥ ९१॥
What is impossible can never be possible; and what is possible is certainly possible: a cart cannot move on water nor can a boat on land.
अपरं च । महताप्यर्थसारेण यो विश्वसिति शत्रुषु ।
भार्यासु च विरक्तासु तदन्तं तस्य जीवनम् ॥ ९२॥
Moreover. He, who, depending upon the strength of wealth (given to or by his enemies), although great, trusts to his enemies or to wives that have ceased to love him, finds his life ends there.
लघुपतनको ब्रूते -- श्रुतं मया सर्वं ।
तथापि मम चैतावान्संकल्पस्त्वया सह सौहृद्यमवश्यं करणीयमिति ।
नो चेदनाहारेणात्मानं व्यापादयिष्यामि । तथा हि ।
Laghupatanaka said I have heard everything. Yet I am thus far resolved that I must necessarily form friendship with you: or else I will destroy myself by starvation. For,
मृद्घटवत्सुखभेद्यो दुःसंधानश्च दुर्जनो भवति ।
सुजनस्तु कनकघटवद्दुर्भेद्यश्चाशु संधेयः ॥ ९३॥
(Friendship with) a bad man, like a vessel of earth, is easily broken and cemented with difficulty; while (that with) a good man is like a pot of gold, difficult to be broken and easily re-united.
किं च । द्रवत्वात्सर्वलोहानां निमित्तान्मृगपक्षिणाम् ।
भयाल्लोभाच्च मूर्खाणां संगतं दर्शनात्सताम् ॥ ९४॥
Moreover. The union of metals is due to their fluxibility, of beasts and birds to some cause, of fools to fear or (the prospect of) gain, while of good men to (mere) sight.
किं च । नारिकेलसमाकारा दृश्यन्ते हि सुहृज्जनाः ।
अन्ये बदरिकाकारा बहिरेव मनोहराः ॥ ९५॥
Also. Friends appear to be of the form of coconuts (rough and rugged to outward appearance but sweet at heart): others are like jujubes -- attractive from outside only.
स्नेहच्छेदेऽपि साधूनां गुणा नायान्ति विक्रियाम् ।
भङ्गेऽपि हि मृणालानामनुबध्नन्ति तन्तवः ॥ ९६॥
Although friendship be at an end, the qualities (behaviour) of good men suffer no change: even when lotus-stalks are broken, the fibres remain sticking (to them) yet.
अन्यच्च । शुचित्वम् त्यागिता शौर्यं सामान्यं सुखदुःखयोः ।
दाक्षिण्यं चानुरक्तिश्च सत्यता च सुहृद्गुणाः ॥ ९७॥
And again. Purity (of purpose), generosity, courage, sameness of behaviour in pleasure or pain, politeness, affection and truthfulness -- those are the characteristics of a (true) friend.
एतैर्गुणैरुपेतो भवदन्यो मया कः सुहृत्प्राप्तव्यः ।
इत्यादि तद्-वचनमाकर्ण्य हिरण्यको बहिर्निःसृत्याह
आप्यायितोऽहं भवतानेन वचनामृतेन । तथा चोक्तम् ।
And what other friend than yourself, endowed with these qualities, can I find ? Hearing these his words and such others, Hiranyaka stepped out and said -- I am exhilarated by this nectar of your speech (lit. I am fattened by you by &c.); as it is observed :
घर्मार्तं न तथा सुशीतलजलैः स्नानं न मुक्तावली
न श्रीखण्डविलेपनं सुखयति प्रत्यङ्गमप्यर्पितम् ।
प्रीत्या सज्जनभाषितं प्रभवति प्रायो यथा चेतसः
सद्युक्त्या च पुरस्कृतं सुकृतिनामाकृष्टिमन्त्रोपमम् ॥ ९८॥
Not a bath with very cool water, not a necklace of pearls, not (even) sandal-wood-pigment applied to each and every limb, delights a man, oppressed with heat, so much, as the words of the good, uttered with affection, advanced with wise arguments (or full of wise thoughts) and comparable to (fascinating like) the charm of attraction, have power over (are able to gratify) the mind of the virtuous.
अन्यच्च । रहस्यभेदो याच्ञा च नैष्ठुर्यं चलचित्तता ।
क्रोधो निःसत्यता द्यूतमेतन्मित्रस्य दूषणम् ॥ ९९॥
Again. Divulging a secret, begging, hard-heartedness, fickleness of mind, anger, faithlessness and gambling -- these are the faults in a friend.
अनेन वचनक्रमेण तदेकदूषणमपि त्वयि न लक्ष्यते । यतः ।
Following the order of (the faults mentioned in) this speech, not a single fault is found in you. For,
पटुत्वं सत्यवादित्वं कथायोगेन बुद्ध्यते ।
अस्तब्धत्वमचापल्यं प्रत्यक्षेणावगम्यते ॥ १००॥
Cleverness and truthfulness are known in the course of conversation; while activity and absence of rashness are known from actual experience.
अपरं च । अन्यथैव हि सौहार्दं भवेत्स्वच्छान्तरात्मनः ।
प्रवर्ततेऽन्यथा वाणी शाठ्योपहतचेतसः ॥ १०१॥
Moreover. Of quite a different sort (from that of a deceitful person) is the friendship of one whose mind is pure: while quite in a different direction (from real action) proceed the words of one whose mind is affected with deceit.
मनस्यन्यद्वचस्यन्यत्कर्मण्यन्यद् दुरात्मनाम् ।
मनस्येकं वचस्येकं कर्मण्येकं महात्मनाम् ॥ १०२॥
There is one thing in mind, another in speech and a third in deed of the vile-minded, while there is one thing in mind, the same in speech and the same in action of the magnanimous.
तद्भवतु भवतोभिमतमेव । इत्युक्त्वा हिरण्यको मैत्र्यं विधाय
भोजनविशेषैर्वायसं संतोष्य विवरं प्रविष्टः ।
वायसोऽपि स्वस्थानं गतः । ततः प्रभृति तयोरन्योऽन्याहारप्रदानेन
कुशलप्रश्नैर्विश्रम्भालापैश्च कालोऽतिवर्तते ।
Therefore let your wish be done. Having said so, Hiranyaka formed friendship with the crow, pleased him with choice eatables and entered his hole. The crow, too, repaired to his residence. Thenceforward the two passed their time in making presents of food to each other, in inquiries after good health and in confidential discourses.
एकदा लघुपतनको हिरण्यकमाह --
सखे कष्टतरलभ्याहारमिदं स्थानम् । तत् परित्यज्य स्थानान्तरं
गन्तुमिच्छामि ।
हिरण्यको ब्रूते -- मित्र क्व गन्तव्यम् । तथा चोक्तम् ।
Once Laghupatanaka said to Hiranyaka -- Friend, it is very hard to get food in this place. I wish, therefore, to go to some other place. Hiranyaka said -- Where can we go to? For it is said .
चलत्येकेन पादेन तिष्ठत्येकेन बुद्धिमान् ।
माऽसमीक्ष्य परं स्थानं पूर्वमायतनं त्यजेत् ॥ १०३॥
A talented man walks with one foot, and stops with the other: one should not leave one's old abode without examining carefully the new one.
वायसो ब्रूते -- मित्र अस्ति सु-निरूपितं स्थानम् ।
हिरण्यकोऽवदत् -- किं तत् ।
वायसः ब्रूते -- अस्ति दण्डकारण्ये
कर्पूरगौराभिधानं सरः । तत्र चिरकालोपार्जितः प्रियसुहृन्मे
मन्थराभिधानः कच्छपो धार्मिकः प्रतिवसति । यतः ।
The crow said –- There is a place well examined. Hiranyaka asked -- 'Which is that?' The crow replied: There is a lake called Karpuragaura in the Dandaka forest. There dwells a pious tortoise, who is my dear friend, acquired a long while ago. For,
परोपदेशे पाण्डित्यं सर्वेषां सुकरं नृणाम् ।
धर्मे स्वीयमनुष्ठानं कस्यचित्तु महात्मनः ॥ १०४॥
To be wise in giving advice to others is a thing very easy for all to do; but to be true to the discharge of one's proper duties (or, to discharge one's duties as required by religion) belongs to some magnanimous soul (only).
स च भोजनविशेषैर्मां संवर्धयिष्यति ।
हिरण्यकोऽप्याह तत् किमत्रावस्थाय मया कर्तव्यम् । यतः ।
He will entertain me with choice dainties. Hiranyaka too said -- And what am I to do by staying here? For,
यस्मिन् देशे न संमानो न वृत्तिर्न च बान्धवः ।
न च विद्यागमः कश्चित्तं देशं परिवर्जयेत् ॥ १०५॥
One should abandon that country in which one cannot command respect, has no means of livelihood, no relatives, and no (possibility) of acquiring knowledge of any kind.
अपरं च। लोकयात्रा भयं लज्जा दाक्षिण्यं त्यागशीलता ।
पञ्च यत्र न विद्यन्ते न कुर्यात्तत्र संस्थितिम् ॥ १०६॥
Also. One should not reside in a country where there is a lack of these five, viz., subsistence, dread (of authority), sense of shame, politeness, and charitableness.
तत्र मित्र न वस्तव्यं यत्र नास्ति चतुष्टयम् ।
ऋणदाता च वैद्यश्च श्रोत्रियः सजला नदी ॥ १०७॥
One should not dwell there, O friend, where these four things do not exist, viz., a creditor, a physician, a Brahmana versed in the Vedas and a river with water (ever flowing).
ततो मामपि तत्र नय ।
अथ वायसस्तत्र तेन मित्रेण सह विचित्रकथालापैः सुखेन तस्य सरसः
समीपं ययौ । ततो मन्थरो दूरादवलोक्य लघुपतनकस्य
यथोचितमातिथ्यं विधाय मूषिकस्यातिथिसत्कारं चकार ।
यतः ।
Therefore, take me there too. Then the crow arrived at the lake with ease conversing on diverse subjects with that friend of his. Then Manthara, having seen them from a distance, addressed a fitting welcome to Laghupatanaka and received the mouse with hospitality due to a guest. For,
बालो वा यदि वा वृद्धो युवा वा गृहमागतः ।
तस्य पूजा विधातव्या सर्वत्राभ्यागतो गुरुः ॥ १०८॥
Let a boy or an old man or a young man come to the house, respect should be shown to him; a guest is the object of worship everywhere.
वायसोऽवदत् -- सखे मन्थर सविशेषपूजामस्मै विधेहि । यतोऽयं पुण्यकर्मणां धुरीणः
कारुण्यरत्नाकरो हिरण्यकनामा मूषिकराजः । एतस्य गुणस्तुतिं जिह्वासहस्रद्वयेनापि
सर्पराजो न कदाचित् कथयितुं समर्थः स्यात् ।
The crow said -- Friend Manthara, do him special honour. For he is the king of mice, Hiranyaka by name, foremost of those whose actions are meritorious and an ocean of mercy. The king of serpents, aided by his twice thousand tongues even, will not be able to sing the praise of his merits.
इत्युक्त्वा चित्रग्रीवोपाख्यानं वर्णितवान् । मन्थरः सादरं हिरण्यकं संपूज्याह -- भद्र आत्मनो निर्जनवनागमनकारणमाख्यातुमर्हसि ।
हिरण्यकोऽवदत् -- कथयामि । श्रूयताम् ।
Having said so he described the episode about Chitragriva. Manthara having respectfully entertained Hiranyaka said -- Good friend, kindly relate the cause of your coming to a dreary wood. Hiranyaka said -- I will; may you listen.
॥ कथा ४ ॥
Fable 4
अस्ति चम्पकाभिधानायां नगर्यां परिव्राजकावसथः । तत्र चूडाकर्णो नाम परिव्राट्
प्रतिवसति । स च भोजनावशिष्टभिक्षान्नसहितं भिक्षापात्रं नागदन्तकेऽवस्थाप्य स्वपिति ।
There is a convent of recluses in the city of Champaka. In it dwelt a hermit, Chudakarna by name. He was in the habit of sleeping after having hung on a peg his alms-pot, containing the remnant of the food collected by begging after he had eaten of it.
अहं च तद् अन्नमुत्प्लुत्य प्रत्यहं भक्षयामि । अनन्तरं तस्य प्रियसुहृद्वीणाकर्णो
नाम परिव्राजकः समायातः । तेन सह कथाप्रसङ्गावस्थितो मम त्रासार्थं जर्जरवंशखण्डेन चूडाकर्णो भूमिमताडयत् ।
I used every day to leap up and eat that food. After some time a dear friend of his, Vinakarna by name, a hermit, came there. While engaged in conversation with him Chudakarna kept beating the ground with an old bamboo stick.
वीणाकर्ण उवाच -- सखे किमिति मम
कथाविरक्तोऽन्यासक्तो भवान् । चूडाकर्णेनोक्तम् -- भद्र नाहं विरक्तः । किंतु पश्यायं
मूषिको ममापकारी सदा पात्रस्थं भिक्षान्नमुत्प्लुत्य भक्षयति ।
Vinakarna said -- Friend, why do you take no interest in my story and are busy with something else? Chudakarna replied -- Friend, not that I am indifferent (to your conversation ), but look at this mouse, doing wrong to me, who by jumping up always eats the food collected by me by begging and placed in that pot.
वीणाकर्णो नागदन्तकं विलोक्याह -- कथमयं मूषिकः स्वल्पबलोऽप्येतावद्दूरमुत्पतति । तदत्र केनापि
कारणेन भवितव्यम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Vinakarna, having looked at the peg, observed -- How can a mouse, possessed of little strength, jump to such a height? There must be some reason for this. For it is said --
अकस्माद्युवती वृद्धं केशेष्वाकृष्य चुम्बति ।
पतिं निर्दयमालिङ्ग्य हेतुरत्र भविष्यति ॥ १०९ ॥
The young wife, having suddenly drawn her old husband by the hair, kissed him with a close embrace; there must be some reason for this.
चूडाकर्णः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् । वीणाकर्णः कथयति --
॥ कथा ५ ॥
Chudakarna demanded how it was, whereupon Vinakarna related -- Fable 5
अस्ति गौडविषये कौशाम्बी नाम नगरी । तस्यां चन्दनदासनामा वणिग्महाधनो
निवसति । तेन पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानेन कामाधिष्ठितचेतसा धनदर्पाल्लीलावती नाम वणिक्पुत्री परिणीता ।
There is, in the country of Gauda, a city, Kausambi by name. In it dwelt a merchant of great wealth, Chandanadasa by name. Although in the decline of age, he through the pride of wealth, and his mind being full of passion, married a merchant's daughter, Lilavati by name.
सा च मकरकेतोर्विजयवैजयन्तीव यौवनवती बभूव ।
स च वृद्धपतिस्तस्याः संतोषाय नाभवत् । यतः ।
She attained youth, looking like the victorious banner of the god of love; while that aged husband did not please her. For,
शशिनीव हिमार्तानां घर्मार्तानां रवाविव ।
मनो न रमते स्त्रीणां जराजीर्णेन्द्रिये पतौ ॥ ११० ॥
The heart of women delights not in a husband whose limbs are worn out by old age, as does not that of men pinched with cold in the (rays of the) moon, or that of men oppressed with heat in the sun.
अन्यच्च ॥ पलितेष्वपि दृष्टेषु पुंसः का नाम कामिता ।
भैषज्यमिव मन्यन्ते यदन्यमनसः स्त्रियः ॥ १११ ॥
Moreover. What passion can men have, when the hair even is turned grey, since women, whose heart is set on others, regard it as medicine?
स च वृद्धपतिस्तस्यामतीवानुरागवान् । यतः ।
However, that old husband had a very great affection for her. For,
धनाशा जीविताशा च गुर्वी प्राणभृतां सदा ।
वृद्धस्य तरुणी भार्या प्राणेभ्योऽपि गरीयसी ॥ ११२ ॥
The lust of wealth and the desire for life of men is ever great; but to an old man a youthful wife is dearer than his life.
नोपभोक्तुं न च त्यक्तुं शक्नोति विषयाञ्जरी ।
अस्थि निर्दशनः श्वेव जिह्वया लेढि केवलं ॥ ११३ ॥
An old man is not able to enjoy pleasures or to abandon them either: as a dog without teeth simply licks a bone with his tongue (but does not throw it off).
अथ सा लीलावती यौवनदर्पादतिक्रान्तकुलमर्यादा केनापि वणिक्पुत्रेण
सहानुरागवती बभूव । यतः ।
Now that Lilavati, transgressing the bounds of family honour through flush of youth, became attached to a certain merchant's son. For,
स्वातन्त्र्यं पितृमन्दिरे निवसतिर्यात्रोत्सवे संगति-
र्गोष्ठीपूरुषसंनिधावनियमो वासो विदेशे तथा ।
संसर्गः सह पुंश्चलीभिरसकृद् वृत्तेर्निजायाः क्षतिः
पत्युर्वार्धकमीर्षितं प्रवसनं नाशस्य हेतुः स्त्रियाः ॥ ११४ ॥
(Unrestrained ) liberty, residence in the father's house (after the consummation of marriage), meeting with persons on occasions of festive gatherings, a loose living in the vicinity of men, meeting in a company, dwelling in a foreign country, association with women of bad character, constant violation of one's proper conduct, the old age of the husband or his jealousy or his absence in a foreign land -- these are the causes of the ruin of a woman's character.
अपरं च । पानं दुर्जनसंसर्गः पत्या च विरहोऽटनम् ।
स्वप्नश्चान्यगृहे वासो नारीणां दूषणानि षट् ॥ ११५ ॥
Moreover. Drinking, the company of bad men, separation from the husband, rambling about wantonly, and sleeping and residing in another's house - these six spoil a woman.
सुरूपं पुरुषं दृष्ट्वा भ्रातरं यदि वा सुतम् ।
 ??? ॥ ११६ ॥
Having seen a handsome man, whether a brother or a son ... ?
किं च । स्थानं नास्ति क्षणं नास्ति नास्ति प्रार्थयिता नरः ।
तेन नारद नारीणां सतीत्वमुपजायते ॥ ११७ ॥
Moreover. There is no (suitable) place, or leisure or a suitor; it is on account of this that women remain chaste.
स्त्रियो हि चपला नित्यं देवानामपि विश्रुतम् ।
ताश्चापि रक्षिता येषां ते नराः सुखभागिनः ॥ ११८ ॥
Women are ever inconstant, as it is well known even to the gods: happy are those by whom even such are guarded.
न स्त्रीणामप्रियः कश्चित्प्रियो वापि न विद्यते ।
गावस्तृणमिवारण्ये प्रार्थयन्ति नवं नवम् ॥ ११९ ॥
There is none who is disagreeable to women; nor is there one who is loved by them; they ever seek a fresh man, as cows do grass in a forest.
अपरं च । घृतकुम्भसमा नारी तप्ताङ्गारसमः पुमान् ।
तस्माद् घृतं च वह्निं च नैकत्र स्थापयेद् बुधः ॥ १२० ॥
Again. A woman resembles a pot of ghee, while a man is like live charcoal: a wise man should not, therefore, keep together the two.
न लज्जा न विनीतत्वं न दाक्षिण्यं न भीरुता ।
प्रार्थनाभाव एवैकः सतीत्वे कारणं स्त्रियाः ॥ १२१ ॥
Not modesty, not good breeding, not rectitude, not timidity, but absence of a suit is the cause of a woman's chastity.
पिता रक्षति कौमारे भर्ता रक्षति यौवने ।
रक्षन्ति स्थाविरे पुत्रा न स्त्री स्वातन्त्र्यमर्हति ॥ १२२ ॥
The father guards a woman in childhood, the husband in youth and the son in old age: a woman is not allowed liberty (in any case ).
एकदा सा लीलावती रत्नावलीकिरणकर्बुरे पर्यङ्के तेन वणिक्पुत्रेण सह
विश्रम्भालापैः सुखासीना तमलक्षितोपस्थितं पतिमवलोक्य सहसोत्थाय केशेष्वाकृष्य
गाढमालिङ्ग्य चुम्बितवती । तेनावसरेण जारश्च पलायितः । उक्तं च ।
Once, as that Lilavati was sitting at ease on a couch fringed with the rays of a series of gems, engaged in a confidential talk with the merchant's son, she beheld her husband come there unexpectedly, when, rising quickly, she pulled him by the hair, closely embraced him and kissed him. In the meanwhile, the gallant made his escape. It is said --
उशना वेद यच्छास्त्रं यच्च वेद बृहस्पतिः ।
स्वभावेनैव तच्छास्त्रं स्त्रीबुद्धौ सुप्रतिष्ठितम् ॥ १२३ ॥
The Sastra which Usanas ever knew, as also that which Brihaspati knew, -- by her nature, all that is well planted in the talent of a woman.
तदालिङ्गनमवलोक्य समीपवर्तिनी कुट्टन्यचिन्तयत् -- अकस्मादियमेनमुपगूढवती इति ।
ततस्तया कुट्टन्या तत्कारणं परिज्ञाय सा लीलावती गुप्तेन दण्डिता ।
Seeing that embrace a procuress that stood by said to herself "She has embraced him all of a sudden!" Then that procuress, having ascertained the cause, punished that Lilavati with a secret fine.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- अकस्माद्युवती वृद्धं इत्यादि ॥
मूषिकबलोपस्तम्भेन केनापि कारणेनात्र भवितव्यम् । क्षणं विचिन्त्य परिव्राजकेनोक्तम् --
कारणं चात्र धनबाहुल्यम् एव भविष्यति । यतः ।
Hence I say 'The youthful wife having suddenly seized her old husband &c.' There must be some cause in this case which keeps up the strength of this mouse. After a moment's thought the recluse said -- And the cause must be abundance of money. For,
धनवान्बलवांल्लोके सर्वः सर्वत्र सर्वदा ।
प्रभुत्वं धनमूलं हि राज्ञामप्युपजायते ॥ १२४ ॥
In this world every man of wealth is, everywhere and at all times, powerful; even the supreme power of kings has wealth for its cause.
ततः खनित्रमादाय तेन विवरं खनित्वा चिरसंचितं मम धनं गृहीतम् ।
ततः प्रभृति निजशक्तिहीनः सत्त्वोत्साहरहितः स्वाहारमप्युत्पादयितुमक्षमः
सत्रासं मन्दं मन्दमुपसर्पंश्चूडाकर्णेनाहमवलोकितः । ततस्तेनोक्तं --
Then he took a spade and having dug out my burrow, took away my long-hoarded wealth. Thenceforward, deprived of my strength, without spirit and energy, and unable to earn even my own food, I was observed by Chudakarna, moving along slowly and with trepidation. Then he observed --
धनेन बलवाँल्लोके धनाद्भवति पण्डितः ।
पश्यैनं मूषिकं पापं स्वजातिसमतां गतम् ॥ १२५ ॥
In this world a man becomes powerful by wealth, and by wealth also he becomes (is considered) learned. Look at this wicked mouse reduced to the level of his kind.
किं च । अर्थेन तु विहीनस्य पुरुषस्याल्पमेधसः ।
क्रियाः सर्वा विनश्यन्ति ग्रीष्मे कुसरितो यथा ॥ १२६ ॥
Moreover. All the actions of a man of little intellect, if void of wealth, die away (prove fruitless) like small streams in summer.
अपरं च । यस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि यस्यार्थास्तस्य बान्धवाः ।
यस्यार्थाः स पुमाँल्लोके यस्यार्थाः स हि पण्डितः ॥ १२७ ॥
Again. He who has wealth has friends; he who has wealth has kinsmen; he who has wealth is a man in this world, and he who has wealth is a learned man.
अन्यच्च । अपुत्रस्य गृहं शून्यं सन्मित्ररहितस्य च ।
मूर्खस्य च दिशः शून्याः सर्वशून्या दरिद्रता ॥ १२८ ॥
Also. The house of the sonless is void, and so is of one who has no good friend; all the quarters are void to a fool, but all is void to poverty.
अपरं च । तानीन्द्रियाण्यविकलानि तदेव नाम
सा बुद्धिरप्रतिहता वचनं तदेव ।
अर्थोष्मणा विरहितः पुरुषः स एव
अन्यः क्षणेन भवतीति विचित्रमेतत् ॥ १२९ ॥
And again. His limbs uninjured are the same; his name is the same ; his intellect unimpaired is the same; his words the same; and the man also the same; and yet, when deprived of the warmth of money, he becomes quite a different man in a moment; this is strange!
एतत्सर्वमाकर्ण्य मयालोचितम् -- ममात्रावस्थानमयुक्तमिदानीम् । यच्चान्यस्मा
एतद्वृत्तान्तकथनं तदप्यनुचितम् । यतः ।
Having heard all this I thought to myself: -- Now my residence here is improper; and as to my communicating this matter to another, that too is not proper. For,
अर्थनाशं मनस्तापं गृहे दुश्चरितानि च ।
वञ्चनं चापमानं च मतिमान्न प्रकाशयेत् ॥ १३० ॥
A wise man should not give out the loss of wealth, mental anxiety, the misdeeds in the house, his being deceived and his humiliation.
अपि च । आयुर्वित्तं गृहच्छिद्रं मन्त्रमैथुनभेषजम् ।
तपो दानापमानं च नव गोप्यानि यत्नतः ॥ १३१ ॥
Moreover. (The period of) life, (the amount of) wealth, a family secret, charms, conjugal enjoyment, medicine, penance, charity and one's disgrace -- these nine things should be carefully concealed.
तथा चोक्तम् । अत्यन्तविमुखे दैवे व्यर्थे यत्ने च पौरुषे ।
मनस्विनो दरिद्रस्य वनादन्यत्कुतः सुखम् ॥ १३२ ॥
And so it is said -- When fate is extremely adverse, and exertions and valour have been of no avail, where, except in a wilderness, can a highminded man, reduced to poverty, find relief?
अन्यच्च । मनस्वी म्रियते कामं कार्पण्यं न तु गच्छति ।
अपि निर्वाणमायाति नानलो याति शीतताम् ॥ १३३ ॥
Moreover. A man of self-respect will rather die than stoop to meanness (act meanly): fire will even suffer extinction, but never become cool.
किं च । कुसुमस्तबकस्येव द्वे वृत्ती तु मनस्विनः ।
सर्वेषां मूर्ध्नि वा तिष्ठेद्विशीर्येत वनेऽथवा ॥ १३४ ॥
Moreover. The course of action of a wise man, like that of a bunch of flowers, is twofold, viz., either to stand at (on) the head of all, or to die (wither) away in a forest.
यच्चात्रैव याच्ञया जीवनं तदतीव गर्हितम् । यतः ।
And as to living here on alms, that would be exceedingly despicable. For,
वरं विभवहीनेन प्राणैः संतर्पितोऽनलः ।
नोपचारपरिभ्रष्टः कृपणः प्रार्थितो जनः ॥ १३५ ॥
It were better for a poor man to satisfy fire with his life than to solicit a mean person, lost to all civility.
दारिद्र्याद्ध्रियमेति ह्रीपरिगतः सत्त्वात्परिभ्रश्यते
निःसत्त्वः परिभूयते परिभवान्निर्वेदमापद्यते ।
निर्विण्णः शुचमेति शोकनिहतो बुद्ध्या परित्यज्यते ।
निर्बुद्धिः क्षयमेत्यहो निधनता सर्वापदामास्पदं ॥ १३६ ॥
From poverty a man comes to have shame : overwhelmed with shame he loses moral fortitude: with his moral fortitude lost he suffers contempt; being contemned he feels dejected: full of dejection he comes to sorrow; when overcome with sorrow he is forsaken by reason; with his reason gone, he passes on to destruction: Want of wealth, alas, is the abode of all misfortunes !!
किं च । वरं मौनं कार्यं न च वचनमुक्तं यदनृतं
वरं क्लैब्यं पुंसां न च परकलत्राभिगमनम् ।
Again. Better is silence observed than an untrue word spoken : better is impotency for men than intercourse with another's wife:
वरं प्राणत्यागो न च पिशुनवाक्येष्वभिरुचि-
र्वरम् भिक्षाशित्वं न च परधनास्वादनसुखम् ॥ १३७ ॥
Better to abandon life than to have a liking for the words of the wicked; better to live on alms than to have the happiness of enjoying another's wealth.
वरं शून्या शाला न च खलु वरं दुष्टवृषभो
वरं वेश्या पत्नी न पुनरविनीता कुलवधूः ।
वरं वासोऽरण्ये न पुनरविवेकाधिपपुरे
वरं प्राणत्यागो न पुनरधमानामुपगमः ॥ १३८ ॥
Better to have an empty cow-pen than a naughty ox; better to have a courtesan for wife than an immodest (ill-trained) woman of family; better a residence in a forest than in the city of a thoughtless king; better is the abandonment of life than approaching the base (with a request).
अपि च । सेवेव मानमखिलं ज्योत्स्नेव तमो जरेव लावण्यम् ।
हरिहरकथेव दुरितं गुणशतमप्यर्थिता हरति ॥१३९ ॥
Moreover. As service destroys all self-respect, moonlight darkness, old age beauty, the stories about Hari and Hara sin, so does begging destroy even a hundred good qualities.
इति विमृश्य तत्किमहं परपिण्डेनात्मानं पोषयामि ।
कष्टं भो । तदपि द्वितीयं मृत्युद्वारम् ।
Having reflected thus (said I to myself) -- What then? Shall I support myself with another's cake? O hard lot! That too, would be a second door of death.
पल्लवग्राहि पाण्डित्यं क्रयक्रीतं च मैथुनम् ।
भोजनं च पराधीनं तिस्रः पुंसां विडंबनाः ॥ १४० ॥
Superficial learning, sexual enjoyment obtained by payment, and dependence on others for one's bread - these three are humiliations to men.
रोगी चिरप्रवासी परान्नभोजी परावसथशायी ।
यज्जीवति तन्मरणं यन्मरणं सोऽस्य विश्रामः ॥ १४१ ॥
A sick man, one in long exile, one eating another's food, and one sleeping (living) in the house of another: the life which such a man lives is as good as death, while death is rest to him.
इत्यालोच्यापि लोभात्पुनरप्यर्थं ग्रहीतुं ग्रहमकरवम् । तथा चोक्तम् ।
Although I considered thus, yet, from avarice, I made up my mind to hoard wealth. For it is said,
लोभेन बुद्धिश्चलति लोभो जनयते तृषाम् ।
तृषार्तो दुःखमाप्नोति परत्रेह च मानवः ॥ १४२ ॥
Judgment is led astray (warped) by avarice; avarice begets desire; and a man troubled by desire meets with misery both here and hereafter.
ततोऽहं मन्दं मन्दमुपसर्पस्तेन वीणाकर्णेन जर्जरवंशखण्डेन ताडितोऽचिन्तयम् --
लुब्धो ह्यसंतुष्टो नियतमात्मद्रोही भवति । तथा च ।
Then as I moved about gently I was struck with an old bamboo-stick by that Vinakarna, whereupon I reflected -- A covetous man who is (ever) discontented is certainly a traitor to himself. For,
सर्वाः संपत्तयस्तस्य संतुष्टं यस्य मानसम् ।
उपानद्गूढपादस्य ननु चर्मावृतेव भूः ॥ १४३ ॥
All riches are his whose mind is contented: is not the earth overspread with leather (as it were) to him whose feet are covered with shoes?
अपरं च । संतोषामृततृप्तानां यत्सुखं शान्तचेतसाम् ।
कुतस्तद्धनलुब्धानामितश्चेतश्च धावताम् ॥ १४४ ॥
Again. How can that happiness, which is enjoyed by the tranquil-minded, who are satisfied with the nectar of contentment, be theirs, who, attracted by the (lust of) wealth, run here and there?
किं च । तेनाधीतं श्रुतं तेन तेन सर्वमनुष्ठितम् ।
येनाशाः पृष्ठतः कृत्वा नैराश्यमवलम्बितम् ॥ १४५ ॥
Moreover. All has been studied, heard and put into practice by him, by whom, having cast behind all desires, contentment (lit. freedom from desire) has been resorted to.
अपि च । असेवितेश्वरद्वारमदृष्टविरहव्यथम् ।
अनुक्तक्लीबवचनं धन्यं कस्यापि जीवनम् ॥ १४६ ॥
Again. Blessed is the life of some one (rarely to be found) in which the door of the rich has not been attended, in which the pain of separation has not been experienced and in which piteous words have not been uttered.
यतः । न योजनशतं दूरं बाध्यमानस्य तृष्णया ।
संतुष्टस्य करप्राप्तेऽप्यर्थे भवति नादरः ॥ १४७ ॥
For. Even a hundred Yojanas (800 miles) are no distances to him who is troubled (spurred on) by thirst; while he, who is content, has no regard even for a thing that is actually in his hand.
तदत्रावस्थोचितकार्यपरिच्छेदः श्रेयान् ।
It will be advisable, therefore, to decide what to do under the present circumstances.
को धर्मो भूतदया किं सौख्यमरोगिता जगति जन्तोः ।
कः स्नेहः सद्भावः किं पाण्डित्यं परिच्छेदः ॥ १४८ ॥
What is a man's (true) duty in this world? Compassion to creatures. What is (real) happiness? Health (lit. freedom from disease). What is affection? Good feeling. And what is wisdom? Decision .
तथा च । परिच्छेदो हि पाण्डित्यं यदापन्ना विपत्तयः ।
अपरिच्छेदकर्तॄणां विपदः स्युः पदे पदे ॥ १४९ ॥
Similarly. When misfortunes assail (a man), wisdom lies in (quickly) coming to a decision; misfortunes at every step overtake those who cannot arrive at a decision.
तथाहि । त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् ।
ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे स्वात्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ॥ १५० ॥
Moreover. One should abandon one person to save a family, a family to save a village, and a village to save a country; but for the sake of one's own self, one should abandon the whole world.
अपरं च । पानीयं वा निरायासं स्वाद्वन्नं वा भयोत्तरम् ।
विचार्य खलु पश्यामि तत्सुखं यत्र निर्वृतिः ॥ १५१ ॥
Again. Of the two -- water obtained with ease (lit. without trouble) and delicious food attended with fear, on consideration, I find, indeed, that to be conducive to happiness, wherein lies ease.
इत्यालोच्याहं निर्जनवनमागतः । यतः ।
Having thus reflected I came to a dreary forest. For,
वरं वनं व्याघ्रगजेन्द्रसेवितं
द्रुमालयं पक्वफलाम्बुभोजनम् ।
तृणानि शय्या परिधानवल्कलं
न बन्धुमध्ये धनहीनजीवनम् ॥ १५२ ॥
Better is a forest, haunted by tigers and lordly elephants, wherein the trees serve as a home, ripe fruits and water as food, grass as a bed and barks as garments, than a life without wealth among relatives.
योऽस्मत्पुण्योदयादनेन मित्रेणाहं स्नेहानुवृत्त्यानुगृहीतः ।
अधुना च पुण्यपरम्परभवदाश्रयः स्वर्ग एव मया प्राप्तः ।
Then by the manifestation of the fruit of my religious merit, I was favoured with friendly intercourse by this friend. And now, by a further continuation of merit, I have got your company, which is heaven itself.
यतः -- संसारविषवृक्षस्य द्वे एव रसवत्फले ।
काव्यामृतरसास्वादः संगमः सुजनैः सह ॥ १५३ ॥
For. Of the poisonous tree of worldly existence, two fruits only have a flavoury juice (are sweet); viz. the tasting of the nectar of poetry and the society of the good.
मन्थर उवाच ।
अर्थाः पादरजोपमा गिरिनदीवेगोपमं यौवनं
आयुष्यं जललोलबिन्दुचपलं फेनोपमं जीवितं ।
धर्मं यो न करोति निन्दितमतिः स्वर्गार्गलोद्घाटनं
पश्चात्तापयुतो जरापरिगतः शोकाग्निना दह्यते ॥ १५४ ॥
Manthara said . Riches are comparable to (as unsteady as) the dust of the feet; youth flies away with the rapidity of a mountain river; life is as fleeting as a rolling drop of water, and existence as evanascent as foam. (such being the case) he, who, with his judgment deprived, does not perform his religious duties, which unfasten the bolt of the gate of heaven, being overtaken by old age and full of contrition, is burnt by the fire of sorrow.
युष्माभिरतिसंचयः कृतः । तस्यायं दोषः । शृणु ।
You laid up too large a hoard; and this ill consequence was the result of that. Hear,
उपार्जितानां वित्तानां त्याग एव हि रक्षणं ।
तडागोदरसंस्थानां परिवाह इवाम्भसाम् ॥ १५५ ॥
To spend in charity is just to save the money that is acquired, as an outlet is, in the case of water stored up in the bowels of a tank, (the only way to preserve it in a good condition).
अन्यच्च । यदधोऽधः क्षितौ वित्तं निचखान मितंपचः ।
तदधोनिलयं गन्तुं चक्रे पन्थानमग्रतः ॥ १५६ ॥
Moreover, Since a miser buries his wealth, deeper and deeper in the earth, he makes a passage for it, beforehand, to go to its nether abode (to disappear in the bowels of the earth).
अन्यच्च । निजसौख्यं निरुन्धानो यो धनार्जनमिच्छति ।
परार्थभारवाहीव क्लेशस्यैव हि भाजनम् ॥ १५७ ॥
Again. He who wishes to acquire wealth denying comfort to himself (at the sacrifice of personal comfort) is simply an abode of trouble like one bearing burdens for others.
अपरं च । दानोपभोगहीनेन धनेन धनिनो यदि ।
भवामः किं न तेनैव धनेन धनिनो वयम् ॥ १५८ ॥
And again. If people are to be considered rich for possessing wealth which is not used in charity or enjoyment, why should we not consider ourselves rich by the same?
अन्यच्च । असंभोगेन सामान्यं कृपणस्य धनं परैः ।
अस्येदमिति संबन्धो हानौ दुःखेन गम्यते ॥ १५९ ॥
Also. A miser's wealth, inasmuch as it is not used, is the common property of others; the fact that it belonged to him is known by the sorrow caused when it is lost.
दानं प्रियवाक्सहितं ज्ञानमगर्वं क्षमान्वितं शौर्यम् ।
वित्तं त्यागनियुक्तं दुर्लभमेतच्चतुष्टयं लोके ॥ १६० ॥
A gift accompanied with sweet words, knowledge without vanity, courage attended by forbearance, and wealth spent in charity: these four are rare in this world.
उक्तं च । कर्तव्यः संचयो नित्यं कर्तव्यो नातिसंचयः ।
पश्य संचयशीलोऽसौ धनुषा जम्बुको हतः ॥ १६१ ॥
It is also said. A hoard should always be made, but not too great a one; Lo ! The jackal that was in the habit of hoarding was killed by a bow.
तावाहतुः -- कथमेतत् । मन्थरः कथयति ।
Those two said -- How is that? Manthara tells.
॥ कथा ६ ॥
Fable 6
आसीत् कल्याणकटकवास्तव्यो भैरवो नाम व्याधः । स चैकदा मृगमन्विष्यन् विन्ध्याटवीम्
गतः । तेन तत्र व्यापादितं मृगमादाय गच्छता घोराकृतिः शूकरो दृष्टः ।
There was a hunter, Bhairava by name, residing in the province of Kalyana. He, one day, went to the Vindhya forest in search of a deer. As he passed carrying the deer that he had killed, he saw a boar of a formidable form.
ततस्तेन मृगं भूमौ निधाय शूकरः शरेणाहतः ।
शूकरेणापि घनघोरगर्जनं कृत्वा
स व्याधो मुष्कदेशे हतः संश्छिन्नद्रुम इव भूमौ निपपात । यतः ।
Then the hunter placed the deer on the ground and wounded the boar with an arrow. The boar too, having set up a deep and dreadful cry (or, a cry as terrible as the thunder of clouds ) struck the hunter in the groin, upon which he fell down like a tree struck down. For,
जलमग्निर्विषं शस्त्रं क्षुद् व्याधिः पतनं गिरेः ।
निमित्तं किंचिदासाद्य देही प्राणैर्विमुच्यते ॥ १६२॥
Having met with some cause, such as water, fire, poison, a weapon, hunger (starvation), a disease, or a fall from a mountain, a creature loses his life.
अथ तयोः पादास्फालनेन एकः सर्पोऽपि मृतः । अथानन्तरं दीर्घरावो नाम जम्बुकः
परिभ्रमन्नाहारार्थी तान्मृतान्मृगव्याधसर्पशूकरानपश्यत् । अचिन्तयच्च --
अहो अद्य महद्भोज्यं मे समुपस्थितम् । अथवा ।
Now by the tramplings of their feet a serpent too was killed. After this a jackal, Dirgharava, by name, who was wandering in quest of prey, found the deer, the hunter, the serpent and the boar, dead there; upon which he said to himself--Oh, here have I come across a good feast. Or rather,
अचिन्तितानि दुःखानि यथैवायान्ति देहिनाम् ।
सुखान्यपि तथा मन्ये दैवमत्रातिरिच्यते ॥ १६३॥
Just as unthought-of misfortunes befall men, so do blessings also: I think, therefore, that fate has an upper hand in these things.
तद्भवतु । एषां मांसैर्मासत्रयं मे सुखेन गमिष्यति ।
Well then. I shall live happily for three months on the flesh of these.
मासमेकं नरो याति द्वौ मासौ मृगशूकरौ ।
अहिरेकं दिनं याति अद्य भक्ष्यो धनुर्गुणः ॥ १६४॥
The man will last for a month, and the deer and the boar for two more: the serpent will serve me (as food for) a day while the bow-string should be eaten to-day.
ततः प्रथमबुभुक्षायामिदं निःस्वादु कोदण्डलग्नं स्नायुबन्धनं खादामि । इत्युक्त्वा
तथाकृते सति छिन्ने स्नायुबन्धन उत्पतितेन धनुषा हृदि निर्भिन्नः स दीर्घरावः
पञ्चत्वं गतः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि कर्तव्यः संचयो नित्यमित्यादि । तथा च ।
Let me, therefore, at the first impulse of hunger, eat the unsavoury string made of sinews attached to the bow. When Dirgharava had done so after having thus reflected, he being pierced in the breast by the bow which flew up as soon as the string was cut into two, perished. Hence I say -- A hoard should be made every day &c. So also,
यद्ददाति यदश्नाति तदेव धनिनो धनम् ।
अन्ये मृतस्य क्रीडन्ति दारैरपि धनैरपि ॥ १६५॥
That which a wealthy man gives away or enjoys is his wealth; when he dies, others play with his wife and riches.
किं च । यद्ददासि विशिष्टेभ्यो यच्चाश्नासि दिने दिने ।
तत्ते वित्तमहं मन्ये शेषं कस्यापि रक्षसि ॥ १६६॥
Moreover. I consider that to be thy wealth which thou givest to the worthy and which thou enjoyest (day by day), the rest thou keepest for some one else.
यातु । किमिदानीमतिक्रान्तोपवर्णनेन । यतः ।
Let this pass. What is the use, now, of describing the past? For,
नाप्राप्यमभिवाञ्छन्ति नष्टं नेच्छन्ति शोचितुम् ।
आपत्स्वपि न मुह्यन्ति नराः पण्डितबुद्धयः ॥ १६७॥
Men of wise minds do not wish for what is unattainable, do not lament over what is lost, and do not lose courage even in adversities.
तत् सखे सर्वदा त्वया सोत्साहेन भवितव्यम् । यतः ।
Therefore, friend, you should always be hopeful. Because,
शास्त्राण्यधीत्यापि भवन्ति मूर्खा यस्तु क्रियावान् पुरुषः स विद्वान् ।
सुचिन्तितं चौषधमातुराणां न नाममात्रेण करोत्यरोगम् ॥ १६८॥
Even after having studied the sastras people may remain fools; that man is learned who puts his knowledge into practice: a medicine, although well selected, does not restore the diseased to health by the mere mention of its name.
अन्यच्च । न स्वल्पमप्यध्यवसायभीरोः करोति विज्ञानविधिर्गुणं हि ।
अन्धस्य किं हस्ततलस्थितोऽपि प्रकाशयत्यर्थमिह प्रदीपः ॥ १६९॥
Moreover. The knowledge of theory does not do the least good to one who shrinks from a determined exertion (or perseverance): does a lamp, in this world, reveal a thing to a blind man although it be placed on the palm of his hand ?
तदत्र सखे दशातिशेषेण शान्तिः करणीया । एतदप्यतिकष्टं त्वया न मन्तव्यम् । यतः
Therefore, friend, you ought to be reconciled to this particular (changed) condition. And you should not consider this as very hard to do. For,
राजा कुलवधूर्विप्रा मन्त्रिणश्च पयोधराः ।
स्थानभ्रष्टा न शोभन्ते दन्ताः केशा नखा नराः ॥ १७० ॥
A king, a woman of family, Brahmanas, ministers, breasts, teeth, hair, nails and men do not shine (appear well) when fallen from their proper position.
इति विज्ञाय मतिमान्स्वस्थानं न परित्यजेत् ।
कापुरुषवचनमेतत् । यतः ।
Knowing this a wise man should not leave his own place. These are the words of cowardly persons. For,
स्थानमुत्सृज्य गच्छन्ति सिंहाः सत्पुरुषा गजाः ।
तत्रैव निधनं यान्ति काकाः कापुरुषा मृगाः ॥ १७१ ॥
Lions, good men and elephants leave their places and go to others; while crows, cowardly men and deer perish in their own places.
को वीरस्य मनस्विनः स्वविषयः को वा विदेशस्तथा
यं देशं श्रयते तमेव कुरुते बाहुप्रतापार्जितम् ।
यद्दंष्ट्रानखलाङ्गुलप्रहरणः सिंहो वनं गाहते
तस्मिन्नेव हतद्विपेन्द्ररुधिरैस्तृष्णां छिनत्त्यात्मना ॥ १७२ ॥
To a high-minded hero, what is his own and what is a foreign country? Whatever country he resorts to, the same he acquires by the might of his arms : whichever forest the lion, armed with his jaws, claws and tail, enters, in the same he quenches his thirst with the blood of the lordly elephants he kills.
अपरं च । निपानमिव मण्डूकाः सरः पूर्णमिवाण्डजाः ।
सोद्योगं नरमायान्ति विवशाः सर्वसंपदः ॥ १७३ ॥
Again. As frogs repair to a puddle or birds to a lake full (of water), so do all fortunes to an industrious man helplessly (being entirely at his disposal).
अन्यच्च । सुखमापतितं सेव्यं दुःखमापतितं तथा ।
चक्रवत्परिवर्तन्ते दुःखानि च सुखानि च ॥ १७४॥
Moreover. Happiness should be welcomed, and also misery, as they fall to one's share: Happiness and misery revolve (follow each other) like a wheel.
अन्यच्च । उत्साहसंपन्नमदीर्घसूत्रं क्रियाविधिज्ञं व्यसनेष्वसक्तम् ।
शूरं कृतज्ञं दृढसौहृदं च लक्ष्मीः स्वयं याति निवासहेतोः ॥ १७५॥
Again. The goddess of wealth goes, of her own Accord, for residence, to him who is endowed with energy, who is prompt in action, who knows the theory and practice of a thing, who is not addicted to vices, and who is brave, grateful and firm in friendship.
विशेषतश्च । विनाप्यर्थैर्वीरः स्पृशति बहुमानोन्नतिपदं
समायुक्तोऽप्यर्थैः परिभवपदं याति कृपणः ।
And particularly. A heroic person, although without wealth, attains a high position attended with great honour; while a miser, though endowed with riches, becomes an object of contempt.
स्वभावादुद्भूतां गुणसमुदयावाप्तिविषयां
द्युतिं सैंहीं किं श्वा धृतकनकमालोऽपि लभते ॥ १७६॥
Can a dog, although wearing necklaces of gold, possess the majesty of the lion, which is a natural possession and which is the province for the attainment of a number of good qualities?
धनवान् इति हि मदस्ते किं गतविभवो विषादमुपयासि ।
करनिहतकन्दुकसमाः पातोत्पाता मनुष्याणाम् ॥ १७७॥
Why should you be proud when you have wealth, and why should you be sorry when you have lost it? The ups and downs (in the life) of man are like (risings and fallings of) a ball struck with the hand.
अपरं च । अभ्रच्छाया खलप्रीतिर्नवसस्यानि योषितः ।
किंचित्कालोपभोग्यानि यौवनानि धनानि च ॥ १७८ ॥
Again. The shadow of clouds, the friendship of a wicked man, new corn, women, youth and wealth are to be enjoyed but for a short while.
वृत्त्यर्थं नातिचेष्टेत सा हि धात्रैव निर्मिता ।
गर्भादुत्पतिते जन्तौ मातुः प्रस्रवतः स्तनौ ॥ १७९॥
One should not work too hard for livelihood : for that is provided by the creator: so soon as a creature is born, the breasts of the mother overflow with milk.
अपि च सखे । येन शुक्लीकृता हंसाः शुकाश्च हरितीकृताः ।
मयूराश्चित्रिता येन स ते वृत्तिं विधास्यति ॥ १८०॥
Moreover, friend. He who made the swans white, the parrots green, and the peacocks of a varied colour, will provide for your sustenance.
अपरं च । सतां रहस्यं शृणु मित्र ।
Hear, also, friend, the secret of the good.
जनयन्त्यर्जने दुःखं तापयन्ति विपत्तिषु ।
मोहयन्ति च संपत्तौ कथमर्थाः सुखावहाः ॥ १८१॥
How can riches be conducive to happiness, since they cause trouble in their acquisition, give pain in adversity (by their want) and stupefy the mind in prosperity?
अपरं च । धर्मार्थं यस्य वित्तेहा वरं तस्य निरीहता ।
प्रक्षालनाद्धि पङ्कस्य दूरादस्पर्शनं वरम् ॥ १८२॥
Again. Better is the absence of desire for him who wishes to acquire money for religious purposes : for rather than wash off mud it would be well to keep at a distance from it and so not to touch it.
यतः । यथा ह्यामिषमाकाशे पक्षिभिः श्वापदैर्भुवि ।
भक्ष्यते सलिले नक्रैस्तथा सर्वत्र वित्तवान् ॥ १८३॥
For. As meat (food) is eaten by birds in the sky, by beasts on earth, and by crocodiles in water, so is a rich man (his wealth) fed upon everywhere.
राजतः सलिलादग्नेश्चोरतः स्वजनाद् अपि ।
भयमर्थवतां नित्यं मृत्योः प्राणभृतामिव ॥ १८४॥
There is ever fear to the wealthy from the king, from water, from fire, from a thief, and even from a relative, as there is from death to the living.
तथा हि । जन्मनि क्लेशबहुले किं नु दुःखमतः परम् ।
इच्छासम्पद्यतो नास्ति यच्चेच्छा न निवर्तते ॥ १८५॥
Similarly. In life which abounds in troubles what misery can be greater than this, that wealth is not obtained according to desire and yet desire does not turn back?
अन्यच्च भ्रातः शृणु ।
Hear me again, brother.
धनं तावद् असुलभं लब्धं कृच्छ्रेण रक्ष्यते ।
लब्धनाशो यथा मृत्युस्तस्मादेतन्न चिन्तयेत् ॥ १८६॥
In the first place wealth is not easily obtained, and when obtained it can be preserved with difficulty; its loss is as if death: one should not therefore think of it.
तृष्णां चेह परित्यज्य को दरिद्रः क ईश्वरः ।
तस्याश्चेत्प्रसरो दत्तो दास्यं च शिरसि स्थितम् ॥ १८७॥
When desire is abandoned, who is poor and who is rich? But if scope is allowed to it, servitude is the immediate result (inevitable lot).
अपरं च । यद्यदेव हि वाञ्छेत ततो वाञ्छानुवर्तते ।
प्राप्तः एवार्थतः सोऽर्थो यतो वाञ्छा निवर्तते ॥ १८८॥
Moreover. Whatever one may wish for, desire proceeds onward from that (ever increases); but that thing may be said to be really obtained from which desire turns back.
किं बहुना । मम पक्षपातेन मयैव सहात्र कालो नीयताम् । यतः ।
But why waste more words on the subject? Being in friendship with me, pass your time just here in my company. For,
आमरणान्ताः प्रणयाः कोपास्तत्क्षणभङ्गुराः ।
परित्यागाश्च निःसङ्गा भवन्ति हि महात्मनाम् ॥ १८९॥
The friendship of the noble-minded lasts till death; their anger vanishes the very moment (it appears) and their favours (lit. gifts ) are disinterested.
इति श्रुत्वा लघुपतनको ब्रूते -- धन्योऽसि मन्थर सर्वदा श्लाघ्यगुणोऽसि । यतः ।
Having listened to all this, Laghupatanaka said -- Blessed are you, Manthara; your virtues are laudable in every way. Because,
सन्त एव सतां नित्यमापदुद्धरणक्षमाः ।
गजानां पङ्कमग्नानां गजा एव धुरंधराः ॥ १९०॥
The good alone are able to rescue the good from misery; elephants alone are able to deliver elephants sunk into mire.
श्लाघ्यः स एको भुवि मानवानां स उत्तमः सत्पुरुषः स धन्यः ।
यस्यार्थिनो वा शरणागता वा नाशाविभङ्गाद्विमुखाः प्रयान्ति ॥ १९१॥
He alone on earth, of all men, is worthy of praise, he is the best, he is a good man and he is blessed, from whom supplicants or persons seeking protection go not away with faces turned back through disappointment (lit. frustration of hopes).
तदेवं ते स्वेच्छाहारविहारं कुर्वाणाः संतुष्टाः सुखं निवसन्ति।
Thus did they (the three friends) live in happy contentment, feasting and sporting at will.
अथ कदाचिच्चित्राङ्गनामा मृगः केनापि त्रासितस्तत्रागत्य मिलितः । ततः
तत्पश्चादायान्तं भयहेतुमालोक्य मन्थरो जलं प्रविष्टः । मूषिकश्च विवरं गतः ।
Now on one occasion, a deer, Chitranga by name, frightened by some one, came and joined them. Thereupon, apprehending that the person who had caused the fright might be coming after the deer, Manthara entered the water, the mouse went in a hole
काकोऽप्युड्डीय वृक्षाग्रमारूढः । ततो लघुपतनकेन सुदूरं निरूप्य भयहेतुर्न कोऽप्यायातीत्यालोचितम् ।
पश्चात्तद्वचनादागत्य पुनः सर्वे मिलित्वा तत्रैवोपविष्टाः ।
The crow flew up and perched on the top of a tree. Then Laghupatanaka, looking to a great distance, found that no one that would cause fright was coming. Then in pursuance of his words all of them again joined company and sat just there.
मन्थरेणोक्तं -- भद्रम् । मृग स्वागतम् । स्वेच्छयोदकाद्याहारोऽनुभूयताम् । अत्रावस्थानेन
वनमिदं सनाथीक्रियताम् । चित्राङ्गो ब्रूते -- लुब्धकत्रासितोऽहं भवतां शरणमागतः ।
Manthara said -- Good, O deer, you are welcome. You are at liberty to enjoy provisions such as water and the like. Do you favour the forest with your residence here (lit., let the forest have a master by your residence here). Chitranga said, I who was alarmed by the hunters have come to you for protection.
भवद्भिः सह सख्यमिच्छामि । हिरण्यकोऽवदत् -- मित्र तत्तावदस्माभिः
सहायत्नेन निष्पन्नमेव भवतः । यतः ।
I desire your friendship. Hiranyaka replied -- As for friendship, you have secured that without an effort. For,
औरसं कृतसंबन्धं तथा वंशक्रमागतम् ।
रक्षितं व्यसनेभ्यश्च मित्रं ज्ञेयं चतुर्विधम् ॥ १९२॥
A friend is known to be of four kinds, viz. -- by whole blood, by family connexion, an hereditary friend and one delivered from misfortunes.
तदत्र भवता स्वगृहनिर्विशेषं स्थीयताम् । तच्छ्रुत्वा मृगः सानन्दो भूत्वा
स्वेच्छाहारं कृत्वा पानीयं पीत्वा जलासन्नतरुच्छायायामुपविष्टः ।
Your Honour, therefore, should live here as if in your own house (Make yourself quite at home here ). Upon hearing this, the deer was delighted and having eaten at pleasure and drunk water sat in the shade of a tree that grew near the water.
अथ मन्थरेणोक्तम् -- सखे मृग एतस्मिन्निर्जने वने केन त्रासितोऽसि ।
कदाचित्किं व्याधाः संचरन्ति । मृगेणोक्तम् ।
Now Manthara asked -- Friend deer, by whom were you frightened in this desolate wood? What, are there huntsmen roaming about? The deer replied.
अस्ति कलिङ्गविषये रुक्माङ्गदो नाम नृपतिः । स च दिग्विजयव्यापारक्रमेणागत्य
चन्द्रभागानदीतीरे समावेशितकटको वर्तते । प्रातश्च तेनात्रागत्य कर्पूरसरःसमीपे
भवितव्यमिति व्याधानां मुखात्किंवदन्ती श्रूयते ।
In the country of Kalinga there is a king, Rukmangada by name. In the courses of his conquest of the quarters he has come here and stays on the bank of the Chandrabhaga with his army encamped there. And a rumour is heard from the mouth of sportsmen that to-morrow he is sure to come and take his residence near the Karpura lake.
तदत्रापि प्रातरवस्थानं भयहेतुकमित्यालोच्य यथावसरकार्यमारभ्यताम् । तच्छ्रुत्वा कूर्मः सभयमाह --
जलाशयान्तरं गच्छामि । काकमृगावप्युक्तवन्तौ -- एवमस्तु ।
So having regard to the fact that our residence here to-morrow is beset with danger, do what the time demands. Hearing that the tortoise said in terror - I will make for another pool. The crow and the deer, too, said -- Let it be so.
ततो हिरण्यको विहस्याह -- जलाशयान्तरे प्राप्ते मन्थरस्य कुशलम् ।
स्थले गच्छतः कः प्रतीकारः । यतः ।
Then Hiranyaka said smilingly -- It will be all well with Manthara when another lake is reached, but what means of protection has he while crawling along the ground ? For,
अम्भांसि जलजन्तूनां दुर्गं दुर्गनिवासिनाम् ।
स्वभूमिः श्वापदादीनां राज्ञां मन्त्री परं बलम् ॥ १९३॥
Water is the greatest strength of aquatic animals, a fortress of those who habitually reside in fortresses, their own ground of beasts and other animals, and a minister of kings.
सखे लघुपतनक अनेनोपदेशेन तथा भवितव्यम् ।
Friend Laghupatanaka, this advice will lead to a result like this.
स्वयं वीक्ष्य यथा वध्वाः पीडितं कुचकुड्मलम् ।
वणिक्पुत्रोऽभवद्दुःखी त्वं तथैव भविष्यसि ॥ १९४ ॥
त ऊचुः -- कथमेतत् । हिरण्यकः कथयति --
You will fare like the merchant's son who became unhappy on beholding with his own eyes his wife's breasts hard pressed. They said -- How is that? Hiranyaka relates --
॥ कथा ७ ॥
Fable 7
अस्ति कान्यकुब्जविषये वीरसेनो नाम राजा । तेन वीरपुरनाम्नि नगरे तुङ्गबलो
नाम राजपुत्रो भोगपतिः कृतः । स च महाधनस्तरुण एकदा स्वनगरे भ्राम्यन्नतिप्रौढयौवनां
लावण्यवतीं नाम वणिक्पुत्रवधूमालोकयामास । ततः स्वहर्म्यं गत्वा
स्मराकुलमतिस्तस्याः कृते दूतीं प्रेषितवान् । यतः ।
There was, in the country of Kanyakubja, a king whose name was Virasena. He appointed a prince, named Tungabala, governor of the city of Virapura. Possessed of great wealth and young, he, while walking about, one day, in his city, saw a young merchant's wife, Lavanyavati by name, who was in the very prime of youth. On returning to his palace with a heart disturbed by love, he sent a messenger for her. For,
सन्मार्गे तावदास्ते प्रभवति पुरुषस्तावदेवेन्द्रियाणां
लज्जां तावद्विधत्ते विनयमपि समालम्बते तावदेव ।
भ्रूचापाकृष्टमुक्ताः श्रवणपथगता नीलपक्ष्माण एते
यावल्लीलावतीनां न हृदि धृतिमुषो दृष्टिबाणाः पतन्ति ॥ १९५ ॥
So long only does a man keep to the path of virtue, has control over his senses, feels shame and clings to modesty, as the arrows in the shape of glances cast by sportive ladies, discharged after being drawn from the bows of their eyebrows, which reach the region of the ear, which have the dark eyelashes (for feathers) and which rob one of courage, do not fall on his breast.
सापि लावण्यवती तदवलोकनक्षणात्प्रभृति स्मरशरप्रहारजर्जरितहृदया
तदेकचित्ताभवत् । तथा ह्युक्तम् --
That Lavanyavati too, from the moment she saw him, thought solely of him, her heart being deeply wounded by the fallings of the shafts of love. For, it is said
असत्यं साहसं माया मात्सर्यं चातिलुब्धता ।
निर्गुणत्वमशौचत्वं स्त्रीणां दोषाः स्वभावजाः ॥ १९६ ॥
Infidelity, a spirit of adventure, deceit, jealousy, extreme avarice, absence of good qualities and want of purity -- these are the natural defects of women.
अथ दूतीवचनं श्रुत्वा लावण्यवत्युवाच -- अहं पतिव्रता कथमेतस्मिन्नधर्मे
पतिलङ्घने प्रवर्ते । यतः ।
Now on hearing the words of the go-between Lavanyavati said -- I am devoted to my husband. How shall I then think of doing this irreligious deed of being faithless to my husband? For,
सा भार्या या गृहे दक्षा सा भार्या या प्रजावती ।
सा भार्या या पतिप्राणा सा भार्या या पतिव्रता ॥ १९७ ॥
She is a wife who is diligent in the management of the household ; she is a wife who is prolific in children; she is a wife who loves her husband as her own life, and she is a wife who is solely devoted to her husband.
न सा भार्येति वक्तव्या यस्यां भर्ता न तुष्यति ।
तुष्टे भर्तरि नारीणां संतुष्टाः सर्वदेवताः ॥ १९८ ॥
She should not be called a wife in whom the husband does not delight: when the husband is pleased, all the deities are pleased with women.
ततो यद्यदादिशति मे प्राणेश्वरस्तदेवाहमविचारितं करोमि । दूत्योक्तम् -- सत्यमेतत् ।
लावण्यवत्युवाच -- ध्रुवं सत्यमेतत् । ततो दूतिकया गत्वा तत्तत्सर्वं तुङ्गबलस्याग्रे निवेदितं ।
Therefore, whatever the lord of my life orders me to do, I do without questioning (its propriety). The messenger asked -- Is this the truth? Lavanyavati replied -- Beyond doubt this is the truth. Then the messenger went back and reported all that to Tungabala.
तच्छ्रुत्वा तुङ्गबलोऽब्रवीत् -- स्वामिनानीय समर्पयितव्येति कथमेतच्छक्यं ।
कुट्टन्याह -- उपायः क्रियताम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Having heard it Tungabala observed -- How can this be possible that the husband would bring her here and offer her to me? The go-between said -- Let a device be used. For it is said --
उपायेन हि यच्छक्यं न तच्छक्यं पराक्रमैः ।
शृगालेन हतो हस्ती गच्छता पङ्कवर्त्मना ॥ १९९ ॥
That which can be achieved by means of a device cannot be accomplished by valour: An elephant was killed by a jackal going over a miry way.
राजपुत्रः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् । सा कथयति --
कथा ८
The prince asked how it was. She related Fable 8 --
अस्ति ब्रह्मारण्ये कर्पूरतिलको नाम हस्ती । तमवलोक्य सर्वे
शृगालाश्चिन्तयन्ति स्म । यद्ययं केनाप्युपायेन म्रियते
तदास्माकमेतद्देहेन मासचतुष्टयस्य स्वेच्छया भोजनं भविष्यति ।
There was an elephant, named Karpuratilaka in Brahmaranya. On seeing him all the jackals thought to themselves -- if by some means this can die, his body will afford us sufficient food for four months.
तत्रैकेन वृद्धशृगालेन प्रतिज्ञातम् -- मया बुद्धिप्रभावादस्य मरणं साधयितव्यम् ।
अनन्तरं स वञ्चकः कर्पूरतिलकसमीपं गत्वा
साष्टांगपातं प्रणम्योवाच -- देव दृष्टिप्रसादं कुरु ।
Then an old jackal from among them declared I will bring about his death by the power of my intellect. Then the wily fellow having gone to Karpuratilaka and bowed to him touching the ground with the eight parts of his body said -- My lord, favour me with a glance.
हस्ती ब्रूते -- कस्त्वम् । कुतः समायातः ।
सोऽवदत् --
जम्बुकोऽहं । सर्वैर्वनवासिभिः पशुभिर्मिलित्वा भवत्सकाशं प्रस्थापितः ।
The elephant asked -- Who art thou? Whence art thou come? He replied -- I am a jackal and sent to Your Honour's presence by all the inhabitants of the forest having assembled together (to say):--
यद् विना राज्ञावस्थातुं न युक्तम् तदत्राटवीराज्येऽभिषेक्तुं
भवान् सर्वस्वामिगुणोपेतो निरूपितः । यतः ।
Since it is not expedient to live without a king Your Honour has been selected, as possessed of all kingly qualities, to be installed king of the forest. For,
यः कुलाभिजनाचारैरतिशुद्धः प्रतापवान् ।
धार्मिको नीतिकुशलः स स्वामी युज्यते भुवि ॥ २००॥
He, who is extremely pure as regards his family, nobility and conduct, is chivalrous, pious, and versed in politics, is worthy of being a king on earth.
अपरं च । राजानं प्रथमं विन्देत्ततो भार्यां ततो धनम् ।
राजन्यसति लोकेऽस्मिन्कुतो भार्या कुतो धनम् ॥ २०१॥
Moreover. One should first obtain a king, then a wife and then wealth: in the absence of a king, whence can there be wife or wealth?
अन्यच्च । पर्जन्य इव भूतानामाधारः पृथिवीपतिः ।
विकलेऽपि हि पर्जन्ये जीव्यते न तु भूपतौ ॥ २०२॥
Again. Like rain, the lord of the earth is the support of creatures : life can be sustained, however, even when there is scarcity of rain, but not in the absence of a king.
किं च । नियतविषयवर्ती प्रायशो दण्डयोगाज्
जगति परवशेऽस्मिन्दुर्लभः साधुवृत्तः ।
Moreover. In this interdependent world a man keeps within the bounds of duty mostly through the dread of punishment; a man of good conduct is difficult to be found;
कृशमपि विकलं वा व्याधितं वाऽधनं वा
पतिमपि कुलनारी दण्डभीत्याभ्युपैति ॥ २०३॥
And it is through the fear of punishment also, that a woman of good family approaches (keeps faithful to) her husband, though lean, deformed, sickly and penniless.
तद्यथा लग्नवेला न विचलति तथा कृत्वा
सत्वरमागम्यतां देवेन । इत्युक्त्वोत्थाय चलितः ।
Your Majesty, therefore, should be so pleased as to come quickly that the auspicious moment may not be lost. Having said so he rose up and went away.
ततोऽसौ राज्यलाभाकृष्टः कर्पूरतिलकः शृगालवर्त्मना धावन्
महापङ्के निमग्नः । ततस्तेन हस्तिनोक्तम् -- सखे शृगाल किमधुना
विधेयम् । पङ्के निपतितोऽहं म्रिये । परावृत्य पश्य ।
Thereupon that Karpuratilaka, drawn by the lust of a kingdom and running by the way taken by the jackal, got stuck in deep mud. Then the elephant said -- Friend, jackal, what should be done now? I am plunged in mud and shall perish. Just turn back and look at me.
शृगालेन विहस्योक्तम् -- देव मम पुच्छकावलम्बनं कृत्वोत्तिष्ठ ।
यन्मद्विधस्य वचसि त्वया प्रत्ययः
कृतस्तदनुभूयतामशरणं दुःखम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
The jackal replied with a smile, My lord, take hold of my tail and get up. Since you placed confidence in the words of one like me, suffer the misery for which there is no help. For, it is said
यदि सत्सङ्गनिरतो भविष्यसि भविष्यसि ।
तथाऽसज्जनगोष्ठीषु पतिष्यसि पतिष्यसि ॥ २०४॥
When thou wilt take delight in the company of the good thou shalt prosper : but as soon as thou joinest the company of wicked men, thou shalt fall (suffer ruin).
ततो महापङ्के निमग्नो हस्ती शृगालैर्भक्षितः ।
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- उपायेन हि यच्छक्यम् इत्यादि ॥
Then the elephant that had sunk in the deep mire was devoured by the jackals. Therefore I say. "What can be achieved by means of a device" &c.
ततः कुट्टन्युपदेशेन तं चारुदत्तनामानं वणिक्पुत्रं स राजपुत्रः
सेवकं चकार । ततोऽसौ तेन सर्वविश्वासकार्येषु नियोजितः ।
Then by the advice of the procuress the prince engaged the young merchant, named Charudatta, as servant. Afterwards he was employed by him in the most confidential affairs.
एकदा तेन राजपुत्रेण स्नातानुलिप्तेन कनकरत्नालंकारधारिणा प्रोक्तम् -- अद्यारभ्य
मासमेकं मया गौरीव्रतं कर्तव्यम् । तदत्र प्रतिरात्रमेकां कुलीनां युवतीमानीय समर्पय ।
One day the prince, having bathed and anointed himself and put on gold and jewel ornaments said –- From to-day I have to observe a vow in honour of Gauri which will last for a month. Bring me, therefore, every night, a young woman of a noble family.
सा मया यथोचितेन विधिना पूजयितव्या । ततः स चारुदत्तस्तथाविधां
नवयुवतीमानीय समर्पयति । पश्चात्प्रच्छन्नः सन्किमयं करोतीति निरूपयति ।
I shall have to worship her in due form. Thereupon that Charudatta brought and presented a youthfal damsel as described and remaining concealed watched how he acted.
स च तुङ्गबलस्तां युवतीमस्पृशन्नेव दूराद्वस्त्रालंकारगन्धचन्दनैः संपूज्य रक्षकं दत्वा प्रस्थापयति ।
That Tungabala too, without touching the young lady, offered her worship from a distance with garments, ornaments and fragrant unguents and sent her away with a guard.
अथ वणिक्पुत्रेण तद् दृष्ट्वोपजातविश्वासेन लोभाकृष्टमनसा स्ववधूः
लावण्यवती समानीय समर्पिता । स च तुङ्गबलस्तां हृदयप्रियां लावण्यवतीं
विज्ञाय संभ्रममुत्थाय निर्भरमालिङ्ग्य निमीलिताक्षः पर्यङ्के तया सह विललास ।
Now the young merchant, full of confidence at what he had seen, and his mind biased by avarice, brought his own wife Lavanyavati, and presented her. That Tungabala too, knowing that she was Lavanyavati, the darling of his heart, rose up in a hurry, embraced her firmly and with his eyes closed (in joy ) sported with her on a sofa.
तदवलोक्य वणिक्पुत्रश्चित्रलिखित इवेतिकर्तव्यतामूढः परं विषादमुपगतः ।
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- स्वयं वीक्ष्य इत्यादि ॥ तथा त्वयापि भवितव्य्म् इति ।
Beholding that, the young merchant utterly at a loss to know what to do, like a figure drawn in a painting, was plunged in great sorrow. Hence I say -- "On seeing with his own eyes" &c. You too will fare like that.
तद्धितवचनमवधीर्य महता भयेन विमुग्ध इव
तं जलाशयमुत्सृज्य मन्थरश्चलितः । तेऽपि हिरण्यकादयः
स्नेहादनिष्टं शङ्कमाना मन्थरमनुगच्छन्ति ।
Disregarding those words of friendly counsel, and distraught with great fear, Manthara left the pool and set out for another. They too, Hiranyaka and others, apprehensive of mishap through affection, followed him.
ततः स्थले गच्छन्केनापि व्याधेन काननं
पर्यटता मन्थरः प्राप्तः । प्राप्य च तं गृहीत्वोत्थाप्य धनुषि
बद्ध्वा भ्रमक्लेशात्क्षुत्पिपासाकुलः
स्वगृहाभिमुखश्चलितः । अथ मृगवायसमूषिकाः परं
विषादं गच्छन्तस्तमनुजग्मुः । ततो हिरण्यको विलपति --
Then as he was crawling along the ground, Manthara was seen by a certain huntsman roaming about in the forest. On seeing him he picked him up, and fastened him to his bow, and troubled by thirst and hunger brought on by the fatigue of his wandering about, set out homeward. The deer, the crow and the mouse, plunged in extreme sorrow, followed him. Then Hiranyaka lamented --
एकस्य दुःखस्य न यावदन्तं गच्छाम्यहं पारमिवार्णवस्य ।
तावद् द्वितीयं समुपस्थितं मे छिद्रेष्वनर्था बहुलीभवन्ति ॥ २०५॥
Scarcely have I gone to the end of one misfortune, as of the ocean, when another has befallen me: when there are weak points misfortunes multiply (misfortunes come not singly).
स्वाभाविकं तु यन्मित्रं भाग्येनैवाभिजायते ।
तदकृत्रिमसौहार्दमापत्स्वपि न मुञ्चति ॥ २०६॥
That natural friend who is obtained simply by good luck and whose affection is sincere (lit. not artificial) does not forsake as even in adversity.
न मातरि न दारेषु न सोदर्ये न चात्मजे ।
विश्वासस्तादृशः पुंसां यादृङ्मित्रे स्वभावजे ॥ २०७॥
Men have not that confidence in a mother, wife, brother or son, which they have in a friend by natural disposition.
इति मुहुर्विचिन्त्य -- अहो दुर्दैवम् । यतः ।
Thinking (over the matter) thus again and again. -- O misfortune! For,
स्वकर्मसंतानविचेष्टितानि कालान्तरावर्तिशुभाशुभानि ।
इहैव दृष्टानि मयैव तानि जन्मान्तराणीव दशान्तराणि ॥ २०८॥
In this very life have I experienced those changes of condition, like so many births and rebirths, which are the results of a series of my own actions and which are good or bad and happening at stated periods of time.
अथवेत्थमेवैतत् । कायः संनिहितापायः संपदः पदमापदाम् ।
समागमाः सापगमाः सर्वमुत्पादि भङ्गुरम् ॥ २०९॥
Or rather it must be just so. The body is subject to perils (lit. has perils near at hand), riches are the abode of misfortunes; and union is attended with disunion: transient is everything created.
पुनर्विमृश्याह -- शोकारातिभयत्राणं प्रीतिविश्रम्भभाजनम् ।
केन रत्नमिदं सृष्टं मित्रमित्यक्षरद्वयम् ॥ २१०॥
On a second reflection he said -- By whom was created this jewel, viz. 'mitra', consisting of two syllables, which protects from the fear arising from the enemy of sorrow (or from sorrow and an enemy), and which is the abode of delight and confidence ?
किं च । मित्रं प्रीतिरसायनं नयनयोरानन्दनं चेतसः
पात्रं यत्सुखदुःखयोः सह भवेन्मित्रेण तद्दुर्लभम् ।
Moreover. A friend, who is the elixir of joy to the eyes, the delight of the heart and the sharer of pleasure or pain with his friend, is hard to be found;
ये चान्ये सुहृदः समृद्धिसमये द्रव्याभिलाषाकुलाः
ते सर्वत्र मिलन्ति तत्त्वनिकषग्रावा तु तेषां विपत् ॥ २११॥

But those other friends, who, attracted by the lust of riches, gather together in prosperity, are found everywhere: adversity is the touch-stone on which to test their sincerity (real nature).
इति बहु विलप्य हिरण्यकश्चित्राङ्गलघुपतनकावाह -- यावद् अयं
व्याधो वनान्न निःसरति तावन्मन्थरं मोचयितुं यत्नः क्रियताम् ।
Having thus lamented much, Hiranyaka said to Chitranga and Laghupatanaka -- Before this hunter departs from the forest let an effort be made to deliver Manthara.
तावूचतुः -- सत्वरं कार्यमुच्यतां ।
हिरण्यको ब्रूते -- चित्राङ्गो जलसमीपं गत्वा मृतमिवात्मानं
दर्शयतु । काकश्च तस्योपरि स्थित्वा चञ्च्वा किमपि विलिखतु ।
Tell us, said they, what we are to do. Hiranyaka said -- Let Chitranga go to the water-side and feign himself to be dead. Let the crow sit upon him and peck at him with his bill in some way.
नूनमनेन लुब्धकेन तत्र
कच्छपं परित्यज्य मृगमांसार्थिना सत्वरं गन्तव्यम् । ततोऽहं मन्थरस्य
बन्धनं छेत्स्यामि ।
Surely the sportsman, eager for the deer's flesh, will quickly make for him, leaving the tortoise there. Then I will gnaw asunder Manthara's bonds.
संनिहिते लुब्धके भवद्भ्यां पलायितव्यम् । चित्राङ्गलघुपतनकाभ्यां शीघ्रं गत्वा तथानुष्ठिते सति
स व्याधः श्रान्तः पानीयं पीत्वा तरोरधस्तादुपविष्टः
तथाविधं मृगमपश्यत् ।
When the sportsman approaches you, you should run away. When Chitranga and Laghupatanaka had quickly acted as they had been instructed, the huntsman, who being fatigued had drunk water and sat under a tree, noticed the deer in that condition.
ततः कर्तरिकामादाय प्रहृष्टमना मृगान्तिकं चलितः । तत्रान्तरे
हिरण्यकेनागत्य मन्थरस्य बन्धनं
छिन्नम् । स कूर्मः सत्वरं जलाशयं प्रविवेश ।
Then delighted at heart, he took up his scissors and went towards him. In the meanwhile, Hiranyaka came and cut off Manthara's bonds, and the tortoise quickly entered the pond.
स मृग आसन्नं तं व्याधं विलोक्योत्थाय पलायितः ।
प्रत्यावृत्य लुब्धको यावत्तरुतलमायाति तावत् कूर्ममपश्यन्नचिन्तयत्
-- उचितमेवैतन्ममासमीक्ष्यकारिणः । यतः ।
The deer seeing the huntsman approach him started up and bounded away. When the hunter, having returned, came to the foot of the tree and saw not the tortoise there, he thus reflected -- This is but meet in the case of me who have acted rashly. For,
यो ध्रुवाणि परित्यज्य अध्रुवाणि निषेवते ।
ध्रुवाणि तस्य नश्यन्ति अध्रुवं नष्टमेव हि ॥ २१२॥
He who leaves certainties and pursues uncertainties, loses what is certain, while what is uncertain is already (or, certain to be) lost (to him).
ततोऽसौ स्वकर्मवशान्निराशः कटकं प्रविष्टः ।
मन्थरादयश्च सर्वे मुक्तापदः स्वस्थानं गत्वा यथासुखमास्थिताः ॥
So he returned to his place disappointed through his own (rash) act (fault). Manthara and others, being free from calamity, went to their abode and lived in happiness.
अथ राजपुत्रैः सानन्दमुक्तम् --
सर्वे श्रुतवन्तः सुखिनो वयम् । सिद्धं नः समीहितम् ।
Now the princes said joyfully -- We have heard all and become happy. Our desire has been gained.
विष्णुशर्मोवाच --
एतावता भवतामभिलषितं संपन्नम् । अपरमपीदमस्तु --
Vishnusharma replied -- So far your desired object has been accomplished. Let there be this much more, too --
मित्रं प्राप्नुत सज्जना जनपदैर्लक्ष्मीः समालम्ब्यतां
भूपालाः परिपालयन्तु वसुधां शश्वत्स्वधर्मे स्थिताः ।
May you, o good men, obtain a friend: may the countryfolk gain wealth; may kings govern the earth, ever abiding by their duty;
आस्तां मानसतुष्टये सुकृतिनां नीतिर्नवोढेव वः
कल्याणं कुरुतां जनस्य भगवांश्चन्द्रार्धचूडामणिः ॥ २१३॥
may the policy of good statesmen, like a wife newly wedded, be for the delight of your heart; and may the divine one who has the crescent moon for his crest-jewel do good to the people!!
॥ सुहृद्भेदः ॥
Separation of Friends
अथ राजपुत्रा ऊचुः -- आर्य मित्रलाभः
श्रुतस्तावदस्माभिः । इदानीं सुहृद्भेदं श्रोतुमिच्छामः ।
The princes said -- Sir, as for 'The Acquisition of Friends' we have heard that. Now we wish to learn the chapter on 'The Separation of Friends'.
विष्णुशर्मोवाच --
सुहृद्भेदं तावच्छृणुत यस्यायमाद्यः श्लोकः --
Vishnusharma said -- Hear then "The Separation of Friends', of which this is the introductory sloka: --
वर्धमानो महास्नेहो मृगेन्द्रवृषयोर्वने ।
पिशुनेनातिलुब्धेन जम्बुकेन विनाशितः ॥ १॥
A great friendship, that was growing between a lion and a bull in a forest, was destroyed by a wily and very ambitious jackal.
राजपुत्रैरुक्तम् -- कथमेतत् ।
विष्णुशर्मा कथयति --
The princes asked -- How was this? Vishnusharma related –-
अस्ति दक्षिणापथे सुवर्णवती नाम नगरी । तत्र वर्धमानो नाम वणिग्निवसति ।
तस्य प्रचुरेऽपि वित्तेऽपरान्बन्धून् अतिसमृद्धानवलोक्य
पुनरर्थवृद्धिः करणीयेति मतिर्बभूव । यतः ।
There is in the southern country a city Suvarnavati by name. In it dwelt a merchant named Vardhamana. Although in the possession of a large fortune, yet, seeing that his relatives were very opulent, he thought of again adding to his wealth. For,
अधोऽधः पश्यतः कस्य महिमा नोपचीयते ।
उपर्युपरि पश्यन्तः सर्व एव दरिद्रति ॥ २॥
The greatness of what man that looks lower and lower (i. e. looks upon himself as a very small man or looks at those who are in a humbler station) does not increase? But every one who looks higher and higher (i. e. considers himself as very great, or turns his eyes upon those who are in a higher station) becomes poor.
अपरं च । ब्रह्महापि नरः पूज्यो यस्यास्ति विपुलं धनम् ।
शशिनस्तुल्यवंशोऽपि निर्धनः परिभूयते ॥ ३॥
Moreover. A man who has abundant wealth, although he be a Brahmana-killer, is respected; while one, although claiming a pedigree as noble as that of the moon, is despised, if without wealth.
अन्यच्च । अव्यवसायिनमलसं दैवपरं साहसाच्च परिहीणम् ।
प्रमदेव हि वृद्धपतिं नेच्छत्युपगूहितुं लक्ष्मीः ॥ ४॥
Again. The goddess of wealth does not wish to embrace (favour) him who is not industrious, who is lazy, who trusts in fate and who is not enterprising, as a young woman does not an old husband.
किं च । आलस्यं स्त्रीसेवा सरोगता जन्मभूमिवात्सल्यम् ।
संतोषो भीरुत्वं षड् व्याघाता महत्त्वस्य ॥ ५॥
Also. Idleness, attendance on women, a diseased state, a fond partiality for one's native place, contentment, and cowardliness are the six impediments to greatness.
यतः । सम्पदा सुस्थितंमन्यो भवति स्वल्पयापि यः ।
कृतकृत्यो विधिर्मन्ये न वर्धयति तस्य ताम् ॥ ६॥
For. When a man considers himself as happily situated, even with little wealth, Fate, I think, having done its duty, does not increase that wealth of his.
अपरं च । निरुत्साहं निरानन्दं निर्वीर्यमरिनन्दनम् ।
मा स्म सीमन्तिनी काचिज्जनयेत्पुत्रमीदृशम् ॥ ७॥
Moreover. May not a woman bring forth such a son as is without energy, joy, and valour, and is a source of delight to his enemies.
तथा चोक्तम् । अलब्धं चैव लिप्सेत लब्धं रक्षेदवेक्षया ।
रक्षितं वर्धयेत्सम्यग्वृद्धं तीर्थेषु निक्षिपेत् ॥ ८॥
It is also said. One should desire to obtain that which is unobtained, keep safe with judicious care what is obtained, properly increase what is preserved, and bestow the same on worthy recipients when it has been increased.
यतोऽलब्धमनिच्छतोऽनुद्योगादर्थाप्राप्तिरेव ।
लब्धस्याप्यरक्षितस्य निधेरपि स्वयं विनाशः । अपि च ।
For, if a man does not desire what he does not possess, he makes no exertion for it and remains inactive and does not get it. What is gained, if not properly taken care of, will waste away of itself, although amounting to a nidhi (a vast treasure). Again,
अवर्धमानश्चार्थः काले स्वल्पव्ययोऽप्यञ्जनवत्क्षयमेति ।
अनुपभुज्यमानश्च निष्प्रयोजन एव सः । तथा चोक्तम् --
Wealth, which is not increased, will be reduced to nothing in course of time, although used sparingly like collyrium; and if it be not enjoyed, it is simply useless. As it is said--
धनेन किं यो न ददाति नाश्नुते
बलेन किं यश्च रिपून्न बाधते ।
श्रुतेन किं यो न च धर्ममाचरेत्
किमात्मना यो न जितेन्द्रियो भवेत् ॥ ९॥
What is the use of wealth when one neither gives it away nor enjoys it? What is the use of strength when one can do no harm to one's foes? What is the use of the knowledge of scriptures when one does not perform the holy rites? And what is the use of soul when one cannot curb the senses?
अन्यच्च । अञ्जनस्य क्षयं दृष्ट्वा वल्मीकस्य च संचयम् ।
अवन्ध्यं दिवसं कुर्याद्दानाध्ययनकर्मसु ॥ १० ॥
Again. Having marked the (gradual) decrease of collyrium and the growth of ant-hill, one should turn a day to account (lit. make it fruitful) by spending it in charity, study and (other) acts.
यतः । जलबिन्दुनिपातेन क्रमशः पूर्यते घटः ।
स हेतुः सर्वविद्यानां धर्मस्य च धनस्य च ॥ ११॥
For. A jar is gradually filled up by the falling of water into it drop by drop: the same principle applies to the acquisition of all knowledge, religious merit and wealth.
दानोपभोगरहिता दिवसा यस्य यान्ति वै ।
स कर्मकारभस्त्रेव श्वसन्नपि न जीवति ॥ १२ ॥
He, who passes his days without charity and enjoyment, does not live although breathing, like the bellow of a blacksmith.
इति संचिन्त्य नन्दकसंजीवकनामानौ वृषभौ धुरि नियोज्य
शकटं नानाविधद्रव्यपूर्णं कृत्वा वाणिज्येन गतः काश्मीरं प्रति ।
Having thus reflected he yoked two bulls, Nandaka and Samjivaka to his cart, filled it with wares of different kinds, and started for Kashmir for the purpose of trade. For,
कोऽतिभारः समर्थानां किं दूरं व्यवसायिनाम् ।
को विदेशः सविद्यानां कः परः प्रियवादिनाम् ॥ १३॥
What is too great a burden to the strong? What is distant to the industrious? What is a foreign land to the learned? And who is stranger to those who talk sweetly?
अथ गच्छतस्तस्य सुदुर्गनाम्नि महारण्ये
संजीवको भग्नजानुर्निपतितः । तमालोक्य वर्धमानोऽचिन्तयत् --
Now as they were going on, Samjivaka got his knee broken and fell down in the great forest called Sudurga. Seeing him Vardhamana thus meditated--
करोतु नाम नीतिज्ञो व्यवसायमितस्ततः ।
फलं पुनस्तदेवास्य यद् विधेर्मनसि स्थितम् ॥ १४॥
Let a man versed in policy make an exertion one way or another, the fruit then (that he reaps) is that which providence has willed for him.
किं तु । विस्मयः सर्वथा हेयः प्रत्यूहः सर्वकर्मणाम् ।
तस्माद्विस्मयमुत्सृज्य साध्ये सिद्धिर्विधीयताम् ॥ १५॥
Indecision, which is an obstruction to all actions, should, by all means, be abandoned; having, therefore, given up indecision, success should be attained in the object desired.
इति संचिन्त्य संजीवकं तत्र परित्यज्य
वर्धमानः पुनः स्वयं धर्मपुरं नाम नगरं गत्वा महाकायमन्यं
वृषभमेकं समानीय धुरि नियोज्य चलितः । ततः संजीवकोऽपि
कथं कथमपि खुरत्रये भरं कृत्वोत्थितः । यतः ।
Having thus reflected and left Samjivaka there, Vardhamana himself went back to a town named Dharmapura, brought another stout bull, fastened him to the yoke of the cart and journeyed on. Thereafter Samjivaka too, having supported his weight on three legs, rose up. For,
निमग्नस्य पयोराशौ पर्वतात्पतितस्य च ।
तक्षकेणापि दष्टस्य आयुर्मर्माणि रक्षति ॥ १६॥
Life (when one is to live longer) preserves safe the vitals of one although plunged into the ocean or fallen from a mountain or bitten by the deadliest of cobras.
नाकाले म्रियते जन्तुर्विद्धः शरशतैरपि ।
कुशाग्रेणापि संस्पृष्टः प्राप्तकालो न जीवति ॥ १७॥
Although pierced with hundreds of arrows, a creature will not die out of his time (of death); but when his time has arrived he will not live when pierced even with a blade of the Kusa grass.
अरक्षितं तिष्ठति दैवरक्षितं
सुरक्षितं दैवहतं विनश्यति ।
जीवत्यनाथोऽपि वने विसर्जितः
कृतप्रयत्नोऽपि गृहे न जीवति ॥ १८॥
That which is defended by Fate lives, although (otherwise) unprotected, and that which is smitten by fate perishes, although well guarded: one without a protector and left in a desert lives (when protected by fate), while one (doomed to die) does not live in a house, although well taken care of (lit. although efforts be made to save him).
ततो दिनेषु
गच्छत्सु संजीवकः स्वेच्छाहारविहारं कृत्वारण्यं भ्राम्यन्
हृष्टपुष्टाङ्गो बलवन्ननाद । तस्मिन्वने पिङ्गलकनामा सिंहः
स्वभुजोपार्जितराज्यसुखमनुभवन्निवसति । तथा चोक्तम् --
Then, as days passed on, Samjivaka, as he feasted and sported at pleasure and roamed through the wood, became sleek and hale in body and bellowed aloud. A lion, Pingalaka by name, lived in that forest, enjoying the pleasures of royalty he had acquired by the might of his arms. For it is said--
नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः ।
विक्रमार्जितराज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता ॥ १९॥
No coronation ceremony nor any other rite is performed upon the lion by the beasts: but the sovereignty over beasts of him who acquires a kingdom by his prowess is self-existent.
स चैकदा पिपासाकुलितः पानीयं पातुं यमुनाकच्छमगच्छत् ।
तेन च तत्र सिंहेनाननुभूतपूर्वकमकालघनगर्जितमिव
संजीवकनर्दितमश्रावि । तच्छ्रुत्वा पानीयमपीत्वा सचकितः
परिवृत्य स्वस्थानमागत्य किमिदमित्यालोचयंस्तूष्णीं स्थितः ।
Once the lion being troubled by thirst went down to the bank of the Yamuna to drink water. There he heard the bellowing of Samjivaka like the unseasonable roaring of clouds and such as he had never heard before. Hearing that he turned back with a start without drinking water, and, having returned to his abode, stood silent, pondering what it could mean.
स च तथाविधः करटकदमनकाभ्यामस्य मन्त्रिपुत्राभ्यां शृगालाभ्यां
दृष्टः । तं तथाविधं दृष्ट्वा दमनकः करटकमाह --
He was observed in that condition by two jackals, named Karataka and Damanaka, the sons of his minister. Seeing him in that situation, Damanaka said to Karataka --
सखे करटक किमित्ययमुदकार्थी स्वामी पानीयमपीत्वा सचकितो मन्दं
मन्दमवतिष्ठते ।
करटको ब्रूते --
Dear Karataka, why is it that our lord, although thirsty, has not drunk water but stands still, dazed and alarmed? Karataka replied --
मित्र दमनक अस्मन्मतेनास्य सेवैव न क्रियते । यदि तथा भवति
तर्हि किमनेन स्वामिचेष्टानिरूपणेनास्माकम् । यतोऽनेन राज्ञा
विनापराधेन चिरमवधीरिताभ्यामावाभ्यां महद्दुःखमनुभूतम् ।
Friend Damanaka, he is not served at all according to our counsel (or, according to my advice he should not be served at all). If that is the case, what is the good of our observing his doings? For, we, who have been long despised by this king without any fault of ours, have suffered great anguish.
सेवया धनमिच्छद्भिः सेवकैः पश्य यत्कृतम् ।
स्वातन्त्र्यं यच्छरीरस्य मूढैस्तदपि हारितम् ॥ २०॥
See what servants who wish to acquire wealth by means of service have done : those fools have allowed even the independence of their body to be lost!
अपरं च । शीतवातातपक्लेशान्सहन्ते यान्पराश्रिताः ।
तदंशेनापि मेधावी तपस्तप्त्वा सुखी भवेत् ॥ २१॥
Moreover. A wise man will practise penance and be happy with even a portion of those sufferings caused by cold, wind and heat which those who are dependent on others undergo.
अन्यच्च । एतावज्जन्मसाफल्यं यदनायत्तवृत्तिता
ये पराधीनतां यातास्ते वै जीवन्ति के मृताः ॥ २२॥
Again. The fruitfulness of life lies in this much, that one lives a life of independence: if those who are in a state of dependence (be said to) live, then, who are the dead ?
अपरं च । एहि गच्छ पतोत्तिष्ठ वद मौनं समाचर ।
एवमाशाग्रहग्रस्तैः क्रीडन्ति धनिनोऽर्थिभिः ॥ २३ ॥
Come, go away, fall down, rise, speak, observe silence -- thus do the wealthy sport with those who are in the grip of the evil spirit of desire.
अबुधैरर्थलाभाय पण्यस्त्रीभिरिव स्वयम् ।
आत्मा संस्कृत्य संस्कृत्य परोपकरणीकृतः ॥ २४॥
Fools, like harlots, for the sake of self, deck their persons again and again and make them subservient to others.
किं च । या प्रकृत्यैव चपला निपतत्यशुचावपि ।
स्वामिनो बहु मन्यन्ते दृष्टिं तामपि सेवकाः ॥ २५॥
Again. Servants esteem highly even that glance of their master which is naturally unsteady and falls even on an impious person.
अपरं च । मौनान् मूर्खः प्रवचनपटुर्वातुलो जल्पको वा
क्षान्त्या भीरुर्यदि न सहते प्रायशो नाभिजातः ।
Another consideration is this. If he (a servant) is silent, he (is considered to be) stupid; if clever in talking, crazy-headed or garrulous; if forbearing, timid, if he does not bear tamely, mostly he is (set down as) not well-born;
धृष्टः पार्श्वे वसति नियतं दूरतश्चाप्रगल्भः
सेवाधर्मः परमगहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः ॥ २६॥
if he stands by the side (of his master), he is audacious; but if he stands at a distance, he is not bold: the duties of servitude are extremely abstruse - not to be known even by sages having mystic powers.
विशेषतश्च । प्रणमत्युन्नतिहेतोर्जीवितहेतोर्विमुञ्चति प्राणान् ।
दुःखीयति सुखहेतोः को मूढः सेवकादन्यः ॥ २७॥
He bends down that he should rise, sacrifices life that he should live, and exposes himself to misery that he should be happy--who else is a fool than a servant?
दमनको ब्रूते -- मित्र सर्वथा मनसापि नैतत्कर्तव्यम् । यतः ।
Damanaka said -- Friend, you should not entertain such a thought even in the mind. For,
कथं नाम न सेव्यन्ते यत्नतः परमेश्वराः ।
अचिरेणैव ये तुष्टाः पूरयन्ति मनोरथान् ॥ २८॥
How are great kings not to be served with effort (diligence), who, when pleased, grant desires in a short time? (i.e. they must be served by all means).
अन्यच्च पश्य । कुतः सेवाविहीनानां चामरोद्धूतसंपदः ।
उद्दण्डधवलच्छत्रं वाजिवारणवाहिनी ॥ २९॥
Consider this much more -- Whence can those, who are out of service, have riches with chamaras waved over them, a white umbrella with a prominent staff and a train of servants with horses and elephants?
करटको ब्रूते -- तथापि किमनेनास्माकं व्यापारेण ।
यतोऽव्यापारेषु व्यापारः सर्वथा परिहरणीयः । पश्य ।
Karataka replied -- Still what have we to do with this affair? For, one should by all means avoid meddling with affairs with which one has nothing to do. See,
अव्यापारेषु व्यापारं यो नरः कर्तुमिच्छति ।
स भूमौ निहतः शेते कीलोत्पाटीव वानरः ॥ ३० ॥
He, who wishes to meddle with matters which are not business of his, lies dead on the ground like the monkey that pulled out the wedge.
दमनकः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
करटकः कथयति ।
Damanaka asked -- How was this? Karataka said --
॥ कथा १ ॥
Fable 1
अस्ति मगधदेशे धर्मारण्यसंनिहितवसुधायां
शुभदत्तनाम्ना कायस्थेन विहारः कर्तुमारब्धः ।
In a place near the holy forest in the country of Magadha, a certain man of the writer class, Subhadatta by name, was having a convent built.
तत्र करपत्रदार्यमाणैकस्तम्भस्य कियद्दूरस्फाटितस्य
काष्ठखण्डद्वयमध्ये कीलकम् निधाय सूत्रधारेण धृतम् ।
A carpenter had put a wedge between the two split-up parts of a beam which was being cut with a saw and which was cleft to some length.
तत्र बलवान्वानरयूथः क्रीडन्नागतः । एको वानरः कालप्रेरित
इव तं कीलकं हस्ताभ्यां धृत्वोपविष्टः ।
तत्र तस्य मुष्कद्वयं लम्बमानं काष्ठखण्डद्वयाभ्यन्तरे प्रविष्टम् ।
A troop of apes came there prancing about. One of the apes, as if urged by Death, caught hold of the wedge with his hands and sat there, while his lower parts hanging down entered the split between the two pieces of the wood.
अनन्तरं स च सहजचपलतया महता प्रयत्नेन
तं कीलकमाकृष्टवान् । आकृष्टे च कीलके चूर्णिताण्डद्वयः पञ्चत्वं गतः ।
Then through the mischievous spirit natural to his species, he drew out the wedge with great effort. As soon as the wedge was pulled out, those parts were squeezed and he perished.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- अव्यापारेषु व्यापारमित्यादि ।
Hence I say –- He who wishes to meddle with matters &c.
दमनको ब्रूते --
तथापि स्वामिचेष्टानिरूपणं सेवकेनावश्यं करणीयम् ।
Damanaka said - Still a servant ought to watch the actions of his master.
करटको ब्रूते --
सर्वस्मिन्नधिकारे य एव नियुक्तः प्रधानमन्त्री स करोतु ।
यतोऽनुजीविना पराधिकारचर्चा सर्वथा न कर्तव्या । पश्य ।
Karataka replied -- Let the prime minister who has charge of all affairs do it. For, a servant must, under no circumstances, interfere with (lit, sit in discussion over) another's business. See,
पराधिकारचर्चां यः कुर्यात् स्वामिहितेच्छया ।
स विषीदति चीत्काराद्गर्दभस्ताडितो यथा ॥ ३१॥
He, who interferes with another's business with a view to serve his master's good, comes to grief like the ass that was beaten for braying.
दमनकः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
करटको ब्रूते --
Damanaka inquired how it was and Karataka thus went on --
॥ कथा २ ॥
Fable 2
अस्ति वाराणस्यां कर्पूरपटको नाम रजकः ।
स चैकदाभिनववयस्कया वध्वा सह चिरं केलिं कृत्वा निर्भरमालिङ्ग्य प्रसुप्तः ।
In Varanasi dwelt a washerman, named Karpura-pataka. One day, he, having sported for a long time with his young wife, slept soundly.
तदनन्तरं तद्गृहद्रव्याणि हर्तुं चौरः प्रविष्टः ।
तस्य प्राङ्गणे गर्दभो बद्धस्तिष्ठति । कुक्कुरश्चोपविष्टोऽस्ति ।
Thereafter a robber got in with the object of stealing the things in the house. In his court-yard there were a donkey tied down and a dog sitting.
अथ गर्दभः श्वानमाह -- सखे । भवतस्तावदयं व्यापारः ।
तत्किमिति त्वमुच्चैः शब्दं कृत्वा स्वामिनं न जागरयसि ।
Now the ass said to the dog -- Friend, this is properly your office. Why don't you then rouse the master by barking aloud?
कुक्कुरो ब्रूते --
भद्र मम नियोगस्य चर्चा त्वया न कर्तव्या । त्वमेव किं न
जानासि यथा तस्याहर्निशं गृहरक्षां करोमि । यतोऽयं चिरान्
निर्वृतो ममोपयोगं न जानाति । तेनाधुनापि ममाहारदाने मन्दादरः ।
The dog replied -- Friend, you should not meddle with my business. Don't you yourself know that I guard his house day and night? Since he has been happy for a long time he does not know of what use I am to him and takes but scanty care to feed me.
यतो विना विधुरदर्शनं स्वामिन उपजीविषु मन्दादरा भवन्ति ।
गर्दभो ब्रूते -- शृणु रे बर्बर ।
For, unless some danger is in sight masters care but little for their servants. The donkey replied -- Hear me, barbarian.
याचते कार्यकाले यः स किंभृत्यः स किंसुहृत् ।
कुक्कुरो ब्रूते -- शृणु तावत् ।
भृत्यान् सम्भाषयेद्यस्तु कार्यकाले स किंप्रभुः ॥ ३२॥
He is bad servant and a bad friend (or, is he a servant? is he a friend?) who asks for reward at the time of action (in the hour of need). The dog replied -- He is a bad master (or, is he a master?) who speaks sweetly to his servants at the time of need.
यतः । आश्रितानां भृतौ स्वामिसेवायां धर्मसेवने ।
पुत्रस्योत्पादने चैव न सन्ति प्रतिहस्तकाः ॥ ३३॥
For. In supporting dependents, in serving a master, in the discharge of religious duties and in begetting a son, substitutes will not do.
ततो गर्दभः सकोपमाह -- अरे दुष्टमते
पापीयांस्त्वं यद्विपत्तौ स्वामिकार्योपेक्षां करोषि ।
भवतु तावत् । यथा स्वामी जागरिष्यति तन्मया कर्तव्यम् । यतः ।
The donkey said in a rage -- O thou evil-minded one, thou art a villain, since thou neglects thy master's business at a critical time. Well, let it be. But I must do that by which my master will wake up. For,
पृष्ठतः सेवयेदर्कं जठरेण हुताशनम् ।
स्वामिनं सर्वभावेन परलोकममायया ॥ ३४॥
One should enjoy the heat of the sun from (by exposing) the back-side, fire by the stomach, a master with all one's heart and soul, and the next world with absence of deceit (a pure heart).
इत्युक्त्वातीवोच्चैश्चीत्कारशब्दं कृतवान् । ततः स
रजकस्तेन चीत्कारेण प्रबुद्धो निद्राभङ्गकोपादुत्थाय
गर्दभं लगुडेन ताडयामास ।
With these words, he brayed aloud. Then the washerman, roused by that braying, and angry that his slumbers should have been disturbed, got up and belaboured the donkey with a stick.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- पराधिकारचर्चामित्यादि । पश्य ।
पशूनामन्वेषणमेवास्मन्नियोगः । स्वनियोगचर्चा क्रियताम् । (विमृश्य । )
किंत्वद्य तया चर्चया
न प्रयोजनम् । यत आवयोर्भक्षितशेषाहारः प्रचुरोऽस्ति ।
Hence I say -- He who interferes with another's business &c. See -- Our office is just to look for game. Let us attend to that. (After reflecting). -- But we are not concerned with that to-day. For there is plenty of food yet left after what was eaten by us.
दमनकः सरोषमाह -- कथमाहारार्थी
भवान्केवलं राजानं सेवते । एतदयुक्तं तव । यतः ।
Damanaka observed angrily -- How is it that you serve the king merely for the sake of food? This is unworthy of you. For,
सुहृदामुपकारकारणाद् द्विषतामप्यपकारकारणात् ।
नृपसंश्रय इष्यते बुधैर्जठरं को न बिभर्ति केवलम् ॥ ३५॥
The service of kings is desired by the wise that they should be able to do good to their friends and evil to their enemies; (or else) who does not merely fill the belly?
जीविते यस्य जीवन्ति विप्रा मित्राणि बान्धवाः ।
सफलं जीवितं तस्य आत्मार्थे को न जीवति ॥ ३६॥
Fruitful is the life of him, who living, Brahmaņas, friends, and relations live; for, who does not live for his own self?
अपि च । यस्मिन् जीवति जीवन्ति बहवः स तु जीवतु ।
काकोऽपि किं न कुरुते चञ्च्वा स्वोदरपूरणम् ॥ ३७॥
Moreover. He really lives, who living, many live: does not a crow fill his belly with his bill?
पश्य । पञ्चभिर्याति दासत्वं पुराणैः कोऽपि मानवः ।
कोऽपि लक्षैः कृती कोऽपि लक्षैरपि न लभ्यते ॥ ३८॥
Lo! Some man becomes a servant for five puranas (a kind of inferior coin), another is satisfied with lacs, while another is not to be had even for lacs.
अन्यच्च । मनुष्यजातौ तुल्यायां भृत्यत्वमतिगर्हितम् ।
प्रथमो यो न तत्रापि स किं जीवत्सु गण्यते ॥ ३९॥
Again. When mankind is all equal, a state of servitude is much to be despised: but is he to be counted among the living who is not first even in that (service)?
तथा चोक्तं । वाजिवारणलोहानां काष्ठपाषाणवाससाम् ।
नारीपुरुषतोयानामन्तरं महदन्तरम् ॥ ४०॥
And in connexion with this, it is said-- Great is the difference between horses, elephants and metals; between kinds of wood, stones, and garments; and between women, men and water (i.e. between horse and horse &c.)
तथा हि । स्वल्पस्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकं
श्वा लब्ध्वा परितोषमेति न तु तत्तस्य क्षुधाशान्तये ।
So also. A dog, having obtained a piece of even a fleshless bone soiled with the remnant of a few sinews and marrow, is quite delighted: it does not, however, satisfy his hunger.
सिंहो जम्बुकमङ्कमागतमपि त्यक्त्वा निहन्ति द्विपं
सर्वः कृच्छ्रगतोऽपि वाञ्छति जनः सत्त्वानुरूपं फलम् ॥ ४१॥
The lion, having discarded a jackal though come to his lap, kills an elephant: every man, although reduced to straits, desires a reward befitting his valour (or worth).
अपरं च । सेव्यसेवकयोरन्तरं पश्य ।
Moreover, mark the difference between one deserving to be served and (one fit to be) a servant.
भूमौ निपत्य वदनोदरदर्शनं च ।
श्वा पिण्डदस्य कुरुते गजपुङ्गवस्तु
धीरं विलोकयति चाटुशतैश्च भुङ्क्ते ॥ ४२॥
Wagging the tail, falling down at the feet and lying on the ground exhibiting the mouth and the belly -- all this the dog does before his master; but the lordly elephant looks on patiently and eats with hundreds of coaxing words (addressed to him).
किं च । यज्जीव्यते क्षणमपि प्रथितं मनुष्यैर्
विज्ञानविक्रमयशोभिरभज्यमानम् ।
तन्नाम जीवितमिह प्रवदन्ति तज्ज्ञाः
काकोऽपि जीवति चिराय बलिं च भुङ्क्ते ॥ ४३॥
Again. Those who know it (i. e. what life is) call that, indeed, life which is gloriously lived by men although for a moment, and which is invariably attended with knowledge, exploit and fame: (otherwise) a crow also lives for a long time and eats an oblation.
परं च । यो नात्मजे न च गुरौ न च भृत्यवर्गे
दीने दयां न कुरुते न च बन्धुवर्गे ।
किं तस्य जीवितफलेन मनुष्यलोके
काकोऽपि जीवति चिराय बलिं च भुङ्क्ते ॥ ४४॥
Again. What is the use of the life of him in the world of men who does not show pity to his son or to his preceptor, to his servants or to a poor man or to his relations? A crow also lives long and eats oblations.
अपरमपि । अहितहितविचारशून्यबुद्धेः
श्रुतिसमयैर्बहुभिस्तिरस्कृतस्य ।
पुरुषपशोश्च पशोश्च को विशेषः ॥ ४५॥
Also this-- What difference is there between a beast and a human beast whose intellect is void of the power of discriminating between good and bad, who sets at naught most of the rules of conduct enjoined by the sruti and whose only desire is to fill up his belly?
करटको ब्रूते --
आवां तावदप्रधानौ । तदाप्यावयोः किमनया विचारणया ।
Karataka said--As for us, we are subordinates. This being the case, why should we busy ourselves with this matter?
दमनको ब्रूते --
कियता कालेनामात्याः प्रधानतामप्रधानतां वा लभन्ते । यतः ।
Damanaka replied -- In what space of time (i.e. in a short time if they have the ability) do ministers become principal or subordinate ? For,
न कस्यचित्कश्चिदिह स्वभावाद्
भवत्युदारोऽभिमतः खलो वा ।
लोके गुरुत्वं विपरीततां वा
स्वचेष्टितान्येव नरं नयन्ति ॥ ४६॥
No one in this world is generous towards, beloved by or wicked to another: it is a man's own actions alone that lead him to greatness or to the reverse (i.e. man is the architect of his own fortune).
किं च । आरोप्यते शिला शैले यत्नेन महता यथा ।
निपात्यते क्षणेनाधस्तथात्मा गुणदोषयोः ॥ ४७॥
Also. Just as a stone is raised to the top of a hill with great efforts but hurled down in a moment, so is the soul led to virtue or vice.
यात्यधोऽधः व्रजत्युच्चैर्नरः स्वैरेव कर्मभिः ।
कूपस्य खनिता यद्वत् प्राकारस्येव कारकः ॥ ४८॥
It is by his actions that a man sinks lower and lower, or rises up like the digger of a well or the builder of a wall.
तद्भद्र । स्वयत्नायत्तो ह्यात्मा सर्वस्य ।
करटको ब्रूते -- अथ भवान्किं ब्रवीति ।
स आह -- अयं तावत्स्वामी
पिङ्गलकः कुतोऽपि कारणात् सचकितः परिवृत्योपविष्टः ।
करटको ब्रूते -- किं तत्त्वं जानासि । दमनको ब्रूते -- किमत्राविदितमस्ति । उक्तं च ।
Therefore, friend, a man's position (lit. soul) depends on his exertions. Karataka said -- Now what do you say? He replied -- This our lord Pingalaka has come back frightened at something or other and has sat down. Karataka asked -- Do you know the real fact? Damanaka replied -- What is there that is not known? It is said --
उदीरितोऽर्थः पशुनापि गृह्यते हयाश्च नागाश्च वहन्ति चोदिताः ।
अनुक्तमप्यूहति पण्डितो जनः परेङ्गितज्ञानफला हि बुद्धयः ॥ ४९॥
When a thing is expressed in words, even a brute can understand it; even horses and elephants bear (loads) when ordered; a clever man comprehends a meaning although not expressed: for, talent has for its fruit the knowledge of the inward thoughts of others.
आकारैरिङ्गितैर्गत्या चेष्टया भाषणेन च ।
नेत्रवक्त्रविकारेण लक्ष्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः ॥ ५०॥
The inmost thoughts of a man are divined from his features, gestures, movements, actions, speech and the motion of the eyes and the face.
तदत्र भयप्रस्तावे
प्रज्ञाबलेनाहमेनं स्वामिनमात्मीयं करिष्यामि । यतः ।
Therefore, on this occasion of fear, I will win over this lord by the force of my intellect. For,
प्रस्तावसदृशं वाक्यं सद्भावसदृशं प्रियम् ।
आत्मशक्तिसमं कोपं यो जानाति स पण्डितः ॥ ५१॥
He is a wise man who knows how to address a speech suited to an occasion, or to act in a manner befitting one's good intention or to be angry in proportion to one's strength.
करटको ब्रूते -- सखे त्वं सेवानभिज्ञः । पश्य ।
Karataka said -- Friend, you do not know how to serve. See,
अनाहूतो विशेद्यस्तु अपृष्टो बहु भाषते ।
आत्मानं मन्यते प्रीतं भूपालस्य स दुर्मतिः ॥ ५२॥
He is a fool who enters (into royal presence) without being called, speaks much without being asked, and considers himself a favourite of the king.
दमनको ब्रूते -- भद्र कथमहं सेवानभिज्ञः । पश्य ।
Damanaka said--Friend, how can I be ignorant of serving?
किमप्यस्ति स्वभावेन सुन्दरं वाप्यसुन्दरम् ।
यदेव रोचते यस्मै भवेत्तत्तस्य सुन्दरम् ॥ ५३॥
Is there anything by nature charming or not charming? Whatever a man likes is charming to him.
यतः । यस्य यस्य हि यो भावस्तेन तेन हि तं नरम् ।
अनुप्रविश्य मेधावी क्षिप्रमात्मवशं नयेत् ॥ ५४॥
For. Whatever a man's (thought or) feeling be, having ministered to that, a talented man should quickly win him over.
अन्यच्च । कोऽत्रेत्यहमिति ब्रूयात् सम्यगादेशयेति च ।
आज्ञामवितथां कुर्याद्यथाशक्ति महीपतेः ॥ ५५॥
When asked 'who is here' a servant should say 'I; please command'; and he should execute the king's command to the best of his ability.
अपरं च । अल्पेच्छुर्धृतिमान् प्राज्ञश्छायेवानुगतः सदा ।
आदिष्टो न विकल्पेत स राजवसतौ वसेत् ॥ ५६॥
Moreover. He, who is modest in his desires, patient, wise, always in attendance like a shadow and would not hesitate when ordered (to do a thing), should dwell in a king's palace.
करटको ब्रूते -- कदाचित्त्वामनवसरप्रवेशादवमन्यते स्वामी ।
सोब्रवीत् -- अस्त्वेवम् ।
तथाप्यनुजीविना स्वामिसांनिध्यमवश्यं करणीयम् । यतः ।
Karataka observed -- Perhaps the lord might disregard you for your entrance (into his presence) at an inopportune time. He replied -- Let it be so. Still a servant must necessarily be in the presence of his master. For,
दोषभीतेरनारम्भस्तत्कापुरुषलक्षणम् ।
कैरजीर्णभयाद्भ्रातर्भोजनं परिहीयते ॥ ५७॥
Not beginning a thing through fear of fault (or, of an ill consequence) is the sign of a coward; who, brother, leaves off taking food for fear of indigestion?
पश्य । आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं
विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्तुतं वा ।
See -- A king favours (or gets attached to) a man who is near him, whether he be illiterate, low-born or unworthy of association (or, not attached to his master):
प्रायेण भूमिपतयः प्रमदा लताश्च
यः पार्श्वतो वसति तं परिवेष्टयन्ति ॥ ५८॥
as a general rule, kings, young women and creepers cling to (lit. twine round) him who is near them.
करटको ब्रूते -- अथ तत्र गत्वा किं वक्ष्यति भवान् ।
स आह -- शृणु । किमनुरक्तो विरक्तो वा मयि स्वामीति ज्ञास्यामि तावत् ।
करटको ब्रूते -- किं तज्ज्ञानलक्षणम् ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- शृणु ।
Karataka said -- Now going there what will you say? He said -- Hear me. In the first place I will ascertain whether the master is attached to me or not. Karataka asked -- What is the sign from which this can be known? Damanaka replied -- Listen.
दूरादवेक्षणं हासः संप्रश्नेष्वादरो भृशम् ।
परोक्षेऽपि गुणश्लाघा स्मरणं प्रियवस्तुषु ॥ ५९॥
Looking (at one) from a distance, smiling, great regard for inquries about one's welfare, praising the merits even in one's absence: remembering one among objects which are dear.
असेवके चानुरक्तिर्दानं सप्रियभाषणम् ।
सुरक्तेश्वरचिह्नानि दोषेऽपि गुणसंग्रहः ॥ ६०॥
Attachment even when one does not serve, making a donation with sweet words and noting one's merits even when one is at fault -- these are the signs of a lord well-attached.
अन्यच्च । कालयापनमाशानां वर्धनं फलखण्डनम् ।
विरक्तेश्वरचिह्नानि जानीयान्मतिमान्नरः ॥ ६१॥
Again. Delaying, encouraging hopes, but disappointing as to their fulfilment, these a talented man should know to be the signs of a lord ill-disposed.
एतज्ज्ञात्वा यथायं ममायत्तो भविष्यति तथा वक्ष्यामि । यतः ।
Laying all this to heart I will speak in such a way as to bring him under my power. For,
अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् ।
मेधाविनो नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरः स्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति ॥ ६२॥
Wise men give us a vivid picture of failure to result from impediments foreseen and a bad use of policy and success resulting from a judicious use of the expedients and the proper employment of policy.
करटको ब्रूते -- तथाप्यप्राप्ते प्रस्तावे न वक्तुमर्हसि । यतः ।
Karataka observed -- Still you should not speak until you find a proper opportunity. For,
अप्राप्तकालवचनं बृहस्पतिरपि ब्रुवन् ।
प्राप्नुयाद् बुद्ध्यवज्ञानमपमानं च शाश्वतम् ॥ ६३॥
Even Brihaspati uttering a speech out of its season will be contemned as one wanting in discrimination and meet with eternal disgrace.
दमनको ब्रूते -- मित्र
मा भैषीः । नाहमप्राप्तावसरं वचनं वदिष्यामि । यतः ।
Damanaka said -- Friend, be not afraid. I shall not speak unseasonably. For,
आपद्युन्मार्गगमने कार्यकालात्ययेषु च ।
अपृष्टेनापि वक्तव्यं भृत्येन हितमिच्छता ॥ ६४ ॥
A servant having his master's welfare at heart should speak out, unasked, when a calamity is impending, when the master is going astray or when the proper time to do a thing is passing away (when an opportunity is allowed to slip away by his master).
यदि च प्राप्तावसरोपि मन्त्रो मया
न वक्तव्यस्तदा मन्त्रित्वमेव ममानुपपन्नम् । यतः ।
And if I were not to give my counsel when there has been an occasion for it, a minister's post would ill become me. For,
कल्पयति येन वृत्तिं येन च लोके प्रशस्यते सद्भिः ।
स गुणस्तेन गुणिना रक्ष्यः संवर्धनीयश्च ॥ ६५॥
A man of merits should keep up and foster that quality by which be earns his livelihood and for which he is praised in this world by the good.
तद्भद्र अनुजानीहि माम् । गच्छामि ।
करटको ब्रूते --
शुभमस्तु । शिवास्ते पन्थानः । यथाभिलषितमनुष्ठीयताम् इति ।
Therefore, friend, give me your permission. I will go. Karataka said -- My blessing to you. May your path be auspicious (i. e. I wish you godspeed). Do as you desire.
ततो दमनको विस्मित इव पिङ्गलकसमीपं गतः । अथ दूरादेव
सादरं राज्ञा प्रवेशितः साष्टाङ्गपातं प्रणिपत्योपविष्टः ।
Damanaka then repaired into Pingalaka's presence like one amazed. Now, being respectfully received into his presence by the king, he prostrated himself before him, touching the ground with the eight parts of the body, and sat down.
राजाह -- चिराद्दृष्टोऽसि ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- यद्यपि मया सेवकेन श्रीमद्देवपादानां न किंचित्
प्रयोजनमस्ति तथापि प्राप्तकालमनुजीविना सांनिध्यमवश्यं
कर्तव्यमित्यागतोऽस्मि । किं च ।
The king said -- You are seen after a long time. Damanaka replied -- Although Your Majesty has nothing to do with me as a servant, still a follower must necessarily attend upon his master when the time demands it, and hence have I come here. Moreover,
दन्तस्य निर्घर्षणकेन राजन्कर्णस्य कण्डूयनकेन वापि ।
तृणेन कार्यं भवतीश्वराणां किमङ्गवाक्पाणिमता नरेण ॥ ६६॥
Great lords have occasion even for a blade of grass serving as a tooth-pick or as an ear-scratcher: what to say, then, of man who is gifted with speech and hands!
यद्यपि चिरेणावधीरितस्य दैवपादैर्मे
बुद्धिनाशः शङ्क्यते तदपि न शङ्कनीयम् । यतः ।
And even if my noble lord might suspect that I have lost my mental power being long despised, that, too, should not be done. For,
मणिर्लुठति पादेषु काचः शिरसि धार्यते ।
यथैवास्ते तथैवास्तां काचः काचो मणिर्मणिः ॥ ६७॥
If a gem rolls on the feet and a piece of glass is worn on the head -- let that be as it is -- a piece of glass is glass and a gem a gem.
अन्यच्च । कदर्थितस्यापि च धैर्यवृत्तेर्बुद्धेर्विनाशो न हि शङ्कनीयः ।
अधःकृतस्यापि तनूनपातो नाधः शिखा याति कदाचिदेव ॥ ६८॥
The loss of intellect of a man of fortitude, although oppressed, must not be suspected; the flame of fire though overturned can never proceed downwards.
देव तत्सर्वथा विशेषज्ञेन स्वामिना भवितव्यम् । यतः ।
My lord, a master ought to be discriminating (lit. marking the difference between good and bad men; or, must recognize special merit). For,
निर्विशेषो यदा राजा समं सर्वेषु वर्तते ।
तदोद्यमसमर्थानामुत्साहः परिहीयते ॥ ६९॥
When a king treats (lit. acts towards) all without distinction, the energy of those who are capable of exertion is lost.
किं च । त्रिविधाः पुरुषा राजन्नुत्तमाधममध्यमाः ।
नियोजयेत्तथैवैतांस्त्रिविधेष्वेव कर्मसु ॥ ७०॥
Moreover. Men are of three sorts, O king, viz., the best, the lowest and the middling : one should appoint them accordingly to three kinds of employment.
यतः । स्थान एव नियोज्यन्ते भृत्याश्चाभरणानि च ।
न हि चूडामणिः पादे नूपुरं मूर्ध्नि धार्यते ॥ ७१॥
Since. Servants and ornaments ought to be set on their proper places : for, a crest-jewel is not worn on the foot or a foot-ornament on the head.
अपि च । कनकभूषणसंग्रहणोचितो यदि मणिस्त्रपुणि प्रणिधीयते ।
न स विरौति न चापि न शोभते भवति योजयितुर्वचनीयता ॥ ७२॥
Moreover. If a gem fit to be set in a gold ornament is set on tin, it does not cry, nor does it not shine there: the person setting it there, however, is exposed to censure.
अन्यच्च । मुकुटे रोपितः काचश्चरणाभरणे मणिः ।
न हि दोषो मणेरस्ति किं तु साधोरविज्ञता ॥ ७३॥
Again. A piece of glass is set in a diadem and a jewel placed in a foot-ornament : the blame does not lie with the gem, but it is the want of discretion on the part of the setter.
पश्य । बुद्धिमाननुरक्तोऽयमयं शूर इतो भयम् ।
इति भृत्यविचारज्ञो भृत्यैरापूर्यते नृपः ॥ ७४॥
See. A king who knows how to discriminate between servants -- e.g., this is talented, this is attached to me, this is brave, while there is danger from this -- is surrounded to fullness by servants.
तथा हि । अश्वः शस्त्रं शास्त्रं वीणा वाणी नरश्च नारी च ।
पुरुषविशेषं प्राप्य हि भवन्ति योग्या अयोग्याश्च ॥ ७५॥
So also. A horse, a weapon, a text of holy law, a lute, speech, a man and a woman, turn out fit or unfit according to the particular man they come in contact with.
अन्यच्च । किं भक्तेनासमर्थेन किं शक्तेनापकारिणा ।
भक्तं शक्तं च मां राजन् नावज्ञातुं त्वमर्हसि ॥ ७६॥
What is the use of a servant, who, though devoted, is without ability or of one who is able but doing harm? It does not behove you, o king, to despise me, who am both devoted and able.
यतः । अवज्ञानाद्राज्ञो भवति मतिहीनः परिजनः
ततस्तत्प्राधान्याद्भवति न समीपे बुधजनः ।
For. By being despised by a king the servants turn out dullheaded; then on account of their predominance no wise man approaches him.
बुधैस्त्यक्ते राज्ये न हि भवति नीतिर्गुणवती
विपन्नायां नीतौ सकलमवशं सीदति जगत् ॥ ७७॥
When the kingdom is abandoned by wise men, policy does not become efficacious; and policy having failed the whole world falls a helpless victim to misery.
अपरं च । जनं जनपदा नित्यमर्चयन्ति नृपार्चितम् ।
नृपेणावमतो यस्तु स सर्वैरवमन्यते ॥ ७८॥
Moreover. People always honour the man respected by the king, but he who is despised by the king is slighted by all.
किं च । बालादपि गृहीतव्यं युक्तमुक्तं मनीषिभिः ।
रवेरविषये किं न प्रदीपस्य प्रकाशनम् ॥ ७९॥
And further. Wise men should accept what is well said even by a child; is not the light of a lamp acceptable when (or where) the sun is not shining ?
पिङ्गलकोऽवदत् -- भद्र दमनक किमेतत् ।
अस्मदीयप्रधानामात्यपुत्रस्त्वमियत्कालं यावत् कुतोऽपि
खलवचनान्नागतोऽसि । इदानीं यथाभिमतं ब्रूहि ।
Pingalaka said -- Dear Damanaka, why do you talk so? You, the son of our prime minister, did not come here for so long a time believing in the words of some rogue. Now freely say your say.
दमनको ब्रूते -- देव पृच्छामि किंचित् ।
उच्यताम् ।
Damanaka said -- Lord, I have a question to ask. Please reply.
उदकार्थी स्वामी पानीयमपीत्वा किमिति विस्मित इव तिष्ठति ।
पिङ्गलकोऽवदत् -- भद्रमुक्तं त्वया । किंत्वेतद् रहस्यं वक्तुं
कश्चिद्विश्वासभूमिर्नास्ति । त्वं तु तद्विध इति कथयामि ।
Why does my lord stand here, as if amazed, without drinking water, although thirsty ? Pingalaka replied -- You have spoken well. But there is no one trustworthy to whom this secret can be confined. You are such a one. Therefore I will communicate it to you.
शृणु । सम्प्रति वनमिदमपूर्वसत्त्वाधिष्ठितमतोऽस्माकं
त्याज्यम् । अनेन हेतुना विस्मितोऽस्मि । तथा च श्रुतस्त्वयापि
अपूर्वः शब्दो महान् । शब्दानुरूपेणास्य प्राणिनो महता बलेन भवितव्यम् ।
Listen. This forest has now been inhabited by some beast, unheard of before, and must for that reason, be left by us. I am perplexed on this account. Similarly you too have heard that strange loud sound. Great must be the strength of this animal corresponding to his voice.
दमनको ब्रूते -- देव अस्ति तावदयं महान्भयहेतुः ।
स शब्दोऽस्माभिरप्याकर्णितः । किं तु स किंमन्त्री
यः प्रथमं भूमित्यागं पश्चाद्युद्धं चोपदिशति ।
अस्मिन् कार्यसंदेहे भृत्यानामुपयोग एव ज्ञातव्यः । यतः ।
Damanaka replied -- My lord, this is, indeed, a great cause for fear. We too have heard the sound. But he is a bad minister who first counsels the quitting of land and then a fight. At this crisis when it is difficult to know what steps to take, the use of servants alone is to be known. For,
बन्धुस्त्रीभृत्यवर्गस्य बुद्धेः सत्त्वस्य चात्मनः ।
आपन्निकषपाषाणे नरो जानाति सारताम् ॥ ८०॥
A man knows (tests) on the touch-stone of adversity the strength of his relatives, wife and servants, as also of his intellect and mental calibre.
सिंहो ब्रूते -- भद्र महती शङ्का मां बाधते ।
दमनकः पुनराह । (स्वगतम् --) अन्यथा राज्यसुखं परित्यज्य
स्थानान्तरं गन्तुं कथं मां सम्भाषसे । प्रकाशं ब्रूते --
The lion said -- Friend, a great terror has overtaken me. Damanaka said again (To himself --) How, else, can you talk to me of leaving the pleasures of a kingdom and going to another place. (Aloud)
देव यावदहं जीवामि तावद्भयं न कर्तव्यम् । किं तु
करटकादयोऽप्याश्वास्यन्तां यस्मादापत्प्रतीकारकाले दुर्लभः
पुरुषसमवायः ।
My lord, as long as I am alive, Your Majesty should have no fear. But Karataka and others should also be encouraged (by marks of royal favour), since it is difficult to have a united body of men at the time of overcoming a calamity.
ततस्तौ दमनककरटकौ राज्ञा सर्वस्वेनापि पूजितौ भयप्रतीकारं
प्रतिज्ञाय चलितौ । करटको गच्छन्दमनकमाह -- सखे किं
शक्यप्रतीकारो भयहेतुरशक्यप्रतीकारो वेति न ज्ञात्वा
प्रतिज्ञाय कथमयं महाप्रसादो गृहीतः । यतोऽनुपकुर्वाणो
न कस्याप्युपायनं गृह्णीयाद्विशेषतो राज्ञः । पश्य ।
Then Damanaka and Karataka, on whom every honour was bestowed by the king, set out having promised to ward off the danger. On the way Karatake said to Damanaka -- Friend, without ascertaining whether the cause of fear is possible to be averted or not, why did you accept this great favour having undertaken the removal of the fear? For unless one has done a service one should not accept a reward from anybody, especially from a king. Observe,
यस्य प्रसादे पद्मास्ते विजयश्च पराक्रमे ।
मृत्युश्च वसति क्रोधे सर्वतेजोमयो हि सः ॥ ८१॥
On his (king's) favour depends wealth, on his exploit victory and on his anger death: for he represents all splendours (energies).
तथा हि । बालोऽपि नावमन्तव्यो मनुष्य इति भूमिपः ।
महती देवता ह्येषा नररूपेण तिष्ठति ॥ ८२॥
So also. A king although a boy, should not be despised because he is a man; for he is a mighty deity existing in a human form.
दमनको विहस्याह -- मित्र
तूष्णीमास्यताम् । ज्ञातं मया भयकारणम् । बलीवर्दनर्दितं
तत् । वृषभाश्चास्माकमपि भक्ष्याः । किं पुनः सिंहस्य ।
Damanaka smiled and said -- Friend, rest quiet (easy). I have known the cause of fear. That was the bellowing of a bull. Bulls form even our food, how much so of the lion then?
करटको ब्रूते --
यद्येवं तदा स्वामित्रासस्तत्रैव किं नापनीतः ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- यदि स्वामित्रासस्तत्रैव
मुच्यते तदा कथमयं महाप्रसादलाभः स्यात् । अपरं च ।
Karataka observed: If so, why was the fear of the lord not removed just there and then? Damanaka replied -- Had I relieved the king's fear just there, do you think that we could have received this great favour? Also,
निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन ।
निरपेक्षं प्रभुं कृत्वा भृत्यः स्याद्दधिकर्णवत् ॥ ८३॥
The master should never be rendered free from need (of their services) by servants: for having made the master free from need, a servant may fare like Dadhikarna.
करटकः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
दमनकः कथयति --
॥ कथा ३ ॥
Karataka asked how it was. Damanaka related Fable 3
अस्त्युत्तरापथेऽर्बुदशिखरनाम्नि पर्वते
महाविक्रमो नाम सिंहः । अस्य पर्वतकन्दरमधिशयानस्य
केसराग्रं कश्चिन्मूषिकः प्रत्यहं छिनत्ति । ततः केसराग्रं
लूनं दृष्ट्वा कुपितो विवरान्तर्गतं मूषिकमलभमानोऽचिन्तयत् --
On the mountain called Arbudasikhara in the northern region lived a lion, Mahavikrama by name. A certain mouse gnawed the tips of his mane as he slept in his mountain-den. Then seeing the points of his mane bitten off he got angry, but not being able to catch the mouse that was in his hole, he meditated --
क्षुद्रशत्रुर्भवेद्यस्तु विक्रमान्नैव लभ्यते ।
तमाहन्तुं पुरस्कार्यः सदृशस्तस्य सैनिकः ॥ ८४॥
When an enemy is insignificant and cannot be overcome by valour, a warrior of his rank should be set forth to kill him.
इत्यालोच्य तेन ग्रामं गत्वा विश्वासं कृत्वा
दधिकर्णनामा बिडालो यत्नेनानीय मांसाहारं दत्त्वा स्वकन्दरे
स्थापितः । अनन्तरं तद्भयान्मूषिकोऽपि बिलान्न निःसरति ।
Having thus reflected he went to a village and having brought a cat, named Dadhikarna, with effort, after securing his confidence, placed him in his den, feeding him on flesh. Thereafter the mouse did not come out of his hole through fear of the cat.
तेनासौ सिंहोऽक्षतकेसरः सुखं स्वपिति । मूषिकशब्दं यदा यदा शृणोति
तदा तदा सविशेषं मांसाहारदानेन तं बिडालं संवर्धयति । अथैकदा स मूषिकः
क्षुधापीडितो बहिः संचरन्बिडालेन प्राप्तो व्यापादितश्च ।
and the lion slept comfortably, his mane not being bitten. Whenever he heard the noise of the mouse he fed the cat with flesh with greater attention. Once the mouse, as he moved out being oppressed with hunger, was caught by the cat and killed.
कदाचिदपि तस्य मूषिकस्य शब्दं विवरान्न शुश्राव तदोपयोगाभावाद्बिडालस्य अनन्तरं स सिंहो यदा
अप्याहारदाने मन्दादरो बभूव । ततोऽसावाहारविरहाद्दुर्बलो दधिकर्नोऽवसन्नो
बभूव । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यः इत्यादि ।
After that the lion did not hear the sound of the mouse at any time and took little care to feed the cat, as he was no longer useful to him. Then that Dadhikarna, wasting away for want of food, died. Hence my observation –- The master should not be made &c.
ततो दमनककरटकौ संजीवकसमीपं गतौ । तत्र करटकस्तरुतले साटोपमुपविष्टः ।
दमनकः संजीवकसमीपं गत्वाऽब्रवीत् -- अरे वृषभ एष राज्ञा पिङ्गलकेनारण्यरक्षार्थं
नियुक्तः सेनापतिः करटकः समाज्ञापयति -- सत्वरमागच्छ ।
Then Damanaka and Karataka went to Samjivaka. Of the two Karataka sat under a tree in a dignified manner. Damanaka went forward to Samjivaka and said -- O bull, this general Karataka here, appointed to keep guard over the forest by king Pingalaka, orders you -- Come here at once.
नो चेदस्माद् अरण्याद्दूरमपसर । अन्यथा ते विरुद्धं फलं भविष्यति ।
न जाने क्रुद्धः स्वामी किं विधास्यति ।
or, retire to a distance from this wood: else the consequence will be disastrous (adverse) to you. I don't know what our royal master, if angry, will do.
ततो देशव्यवहारानभिज्ञः संजीवकः सभयमुपसृत्य
साष्टाङ्गपातं करटकं प्रणतवान् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Then Samjivaka, ignorant of the ways and manners of the country, advanced with fear and made a profound bow to Karataka. For it is said,
मतिरेव बलाद् गरीयसी यदभावे करिणामियं दशा ।
इति घोषयतीव डिण्डिमः करिणो हस्तिपकाहतः क्वणन् ॥ ८५॥
Talent, indeed, is of greater consequence than physical strength, for the lack of which such is the condition of elephants -- this, as it were, the kettle-drum, sounding, proclaims, when beaten by the elephant-driver.
अथ संजीवकः
साशङ्कमाह -- सेनापते किं मया कर्तव्यम् तदभिधीयताम् ।
करटको ब्रूते -- यद्यत्र कानने स्थित्याशास्ति तर्हि
गत्वाऽस्मद्देवपादारविन्दं प्रणम ।
Then Samjivaka asked in fear -- General, what am I to do? Tell me that. Karataka said if thou at all wishest to live safe in this wood, go and bow to the lotus-like feet of our lord.
संजीवको ब्रूते -- तदभयवाचं मे यच्छ । गच्छामि । तदा स्वकीयदक्षिणबाहुं ददातु
भवान् । करटको ब्रूते -- शृणु रे बलीवर्द अलमनया शङ्कया । यतः ।
Samjivaka replied--Then give me the promise of safety and I will go -- for this purpose let your honour offer me your right hand as a pledge. Karataka replied —- Dismiss this fear, O bull! For,
प्रतिवाचमदत्त केशवः शपमानाय न चेदिभूभुजे ।
अनुहुङ्कुरुते घनध्वनिं न हि गोमायुरुतानि केसरी ॥ ८६॥
Kesava returned not a reply to the king of Chedi who was abusing him: the lion roars in response to the thunder of clouds and not to the howlings of jackals.
अन्यच्च ।
तृणानि नोन्मूलयति प्रभञ्जनो मृदूनि नीचैः प्रणतानि सर्वतः ।
समुच्छ्रितानेव तरून्प्रबाधते महान्महत्येव करोति विक्रमम् ॥ ८७॥

॑; श्रि to go to, approach, resort to; उच्छ्रि to raise; उच्छ्रित raised, tall; समुच्छ्रित

Again. A hurricane does not uproot grass, soft and bending humbly all round; but it works havoc upon the lofty trees -- a great man exerts his might only upon the great.
ततस्तौ संजीवकं कियद्दूरे संस्थाप्य पिङ्गलकसमीपं गतौ ।
ततो राज्ञा सादरमवलोकितौ प्रणम्योपविष्टौ ।
राजाह -- त्वया स दृष्टः ।
Now the two, having posted Samjivaka at some distance, repaired into the presence of the lion. Then being received with respectful attention by the king they bowed and sat down. The king asked (Damanaka) -- Did you see the beast ?
दमनको ब्रूते -- देव ।
दृष्टः । किंतु यद्देवेन ज्ञातं तत्तथा । महानेवासौ देवं
द्रष्टुमिच्छति । किंतु महाबलोऽसौ । ततः सज्जीभूयोपविश्य
दृश्यताम् । शब्दमात्राद् एव न भेतव्यम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Damanaka said in reply -- Yes, Your Highness. But what Your Highness conjectured is quite so (correct). He is certainly huge and seeks an interview with Your Highness. But as his strength is great, Your Highness should receive him, after putting yourself in a defensive position. Let not Your Highness be alarmed at the mere sound. For it is said --
शब्दमात्रान् न भेतव्यमज्ञात्वा शब्दकारणम् ।
शब्दहेतुं परिज्ञाय कुट्टनी गौरवं गता ॥ ८८॥
One should not be alarmed at a mere sound, without knowing its cause. Having found out the cause of the sound, a procuress attained honour.
राजाह -- कथमेतत् ।
दमनकः कथयति --
॥ कथा ४ ॥
The king asked -- how was this? Damanaka related :
अस्ति श्रीपर्वतमध्ये ब्रह्मपुराख्यं नगरम् ।
तच्छिखरप्रदेशे घण्टाकर्णो नाम राक्षसः प्रतिवसतीति
जनप्रवादः श्रूयते । एकदा घण्टामादाय पलायमानः कश्चिच्चौरो
व्याघ्रेण व्यापादितः खादितश्च । तत्पाणिपतिता घण्टा वानरैः प्राप्ता ।
There is a city, called Brahmapura, on the mountain Sriparvata. A rumour had got current there that its peak was haunted by a giant, called Ghantakarna. One day, a robber who was running away with a bell, was killed by a tiger and devoured. The bell, fallen from his hands, was picked up by monkeys.
ते च वानरास्तां घण्टामनुक्षणं वादयन्ति । ततो नगरजनैः स मनुष्यः
खादितो दृष्टः । प्रतिक्षणं घण्टारवश्च श्रूयते ।
Those monkeys used to ring that bell every moment. Now the inhabitants of the city found the man eaten there. And the sound of the bell too was constantly heard.
अनन्तरं घण्टाकर्णः कुपितो मनुष्यान्खादति घण्टां
च वादयतीत्युक्त्वा सर्वे जना नगरात्पलायिताः । ततः करालया नाम
कुट्टन्या विमृश्यानवसरोऽयं घण्टावादः । तत्किं मर्कटा
घण्टां वादयन्तीति स्वयं विज्ञाय राजा विज्ञापितः -- देव
Thereupon, saying that Ghantakarna being angry devours men and rings the bell, all people fled from the city. Then a certain procuress, Karala by name, thinking--'this sound of the bell is out of time ; can it be that the monkeys ring the bell' -- and having ascertained for herself that it was so requested the king
यदि कियद्धनोपक्षयः क्रियते तदाहमेनं घण्टाकर्णं साधयामि ।
ततो राज्ञा तस्यै धनं दत्तम् ।
'Sire, if a certain amount of money be spent, I will manage this Ghantakarna.' Then the king gave her wealth.
कुट्टन्या च मण्डलं कृत्वा तत्र गणेशादिपूजागौरवं दर्शयित्वा
स्वयं वानरप्रियफलान्यादाय वनं प्रविश्य फलान्याकीर्णानि ।
The procuress drew a magic circle, and after a great display of the worship of Ganesa and others, herself entered the forest taking with her such fruits as the monkeys like and scattered them.
ततो घण्टां परित्यज्य वानराः फलासक्ता बभूवुः । कुट्टनी च
घण्टां गृहीत्वा नगरमागता सर्वजनपूज्याभवत् । अतोऽहं
Thereupon, the monkeys, having left off the bell busied themselves with the fruit. The procuress, too, having taken the bell, returned to the city and became an object of respect to all.
ब्रवीमि -- शब्दमात्रान्न भेतव्यमित्यादि ॥ ततः संजीवक आनीय
दर्शनं कारितः । पश्चात्तत्रैव परमप्रीत्या निवसति ।
Therefore I say -- One should not be alarmed at the mere sound &c. Then, Samjivaka was brought and presented (to the lion). Afterwards he lived there in great joy.
अथ कदाचित् तस्य सिंहस्य भ्राता स्तब्धकर्णनामा सिंहः समागतः ।
तस्यातिथ्यं कृत्वा समुपवेश्य पिङ्गलकस्तदाहाराय पशुं
हन्तुं चलितः । अत्रान्तरे
संजीवको वदति -- देव अद्य हतमृगाणां मांसानि क्व ।
Now, one day, the lion's brother, Stabdhakarna by name, came there (on a visit). Having received him hospitably and asked him to sit down, Pingalaka set out to hunt a beast to feed him with. Just then Samjivaka asked -- My lord, where is the flesh of the deer killed to-day?
राजाह दमनककरटकौ जानीतः ।
संजीवको ब्रूते -- ज्ञायतां किमस्ति नास्ति वा ।
सिंहो विमृश्याह -- नास्त्येव तत् ।
The king said -- Damanaka and Karataka know that. Sanjivaka said -- Let it be known whether or not there is any left. The lion after reflecting said -- No, there is nothing left.
संजीवको ब्रूते -- कथमेतावन् मांसं ताभ्यां खादितम् ।
राजाह -- खादितं व्ययितमवधीरितं च । प्रत्यहमेष क्रमः ।
Samjivaka asked -- How could they eat so much flesh? The king replied -- It was eaten, used someway or wasted. This is the daily course.
संजीवको ब्रूते -- कथं श्रीमद्देवपादानां अगोचरेणैव क्रियते ।
राजाह -- मदीयागोचरेणैव क्रियते ।
अथ संजीवको ब्रूते -- नैतदुचितम् । तथा चोक्तम् ।
Samjivaka observed -- How is this done without the knowledge of Your Highness ? The king replied -- It is done quite without my knowledge. Samjivaka remarked -- This is not proper. For it is said --
नानिवेद्य प्रकुर्वीत भर्तुः किंचिदपि स्वयम् ।
कार्यमापत्प्रतीकारादन्यत्र जगतीपतेः ॥ ८९॥
One should not do any business on one's own responsibility without informing the master of it, except it be to ward off a calamity befalling the king.
अन्यच्च । कमण्डलूपमोऽमात्यस्तनुत्यागो बहुग्रहः ।
नृपते किंक्षणो मूर्खो दरिद्रः किंवराटकः ॥ ९०॥
Moreover. A minister is like a gourd that gives out little and takes in much. A man who talks lightly* [* i. e., does not care for them and so wastes them,] of a moment remains a fool, O king, while one who talks lightly of a cowri remains a pauper.
स ह्यमात्यः सदा श्रेयान्काकिनीं यः प्रवर्धयेत् ।
कोषः कोषवतः प्राणाः प्राणाः प्राणा न भूपतेः ॥ ९१॥
That minister is the best (for a king) who every day adds (at least) a kakini (to the treasury); for the treasury is the (real) life of a king, and not his own life so.
किं चान्यैर्न कुलाचारैः सेव्यतामेति पूरुषः ।
धनहीनः स्वपत्न्यापि त्यज्यते किं पुनः परैः ॥ ९२॥
Again, a man does not attain a position of being served by reason of other family-observances (such as polite conduct &c. other than the possession of wealth); a man without wealth is abandoned even by his wife; how much more then by others ?
एतच्च राज्ञे प्रधानं दूषणम् ।
And this is the cardinal defect in the administration of a state.
अतिव्ययोऽनपेक्षा च तथार्जनमधर्मतः ।
मोषणं दूरसंस्थानं कोषव्यसनमुच्यते ॥ ९३॥
Over-expenditure, want of supervision, as also raising money by unfair means, plundering and distant situation -- these are the evils of the treasury.
यतः । क्षिप्रमायमनालोच्य व्ययमानः स्ववाञ्छया ।
परिक्षीयत एवासौ धनी वैश्रवणोपमः ॥ ९४॥
For. A man of wealth, who spends his money at his will recklessly without looking to his income, is reduced to poverty although as rich as Kubera.
स्तब्धकर्णो ब्रूते -- शृणु भ्रातः चिराश्रितावेतौ
दमनककरटकौ संधिविग्रहकार्याधिकारिणौ च कदाचिदर्थाधिकारे न
नियोक्तव्यौ । अपरं च नियोगप्रस्तावेयात्केचिन्मया श्रुतं तत् कथ्यते ।
Stabdhakarna observed--Listen, brother. These two, Damanaka and Karataka, your servants of long standing, who are the ministers of war and peace, must not at all be appointed to supervise the treasury. I will also tell you what little I have heard on the subject of making appointments.
ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियो बन्धुर्नाधिकारे प्रशस्यते ।
ब्राह्मणः सिद्धमप्यर्थं कृच्छ्रेणापि न यच्छति ॥ ९५॥
A Brahmana, a Kshatriya and a relative should not preferably be appointed as treasury-officers. A Brahmana does not deliver up even under pressure the money though realized.
नियुक्तः क्षत्रियो द्रव्ये खड्गं दर्शयते ध्रुवम् ।
सर्वस्वं ग्रसते बन्धुराक्रम्य ज्ञातिभावतः ॥ ९६॥
A Kshatriya having charge of money-matters is sure to show his sword (defy his master); while a relative, on the strength (by virtue) of his kinship, swallows the whole thing, having seized it.
अपराधेऽपि निःशङ्को नियोगी चिरसेवकः ।
स स्वामिनमवज्ञाय चरेच्च निरवग्रहः ॥ ९७॥
An officer who has been a servant of long standing is fearless even when he has committed a fault; and having despised his master will act freely (lit. without any restraint).
उपकर्ताधिकारस्थः स्वापराधं न मन्यते ।
उपकारं ध्वजीकृत्य सर्वमेव विलुम्पति ॥ ९८॥
A benefactor (one who has done a service) when appointed to an office is regardless of his own offence and putting forward his obligation will appropriate the whole thing.
सपांशुक्रीडितोऽमात्यः स्वयं राजायते यतः ।
अवज्ञा क्रियते तेन सदा परिचयाद् ध्रुवम् ॥ ९९॥
Since a play-friend from childhood, if appointed a minister, himself acts as a king, he is sure always to despise (his master) on account of his familiarity.
अन्तर्दुष्टः क्षमायुक्तः सर्वानर्थकरः किल ।
शकुनिः शकटारश्च दृष्टान्तावत्र भूपते ॥ १००॥
He who is perverse in the mind but outwardly forbearing, verily brings on ruin of every kind: Sakuni and Sakatara, O king, will serve as instances of this.
सदायत्यामसाध्यः स्यात्समृद्धः सर्व एव हि ।
सिद्धानामयमादेशः ऋद्धिश्चित्तविकारिणी ॥ १०१॥
All ministers when grown great are incorrigible in the end. It is a saying of the Siddhas (sages, perfect seers) that abundance perverts the mind.
प्राप्तार्थाग्रहणं द्रव्यपरीवर्तोऽनुरोधनम् ।
उपेक्षा बुद्धिहीनत्वं भोगोऽमात्यस्य दूषणम् ॥ १०२॥
Not accepting the money coming to hand, misappropriation of money, easy compliance, neglect, want of judgment, absence of perception (taking a right view of things), and enjoyment (habit of luxury)--these are the faults in a minister.
नियोग्यर्थग्रहोपायो राज्ञां नित्यपरीक्षणम् ।
प्रतिपत्तिप्रदानं च तथा कर्मविपर्ययः ॥ १०३॥
Finding out means to seize the money (illegally) obtained by an officer, daily supervision (over the officers' work), bestowing honours (according to merit) and change of duties, -- this is the duty of kings.
नापीडिता वमन्त्युच्चैरन्तःसारं महीपतेः ।
दुष्टव्रणा इव प्रायो भवन्ति हि नियोगिनः ॥ १०४॥
Officers, unless hard pressed, will not disgorge the royal money embezzled by them for they are mostly like malignant ulcers (which also do not give out the putrid matter without being pressed).
मुहुर्नियोगिनः बाध्या वसुधारा महीपते ।
सकृत्किं पीडितं स्नानवस्त्रं मुञ्चेद्बहूदकम्॥ १०५॥
A king should fine* [* Or, ought to fine officers who have misappropriated sums of money.] repeatedly (corrupt) officers large sums of money: for does the garment used at the time of bathing yield up (give out) much water when wrung out only once?
एतत्सर्वं यथावसरं ज्ञात्वा व्यवहर्तव्यम् ।
पिङ्गलको ब्रूते --
अस्ति तावद् एवम् । किंत्वेतौ सर्वथा न मम वचनकरौ ।
स्तब्धकर्णो ब्रूते -- एतत्सर्वथानुचितं सर्वथा । यतः ।
One should remember all this and act accordingly, as an emergency may arise. Pingalaka said -- It is just so. But these two never obey my order. Stabdhakarna observed –- This is not at all proper. For,
आज्ञाभङ्गकरान्राजा न क्षमेत सुतानपि ।
विशेषः को नु राज्ञश्च राज्ञश्चित्रगतस्य च ॥ १०६॥
A king should not forgive those who disobey orders, even though they be his sons: for (in that case) what difference can there be between such a king and one drawn in a picture?
अन्यच्च । स्तब्धस्य नश्यति यशो विषमस्य मैत्री
नष्टेन्द्रियस्य कुलमर्थपरस्य धर्मः ।
विद्याफलं व्यसनिनः कृपणस्य सौख्यं
राज्यं प्रमत्तसचिवस्य नराधिपस्य ॥ १०७॥
Moreover. The fame of one who is inactive comes to an end; so does the friendship of one of unsettled conduct; the family of one who has lost the vigour of his senses; the sense of duty of one intent on acquiring wealth; the fruit of the learning of one who is addicted to vices; the happiness of a miser, and the sovereignty of one whose ministers are careless.
विशेषतश्च । तस्करेभ्यो नियुक्तेभ्यः शत्रुभ्यो नृपवल्लभात् ।
नृपतिर्निजलोभाच्च प्रजा रक्षेत्पितेव हि ॥ १०८॥
More especially. A king should, like a father, protect his subjects from robbers, from his officers, from enemies, from his favourites and from his own avarice.
भ्रातः सर्वथास्मद्वचनं क्रियताम् । व्यवहारोऽप्यस्माभिः
कृत एव । अयं संजीवकः सस्यभक्षकोऽर्थाधिकारे नियुज्यताम् ।
Brother, let my advice be always acted upon. I too have transacted business. Let this Samjivaka who eats corn be appointed to superintend the treasury.
एतद्वचनात्तथानुष्ठिते सति तदारभ्य पिङ्गलकसंजीवकयोः
सर्वबन्धुपरित्यागेन महता स्नेहेन कालोऽतिवर्तते ।
That being done, from that time onward, Pingalaka and Samjivaka passed their time in great friendship, having left off all other connexions.
ततोऽनुजीविनामप्याहारदाने शैथिल्यदर्शनाद्
दमनककरटकावन्योन्यं चिन्तयतः । तदाह दमनकः
करटकम् -- मित्र किं कर्तव्यम् । आत्मकृतोऽयं दोषः ।
स्वयं कृतेऽपि दोषे परिदेवनमप्यनुचितम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
. Then Damanaka and Karataka, finding that there was a relaxation in dealing out food even to the servants, consulted mutually. Then Damanaka said to Karataka-Friend, what is to be done? This is our own fault. And it is not proper to lament over an evil of one's own making. For it is said--
स्वर्णरेखामहं स्पृष्ट्वा बद्ध्वात्मानं च दूतिका ।
आदित्सुश्च मणिं साधुः स्वदोषाद् दुःखिता इमे ॥ १०९॥
करटको ब्रूते -- कथमेतत् ।
दमनकः कथयति ।
I for having touched Svarnarekha, the procuress for having bound herself, the merchant for wishing to steal the gem--all these suffered for their own faults. Karataka asked--How was that? Damanaka went on--
॥ कथा ५ ॥
अस्ति काञ्चनपुरनाम्नि नगरे वीरविक्रमो राजा । तस्य धर्माधिकारिणा
कश्चिन्नापितो वध्यभूमिं नीयमानः कंदर्पकेतुनाम्ना परिव्राजकेन
साधुद्वितीयकेन नायं हन्तव्य इत्युक्त्वा
वस्त्राञ्चले धृतः । राजपुरुषा ऊचुः -- किमिति नायं वध्यः ।
स आह -- श्रूयताम् । स्वर्णरेखामहं स्पृष्ट्वा इत्यादि पठति ।
त आहुः-- कथमेतत् ।
In the city of Kanchanapura lived a king named Viravikrama. As his officer of justice was leading a barber to the place of execution, the latter was held by the skirt of his garment by a certain recluse, Kandarpaketu by name, accompanied by another man, Sadhu (a mendicant), with the words "This barber should not be killed." The king's officers asked why he should not be killed. He said, hear--He repeated--I having touched Svarnarekha &c. They asked--How is this?
परिव्राजकः कथयति -- अहं सिंहलद्वीपे भूपतेर्जीमूतकेतोः पुत्रः कंदर्पकेतुर्नाम ।
The recluse told as follows--I am the son of Jimutaketu, king of Ceylon, Kandarpaketu by name.
एकदा केलिकाननावस्थितेन मया पोतवणिङ्सुखाच्छ्रुतं यदत्र समुद्रमध्ये चतुर्दश्यामाविर्भूतकल्पतरुतले
मणिकिरणावलीकर्बुरपर्यङ्के स्थिता सर्वालंकारभूषिता
लक्ष्मीरिव वीणां वादयन्ती कन्या काचिद् दृश्यते इति ।
One day as I sat in the pleasure-garden I heard from a sea-faring merchant, that, on the fourteenth day of the month, there was to be seen on the sea, under a desire-granting tree that appeared then - seated upon a sofa variegated with a ring of the rays of gems and decorated with ornaments of all kinds -- a maiden, like the goddess Lakshmi, playing upon a lyre.
ततोऽहं पोतवणिजमादाय पोतमारुह्य तत्र गतः ।
अनन्तरं तत्र गत्वा पर्यङ्केऽर्धमग्ना तथैव सावलोकिता ।
Then I, in company with the sea-merchant, got on board his ship, and sailed for the place. On going there I saw, as described, on a sofa, the damsel, half submerged.
ततस्तल्लावण्यगुणाकृष्टेन मयापि तत्पश्चाज्झम्पः दत्तः ।
Then charmed with her beauty I gave a jump after her.
तदनन्तरं कनकपत्तनं प्राप्य सुवर्णप्रासादे तथैव पर्यङ्के
स्थिता विद्याधरीभिरुपास्यमाना मयालोकिता । तथाप्यहं दूरादेव
दृष्ट्वा सखीं प्रस्थाप्य सादरं संभाषितः । तसख्या
After that on reaching a golden city, I saw her seated on a couch, in the same manner, in a gold palace, and attended by Vidyadhara women. She too, having seen me from a distance, sent her friend and (through her) addressed me with respect.
च मया पृष्टया समाख्यातम् -- एषा कंदर्पकेलिनाम्नो
विद्याधरचक्रवर्तिनः पुत्री रत्नमञ्जरी नाम । अनया च प्रतिज्ञातम् --
To my inquiry her friend replied -– This is the daughter of Kandarpaketu, the imperial king of the Vidyadharas, Ratnamanjari by name.
यः कनकपत्तनं स्वचक्षुषागत्य पश्यति स एव
पितुरगोचरेऽपि मां परिणेष्यतीति ।
एषोऽस्या मनसः संकल्पः । तदेनां गान्धर्वविवाहेन परिणयतु भवान् ।
She has taken this vow -- "He who having come to Kanakapattana beholds it with his eyes will be my husband even in the absence of my father". Such is her mind's resolve. Your Honour should, therefore, marry her by the Gandharva form of marriage.
अथ तत्र वृत्ते गन्धर्वविवाहे
तया सह रममाणस्तत्राहं तिष्ठामि । तत एकदा रहसि तयोक्तम् --
स्वामिन् स्वेच्छया सर्वमिदमुपभोक्तव्यम् । एषा चित्रगता
स्वर्णरेखा नाम विद्याधरी न कदाचित् स्प्रष्टव्या ।
So the Gandharva marriage being concluded I lived there enjoying the sweets of her company. One day she said to me in private -- Lord, you may enjoy everything here according to your wishes; but you should never touch this Vidyadhara female, Svarnarekha by name, painted here.
पश्चाद् उपजातकौतुकेन मया सा स्वर्णरेखा स्वहस्तेन स्पृष्टा । तथा
चित्रगतयाप्यहं चरणपद्मेन ताडित आगत्य स्वराष्ट्रे पतितः ।
Thereafter my curiosity being roused, I touched that Svarnarekha with my hand. Then I was struck by her with her lotus-like foot, though a mere picture, so that I came, and fell in my kingdom.
अथ दुःखितोऽहं परिव्रजितः पृथिवीं परिभ्राम्यन्निमां
नगरीमनुप्राप्तः । अत्र चातिक्रान्ते दिवसे गोपगृहे सुप्तः
सन्नपश्यम् । प्रदोषसमये सुहृदापानकात् स्वगेहमागतो
गोपः स्ववधूं दूत्या सह किमपि मन्त्रयन्तीमपश्यत् । ततस् तां गोपीं
Then being smitten with grief I turned out a recluse and in the course of my wandering came to this city. Here, yesterday, while lying down, at the house of a cowherd I saw -- As the cowherd came home in the evening from the liquor-shop kept by his friend, he saw his wife planning something with a procuress.
ताडयित्वा स्तम्भे बद्ध्वा सुप्तः । ततोऽर्धरात्रे एतस्य नापितस्य
वधूर्दूती पुनस्तां गोपीमुपेत्यावदत् -- तव विरहानलदग्धोऽसौ
स्मरशरजर्जरितो मुमूर्षुरिव वर्तते महानुभावः ।
Then he beat the cowherdess, made her fast to a post and went to bed. Then at midnight the procuress, the wife of this barber, again came to the cowherd's wife and said -- That noble person, burnt by the fire of your separation, and pierced with the shafts of the god of love is about to die for you.
तस्य तादृशीमवस्थामवलोक्य परिक्लिष्टमनास्त्वामनुवर्तितुमागता ।
तद् अहमत्रात्मानं बद्ध्वा तिष्ठामि । त्वं तत्र गत्वा तं
संतोष्य सत्वरमागमिष्यसि ।
Pained at heart on finding him in that condition I have come here to persuade you. I will then wait here having tied myself to the post; you should go there and return quickly after having acted to his wishes.
तथानुष्ठिते सति स गोपः प्रबुद्धोऽवदत् । इदानीं
जारान्तिकं कथं न यासि । ततो यदासौ न किंचिदपि ब्रूते तदा
दर्पान्मम वचसि प्रत्युत्तरमपि न ददासि इत्युक्त्वा कोपेन
तेन कर्त्रिकामादायास्या नासिका छिन्ना । तथा कृत्वा पुनः सुप्तो गोपो
निद्रामुपगतः । अथागता गोपी दूतीमपृच्छत् -- का वार्ता ।
After that was done the cowkeeper awoke and said to her -- Why dost thou not go to your gallant now? But as she returned no reply, he saying, How is it that you, in your vanity, do not even give me an answer!, seized a pair of scissors in a rage and cut off her nose. This done, the cowherd again lay down and sank into sleep. Now the cowherd's wife, returning, asked the barber's wife what the news was.
दूत्योक्तम् -- पश्य मम । मुखमेव वार्तां कथयति ।
अनन्तरं सा गोपी तथैवात्मानं बद्ध्वावस्थिता । इयं च
इयम् च दूती तां छिन्ननासिकां गृहीत्वा स्वगृहं प्रविश्य स्थिता ।
The procuress replied-- Look here, my face will tell you the news. Thereafter the cowherdess tied herself to the post and stood as before. The procuress, too, took up her nose and having gone home lay there.
ततः प्रातरेवानेन नापितेन क्षुरभाण्डं याचिता सतीयं
क्षुरमेकं प्रादात् । ततोऽसमग्रभाण्डे प्राप्ते समुपजातकोपोऽयं
नापितस्तं क्षुरं दूरादेएव गृहे क्षिप्तवान् । अथ कृतार्तनादेयं विनापराधेन
मे नासिकानेन छिन्नेत्युक्त्वा धर्माधिकारिसमीपमेनमानीतवती ।
Then in the morning when this barber asked her for the razor-case, she gave him one razor only. Thereupon, this barber, going into a passion as the whole case was not handed over to him threw the razor from some distance into the house. Upon this setting up a cry of pain and saying 'Without any provocation he has cut off my nose' she brought him to the officer of justice.
सा च गोपी तेन गोपेन पुनः
पृष्टोवाच -- अरे पाप को मां महासतीं विरूपयितुं समर्थः ।
मम व्यवहारमकल्मषमष्टौ लोकपाला एव जानन्ति । यतः ।
In the meanwhile, the cowherd's wife being again asked by the cowherd exclaimed -- Who, vile wretch, is able to disfigure me who am so very chaste. The eight guardians of the world alone know how free from sin all my actions are. For,
आदित्यचन्द्रावनिलोऽनलश्च द्यौर्भूमिरापो हृदयं यमश्च ।
अहश्च रात्रिश्च उभे च संध्ये धर्मश्च जानाति नरस्य वृत्तम् ॥ ११०॥
The sun and the moon, wind and fire, heaven and earth, water, the heart, Yama, day and night, both the twilights and the deity Dharma-—these know the actions of a man.
ततोहं यदि परमसती स्यां निजस्वामिनं त्वां विहाय नान्यं मनसापि चिन्तयामि
तदा मम मुखमक्षतं भवतु । पश्य मन्मुखम् । ततो यवदसौ गोपीं दीपं प्रज्वाल्य
तन्मुखमवलोकते तावदुन्नसं मुखमवलोक्य तच्चरणयोः पतितः --
If then, I am perfectly chaste, and have never even so much as thought of a man other than yourself, let my face be free from its wound. Look at my face. Then as soon as the cow-keeper lighted a lamp, looked at her face and found that it had the nose restored, he fell at her feet saying --
धन्योऽहं यस्येद्र्शी भार्या परमसाध्वी इति । योयमास्ते साधुरेतद्वृत्तान्तमपि शृणुत । अयं स्वगृहान्निर्गतो
द्वादशवर्षमलयोपकण्ठादिमां नगरीमनुप्राप्तः । अत्र च वेश्यागृहे सुप्तः ।
Blessed am I whose wife is thus perfectly virtuous. Now attend to the story of the mendicant who is here. He, having left his house, came to this city after twelve years, from the vicinity of mount Malaya. He slept in the house of a courtesan.
तस्याः कुट्टन्या गृहद्वारि स्थापितकाष्ठघटितवेतालस्य मूर्धनि रत्नमेकमुत्कृष्टमास्ते । तद्
दृष्ट्वार्थलुब्धेनानेन साधुना रात्रावुत्थाय रत्नम् ग्रहीतुं यत्नः कृतः । तदा तेन वेतालेन
सूत्रसंचारितबाहुभ्यां पीडितः सन्नार्तनादमयं चकार । पश्चादुत्थाय कुट्टन्योक्तम् --
At the door of the harlot's house there stood the wooden image of a spirit, on whose head there was a jewel of the best sort. Seeing that, this mendicant, being impelled by avarice, got up in the middle of the night and attempted to take the jewel. Then being pressed by the arms of the spirit which were moved by wires, he uttered a cry of pain. Thereupon the harlot, having got up, said --
एव मलयोपकण्ठादागतोऽसि । तत्सर्वरत्नानि प्रयच्छास्मै । नो चेदनेन न त्यक्तव्योऽसि ।
इत्थमेवायं चेटकः । ततोऽनेन सर्वरत्नानि समर्पितानि ।
Holloa, son, you have come from the neighbourhood of Malaya. Deliver, therefore, all the jewels you have to him, else he will not release you. Such is this wily fellow. Then this merchant gave up all his jewels.
अधुना चायमपि हृतसर्वस्वोऽस्मासु मिलितः । एतत्सर्वं श्रुत्वा राजपुरुषैर्न्याये धर्माधिकारी
प्रवर्तितः । नापितवधूर्मुण्डिता गोपी निःसारिता कुट्टनी च दण्डिता । साधोर्धनानि
प्रदत्तानि । नापितश्च गृहं गतः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- स्वर्णरेखामहं स्पृष्ट्वा इत्यादि ॥
And now, he too, being robbed of all his wealth, has joined our party. On hearing all this the king's officers got the judge to do justice. The barber's wife was shaved, the cowherdess expelled the city, the harlot fined and the merchant restored to all his wealth. The barber too went home. Therefore I say- I for having touched Svarnarekha &c.
अथ स्वयम्कृतोऽयं दोषः । अत्र विलपनं नोचितम् । (क्षणं विमृश्य ।) मित्र सहसैव
यथानयोः सौहार्दं मया कारितं तथा मित्रभेदोऽपि मया कार्यः । यतः ।
Now this fault is ours, and lamentation is out of place in this case. Having reflected for a moment -- Friend, just as I brought about the friendship of these too, so should I effect the disunion of the two friends also. For,
अतथ्यान्यपि तथ्यानि दर्शयन्ति हि पेशलाः ।
समे निम्नोन्नतानीव चित्रकर्मविदो जनाः ॥ १११॥
Very clever men represent even untruth as truth (if required), as persons versed in the art of painting represent depressions and prominences on an even surface.
अपरं च । उत्पन्नेष्वपि कार्येषु मतिर्यस्य न हीयते ।
स निस्तरति दुर्गाणि गोपी जारद्वयं यथा ॥ ११२॥
करटकः पृच्छति -- कथम् एतत् । दमनकः कथयति --
Moreover, he whose intellect does not fail him even under fresh occurrences, surmounts difficulties just as the cowherd's wife got clear of her two lovers. Karataka asked how it was. Damanaka related.
कथा ६
Fable 6
अस्ति द्वारवत्यां पुर्यां कस्यचिद्गोपस्य वधूर्बन्धकी । सा ग्रामस्य दण्डनायकेन
तत्पुत्रेण च समं रमते । तथा चोक्तम् --
The wife of a certain cowherd who lived in Dvaraka was of a bad character. She had an intrigue with the magistrate of the place, as also with his son. For it is said --
नाग्निस्तृप्यति काष्ठानां नापगानां महोदधिः ।
नान्तकः सर्वभूतानां न पुंसां वामलोचना ॥ ११३॥
Fire is not satisfied with fuel, the ocean with rivers, the god of death with all creatures and a beautiful woman with men.
अन्यच्च । न दानेन न मानेन नार्जवेन न सेवया ।
न शस्त्रेण न शास्त्रेण सर्वथा विषमाः स्त्रियः ॥ ११४॥
Moreover, Not by gifts, not by honour, not by simplicity, not by attendance, not with a weapon (fear of punishment) and not with scriptural advice, can women be won over: — they are hard to please in every way.
यतः । गुणाश्रयं कीर्तियुतं च कान्तं पतिं रतिज्ञं सधनं युवानम् ।
विहाय शीघ्रं वनिता व्रजन्ति नरं परं शीलगुणादिहीनम् ॥ ११५॥
For, Having forsaken a husband who is the abode of merits, endowed with fame, amiable, versed in the erotic art, wealthy and youthful, women quickly resort to another man (although) destitute of character, good qualities and the like.
अपरं च । न तादृशीं प्रीतिमुपैति नारी विचित्रशय्यां शयितापि कामम् ।
यथा हि दूर्वादिविकीर्णभूमौ प्रयाति सौख्यं परकान्तिसङ्गात् ॥ ११८॥
Moreover, A woman does not derive that pleasure although lying down on a beautiful bed entirely to her satisfaction as she does in the company of a gallant although lying down on the ground covered over with the Durva grass and other things of that sort.
अथ कदाचित्सा दण्डनायकपुत्रेण सह रममाणा तिष्ठति । अथ
दण्डनायकोऽपि गन्तुं तत्रागतः । तमायान्तं दृष्ट्वा तत्पुत्रं
कुसूले निक्षिप्य दण्डनायकेन समं तथैव क्रीडति । अनन्तरं तस्या
भर्ता गोपो गोष्ठात्समागतः । तमालोक्य गोप्योक्तम् --
One day she was sporting with the magistrate's son, when the magistrate too came there to enjoy her company. Seeing him coming, she put his son in a barn and began to amuse herself with him. After that her husband, the cowherd, returned from the cowpen. On spying him the cowherdess said to the magistrate
दण्डनायक त्वं लगुडं गृहीत्वा कोपं दर्शयन्सत्वरं गच्छ । तथा
तेनानुष्ठिते गोपेन गृहमागत्य भार्या पृष्टा -- केन कार्येण दण्डनायकः
समागतोत्र ।
Oh magistrate, you take a stick and quickly go out as if in a rage. He having acted accordingly the cowherd came in and asked his wife what had brought the justice there.
सा ब्रूते -- अयं
केनापि कारणेन पुत्रस्योपरि क्रुद्धः । स च मार्गमाणोऽप्यत्रागत्य
प्रविष्टो मया कुसूले निक्षिप्य रक्षितः । तत्पित्रा चान्विष्यता गृहे
न दृष्टः । अतोयं दण्डनायकः कुपित एव गच्छति ।
She replied -- For some reason or other he is angry with his son, who coming here entered our house and was protected by me by being concealed in the barn. His father searching for him did not find him in the house. Hence it is that the magistrate is going in a rage.
ततः सा
तत्पुत्रं कुषुलादवतार्य दर्शितवती । तथा चोक्तम् --
आहारो द्विगुणः स्त्रीणां बुद्धिस्तासां चतुर्गुणाः ।
षड्गुणो व्यवसायश्च कामाश्चाष्टगुणः स्मृतः ॥ ११७॥
She then took out the son from the barn and showed him. So it is said -- The food of women is twofold, their readiness of wit fourfold, perseverance sixfold and passion eightfold.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- उत्पन्नेष्वपि कार्येषु इत्यादि ॥
Therefore I say - 'He, whose intellect does not fail him.' &c.
करटको ब्रूते -- अस्त्वेवम् । किंत्वनयोर्महानन्योन्यनिसर्गोपजातस्नेहः
कथं भेदयितुं शक्यः ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- उपायः क्रियताम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Karataka observed -- Be it so. But how will it be possible to dissolve the great friendship that has grown up between them by the similarity of their dispositions? Damanaka replied -- Let a remedy be applied. For it is said --
उपायेन हि यच्छक्यं न तच्छक्यं पराक्रमैः ।
काकः कनकसूत्रेण कृष्ण्सर्पमघातयत् ॥ ११८ ॥
करटकः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
दमनकः कथयति --
What is possible to be accomplished by stratagem cannot be effected by exploits: a crow brought about the destruction of a black serpent by means of a gold chain. Karataka asked how it was. Damanaka related --
॥ कथा ७ ॥
Fable 7
कस्मिंश्चित् तरौ वायसदम्पती निवसतः । तयोश्चापत्यानि
तत्कोटरावस्थितेन कृष्णसर्पेण खादितानि । ततः
पुनर्गर्भवती वायसी वायसमाह -- नाथ त्यज्यतामयं तरुः ।
अत्र यावत्कृष्णसर्पस्तावदावयोः संततीः कदाचिदपि न भविष्यति ।
यतः ।
A pair of crows lived in a certain tree. Their youngs were eaten by a cobra who lived in the hollow of the tree. Thereafter, the female crow, when again breeding said to her mate -- My dear, let us abandon this tree. As long as the serpent lives here, our offspring can never live. For,
दुष्टा भार्या शठं मित्रं भृत्यश्चोत्तरदायकः ।
ससर्पे च गृहे वासो मृत्युरेव न संशयः ॥ ११९॥
वायसो ब्रूते -- प्रिये न
भेतव्यम् ।
A wicked wife, a cunning friend, an insolent servant, and a residence in a house infested by a cobra, mean undoubtedly death. Don't you be afraid, my dear, replied the crow.
वारंवारं मयैतस्य महापराधः सोढः । इदानीं पुनर्न क्षन्तव्यः ।
वायस्याह -- कथमेतेन बलवता सार्धे भवान्विग्रहीतुं समर्थः ।
वायसो ब्रूते -- अलमनया शङ्कया । यतः ।
I have pardoned his great crime again and again. But it shall not be tolerated now. The female crow observed -- How will you be able to contend with one who is powerful? The crow replied -- Away with this doubt. For,
बुद्धिर्यस्य बलं तस्य निर्बुद्धेस्तु कुतो बलम् ।
पश्य सिंहो मदोन्मत्तः शशकेन निपातितः ॥ १२०॥
वायसी विहस्याह -- कथमेतत् ।
वायसः कथयति ।
He who has talent has strength; how can he, who is without talent, have strength? Behold, a haughty lion was killed by a hare. The female asked how that was, whereupon the male thus related --
॥ कथा ८ ॥
Fable 8
अस्ति मन्दरनाम्नि पर्वते
दुर्दान्तो नाम सिंहः । स च सर्वदा पशूनां वधं कुर्वन्न् आस्ते ।
On the mountain named Mandara there dwelt a lion Durdanta by name, who always used to slaughter the beasts.
ततः सर्वैः पशुभिर्मिलित्वा स सिंहो विज्ञप्तः -- मृगेन्द्र
किमर्थमेकदा बहुपशुघातः क्रियते । यदि प्रसादो भवति तदा
वयमेव भवदाहारार्थं प्रत्यहमेकैकं पशुमुपढौकयामः । ततः
सिंहेनोक्तम् -- यद्येतदभिमतं भवतां तर्हि भवतु तत् ।
ततः प्रभृत्येकैकं पशुमुपकल्पितं भक्षयन्न् आस्ते ।
Then all the beasts having assembled together made this representation to the lion -- Sovereign of the beasts, why are so many animals slaughtered at a time? If it please Your Highness, we ourselves shall send one beast every day for your food. To this the lion replied -- If you desire it let it be done. Thenceforth he ate one animal that was offered him.
अथ कदाचिद्वृद्धशशकस्य कस्यचिद्वारः समायातः । सोऽचिन्तयत् --
त्रासहेतोर्विनीतिस्तु क्रियते जीविताशया ।
पञ्चत्वं चेद्गमिष्यामि किं सिंहानुनयेन मे ॥ १२३॥
Now one day the lot fell on an aged hare. He meditated -- It is in the hope of saving one's life that a supplication is made to the source of fear: -- If I am to die why should I conciliate the lion?
तन्मन्दं मन्दं गच्छामि । ततः सिंहोऽपि
क्षुधापीडितः कोपात्तमुवाच -- कुतस्त्वं विलम्बादागतोऽसि ।
शशकोऽब्रवीत् -- देव
I shall go then slowly. The lion who was oppressed with hunger, asked him in anger -- Why hast thou come so late? The hare replied -- My lord,
नाहमपराधी । आगच्छन्पथि सिंहान्तरेण बलाद् धृतः । तस्याग्रे
पुनरागमनाय शपथं कृत्वा स्वामिनं निवेदयितुमत्रागतोऽस्मि ।
सिंहः सकोपमाह --
I am not to blame. On my way I was forcibly seized by another lion. Having pledged my word that I would return to him I have come here to represent it to Your Highness. The lion said in a passion --
सत्वरं गत्वा दुरात्मानं दर्शय । क्व स दुरात्मा तिष्ठति ।
ततः शशकस्तं गृहीत्वा गभीरकूपं दर्शयितुं गतः । अत्रागत्य
स्वयमेव पश्यतु स्वामीत्युक्त्वा तस्मिन्कूपजले तस्य सिंहस्यैव
प्रतिबिम्बं दर्शितवान् । ततोऽसौ क्रोधाध्मातो दर्पात् तस्योपर्यात्मानं
निक्षिप्य पञ्चत्वं गतः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- बुद्धिर्यस्य इत्यादि ॥
Go quickly and show the vile wretch to me. Where does the villain live? Then the hare taking the lion with him set out to show him a deep well. 'Please Your Highness, come here and behold him yourself.' With these words he showed him the lion's own reflection in the water of the well. Thereupon he, being swollen with rage, sprang upon him through arrogagance and lost his life. Therefore I say, he who has talent has strength &c
वायस्याह -- श्रुतं मया सर्वम् । संप्रति यथा कर्तव्यं तद् ब्रूहि ।
वायसोऽवदत् -- अत्रासन्ने सरसि राजपुत्रः प्रत्यहमागत्य
स्नाति । स्नानसमये तदङ्गादवतारितं तीर्थशिलानिहितं
कनकसूत्रं चञ्च्वा विधृत्यानीयास्मिन्कोटरे धारयिष्यसि ।
The female crow said I have heard everything. Now tell me what I am to do. The crow replied -- The prince comes every day and bathes in the adjacent tank. Hold up in your bill a gold necklace, which is taken off from his person at the time of bathing and placed on a stone of the flight of steps, and put it in this hollow.
अथ कदाचित्स्नातुं जलं प्रविष्टे राजपुत्रे वायस्या तदनुष्ठितम् ।
अथ कनकसूत्रानुसरणप्रवृत्तै राजपुरुषैस्तत्र
तरुकोटरे कृष्णसर्पो दृष्टो व्यापादितश्च । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि --
उपायेन हि यच्छक्यम् इत्यादि ।
Now on one occasion when the prince had entered the water for bathing, the female crow did what she was directed to do. Then by the servants of the prince who followed the track of the gold necklace, the serpent was seen and killed. Hence I say -- What is possible to be accomplished, etc.
करटको ब्रूते -- यद्येवं तर्हि गच्छ । शिवास्ते सन्तु पन्थानः । ततो
दमनकः पिङ्गलकसमीपं गत्वा प्रणम्योवाच -- देव आत्ययिकं
किमपि महाभयकारि मन्यमान आगतोऽस्मि । यतः ।
Karataka said -- If it is so, then go. May your efforts be crowned with success! Then Damanaka went to Pingalaka, bowed, and said -- Please Your Highness, I have come here perceiving that some calamity, leading to great disaster, is imminent. For,
आपद्युन्मार्गगमने कार्यकालात्ययेषु च ।
कल्याणवचनं ब्रूयादपृष्टोऽपि हितो नरः ॥ १२२॥
A well-meaning man should give his wholesome counsel even unasked, in the case of a calamity, when a man swerves from the right path, or when the time of taking action is passing away.
अन्यच्च । भोगस्य भाजनं राजा मन्त्री कार्यस्य भाजनम् ।
राजकार्यपरिध्वंसी मन्त्री दोषेण लिप्यते ॥ १२३॥
Again, The proper sphere of the king is to enjoy pleasures, while that of the minister is to attend to business. A minister who spoils the business of state is to blame in every way.
अमात्यानामेष क्रमः --
वरं प्राणपरित्यागः शिरसो वापि कर्तनम् ।
न तु स्वामिपदावाप्तिपातकेच्छोरुपेक्षणम् ॥ १२४॥
Better is the abandonment of life or the cutting off of the head than the neglect of one who desires to commit the sin of obtaining his master's post.
पिङ्गलकः सादरम् आह -- अथ भवान्किं वक्तुमिच्छति ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- देव संजीवकस्तवोपर्यसदृशव्यवहारीव
लक्ष्यते । तथा चास्मत् संनिधाने श्रीमद्देवपादानां
शक्तित्रयनिन्दां कृत्वा राज्यमेवाभिलषति ।
Pingalaka asked him graciously -- Now what do you wish to say? Damanaka replied -- My lord, Samjivaka appears to be acting in an unbecoming manner towards Your Highness. To speak clearly, he, having cast reproach on Your Highness' three powers, wishes to gain the sovereignty itself.
एतच्छ्रुत्वा पिङ्गलकः सभयं साश्चर्यं तूष्णीं स्थितः ।
दमनकः पुनराह -- देव सर्वामात्यपरित्यागं कृत्वैक
एवायं यत्त्वया सर्वाधिकारी कृतः स एव दोषः । यतः ।
On hearing that Pingalaka stood quite full of wonder mingled with fear. Damanaka observed again -- My lord, that Your Highness, having dismissed all ministers, placed him alone at the head of all affairs, was in itself a blunder. For --
अत्युच्छ्रिते मन्त्रिणि पार्थिवे च विष्टभ्य पादावुपतिष्ठते श्रीः ।
सा स्त्रीस्वभावादसहा भरस्य तयोर्द्वयोरेकतरं जहाति ॥ १२५॥
The goddess of royalty stands having placed her feet on a minister when very highly exalted and the king; but she, unable long to bear the burden, being of the nature of a woman, gives up one of the two.
अपरम् च । एकं भूमिपतिः करोति सचिवं राज्ये प्रमाणं यदा
तं मोहाच्छ्रयते मदः स च मदालस्येन निर्भिद्यते ।
Moreover, When a king makes one minister the (sole) authority in a kingdom, vanity takes possession of him through delusion, and he alienates himself (from the king) through indolence brought on by vanity.
निर्भिन्नस्य पदं करोति हृदये तस्य स्वतन्त्रस्पृहा
स्वातन्त्र्यस्पृहया ततः स नृपतेः प्राणान्तिकं द्रुह्यति ॥ १२६॥
When (once) alienated, a desire for independence springs up in his mind; and then led by the desire for independence he (the minister) acts treacherously even to the extent of robbing the king of his life.
अन्यच्च । विषदिग्धस्य भक्तस्य दन्तस्य चलितस्य च ।
अमात्यस्य च दुष्टस्य मूलादुद्धरणं सुखम् ॥ १२७॥
Again, Of rice tainted with poison, of a tooth got loose and of a minister turned a traitor, complete eradication leads to happiness.
किं च । यः कुर्यात्सचिवायत्तां श्रियं तद्व्यसने सति ।
सोऽन्धवज्जगतीपालः सीदेत्संचारकैर्विना ॥ १२८॥
Also, A king, who places his royal fortune under his minister's control, will, in the event of his (minister's) being in calamity, experience trouble like a blind man without guides.
स च सर्वकार्येषु
स्वेच्छातः प्रवर्तते । तदत्र प्रमाणं स्वामी । एतच्च जानामि ।
He proceeds in (conducts) all affairs according to his will. Your Highness, therefore, is the authority is to decide as to what is to be done under these circumstances. As for myself ..
न सोऽस्ति पुरुषो लोके यो न कामयते श्रियम् ।
परस्य युवतिं रम्यां सादरं नेक्षतेऽत्र कः ॥ १२९॥
There is not that man in this world who does not covet riches. Who, in this world, does not wistfully look at the youthful and charming wife of another?
सिंहो विमृश्याह -- भद्र
यद्यप्येवं तथापि संजीवकेन सह मम महान्स्नेहः । पश्य ।
The lion observed reflecting -- Dear Damanaka, although such is the case, still great is the affection that I have for Samjivaka. Behold!
कुर्वन्नपि व्यलीकानि यः प्रियः प्रिय एव सः ।
अशेषदोषदुष्टोऽपि कायः कस्य न वल्लभः ॥ १३०॥
Although committing offences, a favourite is a favourite : who does not like the body although affected with all humours?
अन्यच्च । अप्रियाण्यपि कुर्वाणो यः प्रियः प्रिय एव सः ।
दग्धमन्दिरसारेऽपि कस्य वह्नावनादरः ॥ १३१॥
Again, He who is dear is so although doing unpleasant things; who has disregard for (has not to do with) fire although it has consumed all the substance in the house?
दमनको वदति -- देव स एव दोषः । यतः ।
यस्मिन्नेवाधिकं चक्षुरारोपयति पार्थिवः ।
सुतेऽमात्येऽप्युदासीने स लक्ष्म्याश्रीयते जनः ॥ १३२॥
Damanaka replied. My lord, and just therein lies the fault. For, He on whom the king fixes his eye more (than on others) -- be he a son, or a minister, or a stranger -- is resorted to by the goddess of wealth.
शृणु देव । अप्रियस्यापि पथ्यस्य परिणामः सुखावहः ।
वक्ता श्रोता च यत्रास्ति रमन्ते तत्र संपदः ॥ १३३॥
May Your Highness listen -- The result of what is wholesome although unpleasant, is happy: riches delight (to live) there where there is a speaker and a hearer (of things wholesome though disagreeable).
त्वया च मूलभृत्यानपास्यायमागन्तुकः पुरस्कृतः ।
एतच्चानुचितं कृतम् । यतः ।
You, having discarded old servants, advanced this stranger. And this was a wrong step. For,
मूलभृत्यान्परित्यज्य नागन्तून्प्रतिमानयेत् ।
नातः परतरो दोषो राज्यभेदकरो यतः ॥ १३४॥
Having cast off old servants one should not honour strangers: because there is no other fault so destructive to royalty than this.
सिंहो ब्रूते -- किमाश्चर्यम् । यन्मयायं
अभयवाचं दत्त्वानीतः संवर्धितश्च तत्कथं मह्यं द्रुह्यति ।
The lion said -- What wonder! Since he was brought here by me having pledged my word of safety and was well taken care of, how can he turn a traitor to me?
दमनको ब्रूते -- देव ।
दुर्जनो प्रकृतिं याति सेव्यमानोऽपि नित्यशः ।
स्वेदनाभ्यञ्जनोपायैः श्वपुच्छमिव नामितम् ॥ १३५॥
Damanaka observed -- Sire, A wicked man, even though served every day, reverts to his natural disposition, like a dog's tail resuming (its natural) bent, notwithstanding such remedies as causing sweat (by fumigation) and rubbing it with unguents (for making it straight).
अपरं च । स्वेदितो मर्दितश्चैव रज्जुभिः परिवेष्टितः ।
मुक्तो द्वादशभिर्वर्षैः श्वपुच्छः प्रकृतिं गतः ॥ १३६॥
A dog's tail, made to sweat, rubbed and bound round with strings, returned to its nature when set free (even) after twelve years.
अन्यच्च । वर्धनं वाथ सन्मानं खलानां प्रीतये कुतः ।
फलन्त्यमृतसेकेऽपि न पथ्यानि विषद्रुमाः ॥ १३७॥
Moreover, Whence can advancement or bestowal of honour please the wicked? Poisonous trees, although watered with nectar, do not bring forth fruit wholesome to eat.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि --
अपृष्टोऽपि हितं ब्रूयाद्यस्य नेच्छेत् पराभवम् ।
एष एव सतां धर्मो विपरीतमतोऽन्यथा ॥ १३८॥
Hence my observation -- One should say what is beneficial to him whose ruin one does not wish; this is the duty of the good; the contrary is otherwise (i. e. is the way of action of bad men).
तथा चोक्तम् --
स स्निग्धोऽकुशलान्निवारयति यस्तत्कर्म यन्निर्मलं
सा स्त्री यातुविधायिनी स मतिमान्यः सद्भिरभ्यर्च्यते ।
It is said in connexion with this -- He has affection (for us) who dissuades (us) from evil; that is an act which is pure; she is a wife, who is obedient; he is talented who is esteemed by the good;
सा श्रीर्या न मदं करोति स सुखी यस्तृष्णया मुच्यते
तन्मित्रं यदकृत्रिमं स पुरुषो यः खिद्यते नेन्द्रियैः ॥ १३९॥
that is wealth which begets no vanity; he is happy who is free from desire; he is a friend who is sincere (lit. artless); and he is a man who is not troubled by the senses (i. e. has his senses under control).
यदि संजीवकव्यसनार्दितो विज्ञापितोऽपि
स्वामी न निवर्तते तदीदृशे भृत्ये न दोषः । तथा च ।
If Your Highness who stands in imminent danger from Samjivaka, does not turn back after being warned (lit. informed), then the blame does not lie with a servant like myself.
नृपः कामासक्तो गणयति न कार्ये न च हितं
यथेष्टं स्वच्छन्दः प्रविचरति मत्तो गज इव ।
A king who is addicted to carnal pleasures does not mind the business he has to attend to or his good, but led by his free will he acts as he likes like a mad elephant;
ततो मानध्मातः स पतति यदा शोकगहने
तदा भृत्ये दोषान्क्षिपति न निजं वेत्त्यविनयम् ॥ १४०॥
but when, puffed up with pride, he falls into the abyss of sorrow, he casts the blame on his servants, but does not take into account his own misconduct.
पिङ्गलकः स्वगतम् ।
न परस्यापवादेन परेषां दण्डमाचरेत् ।
आत्मनावगतं कृत्वा बध्नीयात्पूजयेत वा ॥ १४१॥
Pingalaka (To himself) -- One should not inflict punishment upon others by (listening to) the adverse representation of another : but having ascertained the truth for oneself, one shonld mete out punishment or praise.
तथा चोक्तम् --
गुणदोषावनिश्चित्य विधिर्न ग्रहनिग्रहे ।
स्वनाशाय यथा न्यस्तो दर्पात्सर्पमुखे करः ॥ १४२॥
Similarly it is said -- To award favour or punishment without ascertaining one's merit or fault is not the policy: (such a course) leads to one's destruction like the hand thrust into a serpent's month through vanity.
प्रकाशं ब्रूते -- तदा संजीवकः किं प्रत्यादिश्यताम् ।
दमनकः ससम्भ्रममाह --
देव मा मैवम् । एतावता मन्त्रभेदो जायते । तथा चोक्तम् --
(Aloud) What then, shall Samjivaka be warned (against such a course of conduct)? Damanaka observed in haste -- Not so, not so my lord. This will mean the divulging of counsel. For it is said --
मन्त्रबीजमिदं गुप्तं रक्षणीयं तथा यथा ।
मनागपि न भिद्येत तद्भिन्नं न प्ररोहति ॥ १४३॥
The seed of counsel should be kept concealed in such a way that not even a glimpse of it could get out; if got out it will not thrive.
किं च । आदेयस्य प्रदेयस्य कर्तव्यस्य च कर्मणः ।
क्षिप्रमक्रियमाणस्य कालः पिबति तद्रसम् ॥ १४४॥
Moreover, If what is to be taken or given or done be not quickly attended to, time saps its juice.
तदवश्यं समारब्धं महता प्रयत्नेन सम्पादनीयम् । किं च ।
मन्त्रो योध इवाधीरः सर्वाङ्गैः संवृतैरपि ।
चिरं न सहते स्थातुं परेभ्यो भेदशङ्कया ॥ १४५॥
Therefore what is set on foot should necessarily be accomplished with a mighty effort. Again, Counsel, like a timid warrior, although having all the parts well covered, is not able to keep up long for fear of being penetrated by others (the enemies).
यद्यसौ दृष्टदोषोऽपि दोषान्निवर्त्य संधातव्यस्तद् अतीवानुचितम् ।
यतः ।
And if a reconciliation is to be sought with him (the bull), after his offence has been known, he being made to turn back from such a wrong course of conduct, that would be extremely impolitic. For,
सकृद्दुष्टं तु यो मित्रं पुनः संधातुमिच्छति ।
स मृत्युमेव गृह्णाति गर्भमश्वतरी यथा ॥ १४६॥
He who wishes to conciliate a friend once estranged invites death itself like a she-mule conceiving a fetus.
सिंहो ब्रूते -- ज्ञायतां तावत्किमस्माकमसौ कर्तुं शक्नोति । दमनक आह -- देव ।
अङ्गाङ्गिभावमज्ञात्वा कथं सामर्थ्यनिर्णयः ।
The lion said -- Let it be first ascertained what harm he is able to do us. Damanaka replied —- My lord, How can one's power be ascertained unless the relation of principal and subordinate is known?
पश्य टिट्टिभमात्रेण समुद्रो व्याकुलीकृतः ॥ १४७॥
सिंहः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
दमनकः कथयति --
Behold how an insignificant bird like a tittibha (a lap-wing) overpowered the sea. The lion asked how it was. Damanaka related --
॥ कथा ९ ॥
Fable 9
दक्षिणसमुद्रतीरे टिट्टिभदम्पती निवसतः ।
तत्र चासन्नप्रसवा टिट्टिभी भर्तारमाह --
A pair of tittibhas lived on the shore of the southern sea. The female when near her delivery said to her husband
नाथ प्रसवयोग्यस्थानं निभृतमनुसंधीयताम् ।
टिट्टिभोऽवदत् -- भार्ये नन्विदमेव स्थानं प्रसूतियोग्यम् ।
My dear, find out a retired place convenient for my delivery. The male said -- My dear, this very place is surely fit for your delivery.
सा ब्रूते -- समुद्रवेलया प्लाव्यते स्थानमेतत् ।
टिट्टिभोऽवदत् -- किमहं निर्बलः तेन स्वगृहावस्थितः समुद्रेण निग्रहीतव्यः ।
She replied -- This place is washed over by the tide. The male observed -- What? Am I so powerless that the sea should insult me, stationed in my own house?
टिट्टिभी विहस्याह -- स्वामिन् त्वया समुद्रेण च महदन्तरम् । अथवा ।
दुःखमात्मा परिच्छेत्तुमेवं योग्यो न वेति वा ।
अस्तीदृग्यस्य विज्ञानं स कृच्छ्रेपि न सीदति ॥ १४८॥
The female said smiling -- My lord, vast is the difference between the sea and yourself. Or rather, It is difficult to form a correct estimate of one's self -- whether one is capable (of achieving a thing) or not. He who has such knowledge does not experience trouble even in a difficulty.
अपि च । अनुचितकार्यारम्भः स्वजनविरोधो बलीयसा स्पर्धा ।
प्रमदाजनविश्वासो मृत्योर्द्वाराणि चत्वारि ॥ १४९॥
The beginning of an unworthy act, opposition to one's relatives, emulation with the stronger, and confidence in young women —- these are four doors to death.
ततः कृच्छ्रेण स्वामिवचनात्तत्रैव प्रसूता सा । एतत्सर्वं
श्रुत्वा समुद्रेणापि तच्छक्तिज्ञानार्थं तदण्डान्यपहृतानि ।
Then following (with difficulty) the advice of her husband she laid her eggs there. Having heard all that, the sea too, wishing to know their strength, carried off their eggs.
तत टिट्टिभी शोकार्ता
भर्तारमाह -- नाथ कष्टमापतितम् । तान्यण्डानि मे नष्टानि ।
Then the female tittibha, smitten with grief, said to her husband -- Lord, evil has befallen us. Those my eggs are lost.
टिट्टिभोऽवदत् -- प्रिये मा भैषीः । इत्युक्त्वा पक्षिणां मेलकं
कृत्वा पक्षिस्वामिनो गरुडस्य समीपं गतः । तत्र गत्वा
सकलवृत्तान्तः टिट्टिभेन भगवतो गरुडस्य पुरतो निवेदितः --
The male said -- Fear not, my dear. With these words he called together a council of birds and repaired into the presence of Garuda, the king of the feathered tribes. On reaching the place, the tittibha related the whole affair before the divine Garuda (saying) -- Lord,
समुद्रेणाहं स्वगृहावस्थितो विनापराधनेनैव निगृहीतः इति ।
ततस्तद्वचनमाकर्ण्य गरुत्मता प्रभुर्भगवान्
नारायणः सृष्टिस्थितिप्रलयहेतुर्विज्ञप्तः । स
समुद्रमण्डदानायादिदेश । ततो
Lord, without any fault, I, who was stationed in my house, was wronged by the sea. Having heard his words, Garuda besought the Lord, the divine Narayana, the author of the creation, preservation and destruction of the universe, who ordered the sea to restore the eggs. Then,
भगवदाज्ञां मौलौ निधाय समुद्रेण तान्यण्डानि टिट्टिभाय
समर्पितानि । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि अङ्गाङ्गिभावमज्ञात्वा इत्यादि ।
Then having placed on the crown of his head (obeyed with deep reverence) the divine order, the sea returned the eggs to the tittibha. Hence I say -- Without knowing the relation of principal and subordinate, &c.
राजाह -- कथमसौ ज्ञातव्यो द्रोहबुद्धिरिति ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- यदासौ सदर्पः
शृङ्गाग्रप्रहरणाभिमुखश्चकित इवागच्छति तदा ज्ञास्यतिस्वामी ।
The king asked -- How is it to be known that he is maliciously disposed (towards me)? Damanaka replied -- Your Highness will know it when he, full of pride, will approach you, ready to strike with the tips of his horns and like one dismiayed (or bewildered).
एवमुक्त्वा संजीवकसमीपं गतः । तत्र गतश्च मन्दं
मन्दमुपसर्पन्विस्मितमिवात्मानमदर्शयत् । संजीवकेन सादरमुक्तम् --
भद्र कुशलं ते ।
Having uttered these words, he went to Samjivaka. On reaching the place, he, approaching gently, presented himself like one amazed. Samjivaka inquired with affectionate regard -- Friend, are you happy ?
दमनको ब्रूते -- अनुजीविनां कुतः कुशलम् । यतः ।
सम्पत्तयः पराधीनाः सदा चित्तमनिर्वृत्तम् ।
स्वजीवितेऽप्यविश्वासस्तेषां ये राजसंश्रेयाः ॥ १५०॥
Damanaka replied -- How can there be any happiness for servants? For, the riches of those who are in royal service are in another's power; their mind is always uneasy, and they have no surety even of their lives.
अन्यच्च । कोऽर्थान् प्राप्य न गर्वितो विषयिणः कस्यापदोऽस्तं गताः
स्त्रीभिः कस्य न खण्डितं भुवि मनः को वास्ति राज्ञां प्रियः ।
Moreover, Who, having obtained wealth, does not become proud? The miseries of what sensualist have come to an end? Whose mind is not wounded by woman? Who is a favourite of kings?
कः कालस्य भुजान्तरं न च गतः कोऽर्थी गतो गौरवं
को वा दुर्जनवागुरासु पतितः क्षेमेण यातः पुमान् ॥ १५१॥
Who has not fallen into the clutches of Death? What supplicant has met with honour, and what man, fallen into the meshes of the wicked, has escaped unscathed?
संजीवकेनोक्तम् -- सखे ब्रूहि किमेतत् ।
दमनक आह -- किं ब्रवीमि मन्दभाग्यः । पश्य ।
Samjivaka said -- Friend, speak out what this means. Damanaka replied -- What should I say, an unfortunate creature! Behold,
यथा समुद्रे निर्मग्नो लब्ध्वा सर्पावलम्बनम् ।
न मुञ्चति न चादत्ते तथा मुग्धोऽस्मि संप्रति ॥ १५२॥
Just as a man plunged into the sea having obtained the support of a serpent, does neither give it up nor hold fast to it, so bewildered am I now.
यतः । एकत्र राजविश्वासो नश्यत्यन्यत्र बान्धवः ।
किं करोमि क्व गच्छामि पतितो दुःखसागरे ॥ १५३॥
For, On the one hand is the royal confidence betrayed, on the other, a friend perishes: what shall I do, and where shall I go, I who am fallen into the sea of trouble?
इत्युक्त्वा दीर्घं निःश्वस्योपविष्टः ।
संजीवको ब्रूते -- तथापि मित्र सविस्तरं मनोगतमुच्यताम् ।
With these words he heaved a deep sigh and sat down. Samjivaka said -- Still, friend, tell me in detail what you have at heart.
दमनकः सुनिभृतमाह -- यद्यपि राजविश्वासो न कथनीयस्तथापि
भवान् अस्मदीयप्रत्ययादागतः । मया परलोकार्थिनावश्यं तव हितम् आख्येयम् ।
Damanaka said with (a show of) great secrecy -- Although I must not betray the king's secret, yet you have come here through confidence in us; and I, as desiring the next world, must necessarily tell you what concerns your welfare.
शृणु । अयं स्वामी तवोपरि विकृतबुद्धी
रहस्युक्तवान् -- संजीवकमेव हत्वा स्वपरिवारं तर्पयामि ।
Listen. This our Lord, being prejudiced against you, said in private -- I will kill Samjivaka himself and treat my attendants (with his flesh).
एतच्छ्रुत्वा संजीवकः परं विषादमगमत् । दमनकः पुनराह ।
अलं विषादेन । प्राप्तकालकायमनुष्ठीयताम् । संजीवकः
क्षणं विमृश्याह ॥ सुष्ठु खल्विदमुच्यते ।
Samjivaka, on hearing this, was smitten with great sorrow. Damanaka observed again -- Away with sorrow. Do what the time demands. Samjivaka, after a moment’s reflection, said -- This is, indeed, well said--
दुर्जनगम्या नार्यः प्रायेणापात्रभृद्भवति राजा ।
कृपणानुसारि च धनं देवो गिरिजलधिवर्षी च ॥ १५४॥
Women seek the company of wicked men; a king generally patronizes (or, lavishes wealth upon) the undeserving; wealth seeks a miser; and the god of rain pours the showers on mountains and seas!
स्वगतम् -- तत्किमिदमेतद्विचेष्टितं न वेत्येतद्व्यवहारादेव निर्णेतुं न शक्यते । यतः ।
कश्चिदाश्रयसौन्दर्याद् अत्ते शोभामसज्जनः ।
प्रमदालोचनन्यस्तं मलीमसमिवाञ्जनम् ॥ १५५॥
(To himself) Now it is not possible to decide from his manner of acting (or, conversing) whether this is his doing or not. For, Some wicked man possesses splendour (appears good amiable) from the beauty of his master (or patron, lit. the person he depends upon), like fool (black) collyrium when put into their eyes by young women.
कष्टं किमिदमापतितम् । यतः ।
आराध्यमानो नृपतिः प्रयत्नान्न तोषमायाति किमत्र चित्रम् ।
After reflection; he says -- Alas! What is this that has come to pass ! For, A king, though served with assiduity, may not be pleased; where is the wonder in this?
अयं त्वपूर्वप्रतिमाविशेषो यः सेव्यमानो रिपुतामुपैति ॥ १५६॥
तद् अयमशक्यर्थः प्रमेयः । यतः ।
But this is some strange pattern of creation, who being served is turned into an enemy!!! So this is a matter (lit. something to be understood by inference) which it is impossible to understand. For,
निमित्तमुद्दिश्य हि यः प्रकुप्यति
ध्रुवं स तस्यापगमे प्रसीदति ।
He who is displeased having some cause in view, is, indeed, pleased when that cause) is removed;
अकारणद्वेषि मनस्तु यस्य वै
कथं जनस्तं परितोषयिष्यति ॥ १५७॥
but how can a man please him whose mind harbours enmity without cause?
किं मयापकृतं राज्ञः । अथवा निर्निमित्तापकारिणश्च भवन्ति राजानः ।
दमनको ब्रूते -- एवमेतत् । शृणु ।
What wrong did I do to the king? Or rather, kings are wont to do injury without any cause. Damanaka observed -- It is just so. Listen.
विज्ञैः स्निग्धैरुपकृतमपि द्वेष्यतामेति किंचित्
साक्षादन्यैरपकृतमपि प्रीतिमेवोपयाति ।
Even an act of kindness, done by man eminently learned and affectionate, becomes hateful; while an actual injury done by others is just regarded with pleasure:
दुर्ग्राह्यत्वान्नृपतिमनसां नैकभावाश्रयाणां
सेवाधर्मः परमगहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः ॥ १५८॥
on account of difficulty of understanding the minds of kings which are unsteady (lit., not the abode of one feeling); the duty of servitude is extremely difficult, not to be comprehended even by Yogis (those who have attained superhuman powers).
अन्यच्च । कृतशतमसत्सु नष्टं सुभाषितशतं च नष्टमबुधेषु ।
वचनशतमवचनकरे बुद्धिशतमचेतने नष्टम् ॥ १५९॥
A hundred obligations (or, services rendered) are lost upon the wicked; a hundred fine speeches upon the illiterate; a hundred words of advice upon those who would not act up to them; and a hundred counsels on the senseless.
किं च । चन्दनतरुषु भुजङ्गा जलेषु कमलानि तत्र च ग्राहाः ।
गुणघातिनश्च भोगे खला न च सुखान्यविघ्नानि ॥ १६०॥
There are serpents on the sandal trees; lotuses grow in water wherein there are also alligators; and when one is in the enjoyment of a thing there are villains to obscure one's good qualities ; (so) pleasures are not without obstructions!
अन्यच्च । मूलं भुजङ्गैः कुसुमानि भृङ्गैः शाखाः प्लवङ्गैः शिखराणि भल्लैः ।
नास्त्येव तच्चन्दनपादपस्य यन्नाश्रितं दुष्टतरैश्च हिंस्रैः ॥ १६१॥
And further, The root is infested by serpents, the flowers by bees, the branches by monkeys and the tops by bears; thus there is nothing belonging to the sandal tree that is not resorted to by very cruel and murderous animals.
अयं तावत्स्वामी वाङ्मधुरो विषहृदयो मया ज्ञातः । यतः ।
दूराद् उच्छ्रितपाणिरार्द्रनयनः प्रोत्सारितार्धासनो
गाढालिङ्गनतत्परः प्रियकथाप्रश्नेषु दत्तादरः ।
As for our master, I have known him to be honeyed in speech but carrying poison in the heart. For, He raises his hand from a distance (by way of greeting) and has his eyes moist (with tears of joy); he proffers half of his seat, he is ready to give a close embrace, shows great regard in making inquiries and talking about one's beloved persons,
अन्तर्भूतविषो बहिर्मधुमयश्चातीव मायापटुः
को नामायमपूर्वनाटकविधिर्यः शिक्षितो दुर्जनैः ॥ १६२॥
has poison inside, but is all sweetness from outside, and is an expert in deceit (or dissembling ): what pantomimic art is this, unheard of before, that has beon learnt by the wicked ?
तथा हि । पोतो दुस्तरवारिराशितरणे दीपोऽन्धकारागमे
निर्वाते व्यजनं मदान्धकरिणां दर्पोपशान्त्यै शृणिः ।
To make matters clear. For crossing the impassable sea there is the boat (provided), the lamp against the approach of darkness, the fan when there is absence of breeze and the goad for quelling the pride of elephants stupified by rut:
इत्थं तद्भुवि नास्ति यस्य विधिना नोपायचिन्ता कृता
मन्ये दुर्जनचित्तवृत्तिहरणे धातापि भग्नोद्यमः ॥ १६३॥
Thus there is nothing on earth, to provide a remedy against which, care has not been taken by the Creator; but, methinks, even the Creator is foiled in his efforts to dispel the (evil) tendencies of the minds of the wicked.
संजीवकः पुनर्निःश्वस्य -- कष्टं भोः ।
कथमहं सस्यभक्षकः सिंहेन निपातयितव्यः । यतः ।
Samjivaka, heaving a sigh again — Alas! Oh, pity! that I, as corn-eater, should be falled by a lion!! For,
ययोरेव समं वित्तं ययोरेव समं बलम् ।
तयोर्विवादो मन्तव्यो नोत्तमाधमयोः क्वचित् ॥ १६४॥
Between those two only whose wealth is equal, or whose power is equal, a dispute can well be understood; but never between the best and the worst.
पुनर्विचिन्त्य । केनायं राजा ममोपरि विकान्तितो न जाने । भेदमुपगताद्राज्ञः
सदा भेतव्यम् । यतः ।
(Reflecting again) I do not know who has set (poisoned the mind of) this king against me. One has to be always in dread of a king whose feelings are estranged. For,
मन्त्रिणा पृथिवीपालचित्तं विघटितं क्वचित् ।
वलयं स्फटिकस्येव को हि संधातुमीश्वरः ॥ १६५ ॥
When a king's mind has once been alienated from his minister who can re-unite it, like a crystal bracelet when broken?
अन्यच्च । वज्रं च राजतेजश्च द्वयमेवातिभीषणम् ।
एकमेकत्र पतति पतत्यन्यत्समन्ततः ॥ १६६ ॥
Moreover, The thunderbolt and kingly power -— these two are extremely terrible: but the one falls in one place, the other (exerts its influence) all round.
तत्संग्रामे मृत्युरेवाश्रीयताम् । इदानीं तदाज्ञानुवर्तनमयुक्तम् । यतः ।
मृतः प्राप्नोति वा स्वर्गं शत्रुं हत्वा सुखानि वा ।
Death in battle, therefore, should be accepted. It will not be proper for me, now, to act in obedience to his commands. Because, If dead, he (a brave warrior) attains heaven; if he kills the foe he obtains happiness.
उभावपि हि शूराणां गुणावेतौ सुदुर्लभौ ॥ १६७ ॥
युद्धकालश्चायम् ।
These two advantages, which the valiant possess, are very rare. And this is the fit time for battle.
यत्रायुद्धे ध्रुवं मृत्युर्युद्धे जीवितसंशयः ।
तमेव कालं युद्धस्य प्रवदन्ति मनीषिणः ॥ १६८ ॥
When out of battle death is certain, but in battle life is doubtful (there is some chance of living), then that, the wise declare to be the time for battle.
यतः । अयुद्धे हि यदा पश्येन्न किञ्चिद् हितमात्मनः ।
युध्यमानस्तदा प्राज्ञो म्रियते रिपुणा सह ॥ १६९॥
For, When a wise man sees no benefit accruing to himself from not fighting, he dies fighting the foe.
जये च लभते लक्ष्मीं मृतेनापि सुराङ्गनाम् ।
क्षणविध्वंसिनः कायाः का चिन्ता मरणे रणे ॥ १७० ॥
In case of victory, he (a warrior) obtains fortune; if he dies, a heavenly damsel: when the bodies are perishable in a moment, what hesitation should there be about dying in battle?
एतच्चिन्तयित्वा संजीवक आह -- भो मित्र कथमसौ मां जिघांसुर्ज्ञातव्यः । दमनको
ब्रूते -- यदासौ समुद्धतलाङ्गूल उन्नतचरणो विवृतास्यस्त्वां पश्यति तदा त्वमपि
स्वविक्रमं दर्शयिष्यसि । यतः ।
Having pondered thus, Samjivaka said -- Friend, how am I to know that he is bent on (lit., desirous of) killing me? Damanaka replied -- When he, with his tail erect, his (fore)-paws lifted up and his mouth wide open, will look at you, you too should display your prowess. For,
बलवानपि निस्तेजाः कस्य नाभिभवास्पदम् ।
निःशङ्कं दीयते लौकेः पश्य भस्मचये पदम् ॥ १७१ ॥
To whom is a man, powerful yet void of fire (spirit, energy) not an object of contempt? Lo, people fearlessly set their foot upon a heap of ashes.
किंतु सर्वमेतत्सुगुप्तमनुष्ठातव्यम् । नो चेन्न त्वं नाहम् । इत्युक्त्वा दमनकः
करटकसमीपं गतः । करटकेनोक्तम् -- किं निष्पन्नम् । दमनकेनोक्तम् --
ut all this must be done with the strictest privacy; otherwise, not you, not I (i. e., it will be all over with us both). Having said these things Damanaka went to Karataka. Karataka asked him -- What is the outcome (of your efforts)? Damanaka replied --
निष्पन्नोऽसावन्योन्यभेदः । करटको ब्रूते -- कोऽत्र संदेहः । यतः ।
बन्धुः को नाम दुष्टानां कुप्येत्को नातियाचितः ।
A reciprocal breach (of friendship) has been effected as intended. Karataka observed -- What doubt can there be as to that! For, Who, possibly, is a friend of the wicked? Who will not get angry when pressed with great importunity?
को न हृष्यति वित्तेन कुकृत्ये को न पण्डितः ॥ १७२ ॥
अन्यच्च । दुर्वृत्तः क्रियते धूर्तैः श्रीमानात्मविवृद्धये ।
किं नाम खलसंसर्गः कुरुते नाश्रयाशवत् ॥ १७३ ॥
Who does not become proud on account of wealth, and who is not clever in doing an evil deed? Moreover, A wealthy man is led into vice by artful men for self-aggrandizement: what mischief does not the company of villains do, like fire?
ततो दमनकः पिङ्गलकसमीपां गत्वा देव समागतोऽसौ पापाशयः । तत्सज्जीभूय
स्थीयताम् इत्युक्त्वा पूर्वोक्ताकारं कारयामास । संजीवकोऽप्यागत्य तथाविधं
विकृताकारं सिंहं दृष्ट्वा स्वानुरूपं विक्रमं चकार । ततस्तयोः प्र्वृत्ते महाहवे
संजीवकः सिंहेन व्यापादितः ।
Damanaka then repaired to Pingalaka, and saying -- My lord, the villain (lit., the vile intentioned one) is coming; do you therefore prepare yourself and wait -- he made him assume the attitude described before. Samjivaka too, on coming there, saw the lion with altered features in that way and displayed his valour in a manner worthy of himself. Then in the fierce battle that ensued Samjivaka was killed by the lion.
अथ पिङ्गलकः संजीवकं व्यापाद्य विश्रान्तः सशोको इव तिष्ठति । ब्रूते च -- किं
मया दारुणं कर्म कृतम् । यतः ।
Now Pingalaka, after he had slain Samjivaka and taken rest, stood like one sorrow-smitten and said -- What a cruel deed have I done! For,
परैः संभुज्यते राज्यं स्वयं पापस्य भाजनम् ।
धर्मातिक्रमतो राजा सिंहो हस्तिवधादिव ॥ १७४ ॥
When a king transgresses his duty, his kingdom is enjoyed by others; while he himself is the abode of sin, like a lion that kills an elephant. * The lion kills the elephant and remains guilty of the murder, while the tusks and bones of the elephant are obtained by others.
अपरं च । भूम्येकदेशस्य गुणान्वितस्य
भृत्यस्य वा बुद्धिमतः प्रणाशे ।
भृत्यप्रणाशो मरणं नृपाणां
नष्टापि भूमिः सुलभा न भृत्याः ॥ १७५॥
When there is loss of a part of one's territory, or, of a servant meritorious and gifted with intellect, the loss of the servant is death to a king: land though lost may easily be acquired, but not servants.
दमनको ब्रूते -- स्वामिन् कोऽयं
नूतनो न्यायो यदरातिं हत्वा संतापः क्रियते । तथा चोक्तम् --
Damanaka observed -- My lord, what a novel course of action is this, that having killed an enemy you should be sorrowing over it! For it is said --
पिता वा यदि वा भ्राता पुत्री वा यदि वा सुहृत् ।
प्राणच्छेदकरा राज्ञा हन्तव्या भूतिमिच्छता ॥ १७६॥
A king who desires his own welfare should put to death those who aim at his life, whether it be his father, or brother, or son or friend.
अपि च । धर्मार्थकामतत्त्वज्ञो नैकान्तकरुणो भवेत् ।
न हि हस्तस्थमप्यन्नं क्षमावान्रक्षितुं क्षमः ॥ १७७॥
Moreover, One, who knows the real nature of Dharma, Artha and Kama, should not be exclusively merciful; for a man given to forgiveness is not able to save even the thing in his hand.
किं च । क्षमा शत्रौ च मित्रे च यतीनामेव भूषणम् ।
अपराधिषु सत्त्वेषु नृपाणां सैव दूषणम् ॥ १७८॥
Also, Forgiveness shown to friend or foe is an ornament in the case of hermits, while the same when shown to offenders by kings is a blemish.
अपरं च । राज्यलोभादहंकारादिच्छतः स्वामिनः पदम् ।
प्रायश्चित्तं तु तस्यैकं जीवोत्सर्गो न चापरम् ॥ १७९॥
Again, There is only one expiation for him who, through lust of sovereignty or pride, covets his master's post, viz., the relinquishing of life (capital punishment) and none else.
अन्यच्च । राजा घृणी ब्राह्मणः सर्वभक्षः
स्त्री चावज्ञा दुष्प्रकृतिः सहायः ।
प्रेष्यः प्रतीपोऽधिकृतः प्रमादी
त्याज्या इमे यश्च कृतं न वेत्ति ॥ १८०॥
A sovereign who is merciful, a Brahmana eating every thing (or, very greedy), a wife not under control, a companion of evil conduct, a servant who is impertinent (lit., going against his master's orders) and an officer who is careless -- these should be abandoned, as well as he who is ungrateful.
विशेषतश्च । सत्याऽनृता च परुषा प्रियवादिनी च
हिंस्रा दयालुरपि चार्थपरा वदान्या ।
Particularly, Truthful and (also) false (when necessary), now harsh and now of sweet address, cruel, and also merciful (at times), now economical (lit., devoted to saving money), anon liberal,
नित्यव्यया प्रचुररत्नधनागमा च
वाराङ्गनेव नृपनीतिरनेकरूपा ॥ १८१॥
ever spending and yet getting money and jewels in plenty -- royal policy, like a harlot, puts on a variety of forms.
इति दमनकेन संतोषितः पिङ्गलकः स्वां प्रकृतिमापन्नः
सिंहासने उपविष्टः । दमनकः प्रहृष्टमनाः विजयतां
महाराजः शुभमस्तु सर्वजगताम् इत्युक्त्वा यथासुखमवस्थितः ।
Thus consoled by Damanaka, Pingalaka regained his natural equanimity and sat on the throne. Damanaka, delighted at heart, said -- Victory to the king! May the worlds be happy! and lived in happiness according to his wishes.
विष्णुशर्मोवाच -- सुहृद्भेदः श्रुतस्तावद्भवद्भिः ।
राजपुत्रा ऊचुः -- भवत्प्रसादाच्छ्रुतः । सुखिनो भूता वयम् ।
विष्णुशर्माब्रवीत् -- अपरमपीदमस्तु --
Vishnuskarma said -- You have heard the separation of Friends! The Princes replied-- Yes, we have by your favour, and have been happy. Vishnusharma said -- Let there be this much in addition --
सुहृद्भेदस्तावद् भवतु भवतां शत्रुनिलये
खलः कालाकृष्टः प्रलयमुपसर्पत्वहरहः ।
As for the separation of friends, let it be in the house of your enemies; let villains being drawn away by the god of death meet with destruction day by day;
जनो नित्यं भूयात्सकलसुखसम्पत्तिवसतिः
कथारामे रम्ये सततमिह बालोऽपि रमताम् ॥ १८२॥
may the people ever be the asylum of prosperity and happiness of every kind; and let young boys always sport in the delightful garden of stories.
॥ विग्रहः ॥
Chapter III. WAR.
पुनः कथारम्भकाले राजपुत्रैरुक्तम् । आर्य
राजपुत्रा वयम् । तद् विग्रहं श्रोतुं नः कुतूहलमस्ति ।
At the time of narrating the stories again, the princes said -- Venerable Sir, we are princes. We have, therefore, a curiosity to hear about War.
विष्णुशर्मणोक्तम् -- यदेव भवद्भ्यो रोचते
तत्कथयामि । विग्रहः श्रूयतां यस्यायमाद्यः श्लोकः --
Vishnusharma said I will relate just what your honours like. Do you hear about (the subject of) War then, of which this is the first Sloka --
हंसैः सह मयूराणां विग्रहे तुल्यविक्रमे ।
विश्वास्य वञ्चिता हंसाः काकैः स्थित्वारिमन्दिरे ॥ १॥
In the combat between the swans and the peacocks, in which equal valour was displayed, the swans were deceived, their confidence being gained by the crows, having resided in the enemy's house.
राजपुत्रा ऊचुः -- कथमेतत् । विष्णुशर्मा कथयति --
अस्ति कर्पूरद्वीपे पद्मकेलिनामधेयं सरः । तत्र हिरण्यगर्भो नाम
राजहंसः प्रतिवसति । स च सर्वैर्जलचर्पक्षिभिर्मिलित्वा
पक्षिराज्येऽभिषिक्तः । यतः ।
The princes asked -- How was that? Vishnusharma related as follows -- There is, in Karpuradvipa, a lake, known as Padmakeli. In it dwelt a royal swan, Hiranyagarbha by name. He was installed their king by all the aquatic birds having assembled together. For,
यदि न स्यान्नरपतिः सम्यङ्नेता ततः प्रजा ।
अकर्णधारा जलधौ विप्लवेतेह नौरिव ॥ २॥
If there be no king to guide the subjects properly, they would sink (in misery) in this world, like a boat without a helmsman in the sea.
अपरं च । प्रजां संरक्षति नृपः सा वर्धयति पार्थिवम् ।
वर्धनाद्रक्षणं श्रेयस्तदभावे सदप्यसत् ॥ ३॥
Moreover, The king protects the subjects; they enrich the king: protection is better than enrichment: for in its absence, even what is, is not (i.e, no property is secure).
एकदासौ राजहंसः सुविस्तीर्णकमलपर्यङ्के सुखासीनः
परिवारपरिवृतस्तिष्ठति । ततः कुतश्चिद्देशादागत्य
दीर्घमुखो नाम बकः प्रणम्योपविष्टः । राजोवाच -- दीर्घमुख ।
One day that royal swan was sitting at ease on a large lotus-couch surrounded by his retinue, when a crane, Dirghamukha by name, coming from some country, made his obeisance and sat down. Dirghamukha, said the king,
दशान्तरादागतोऽसि । वार्तां कथय । स ब्रूते -- देव अस्ति
महती वार्त्ता । तामाख्यातुकाम एव सत्वरमागतोऽहम् । श्रूयताम् ।
you have come from a foreign country. Tell us the news. The crane replied, sire, there is great news and I have hastened here to communicate that. May Your Highness listen.
अस्ति जम्बूद्वीपे विन्ध्यो नाम गिरिः । तत्र चित्रवर्णो नाम मयूरः पक्षिराजो
निवसति । तस्यानुचरैश्चरद्भिः पक्षिभिरहं दग्धारण्यमध्ये
चरन्नवलोकितः । पृष्टश्च -- कस्त्वम् । कुतः समागतोऽसि ।
There is a mountain, Vindhya by name, in Jambudvipa, where lives a peacock, Chitravarna by name, king of birds. While roaming in Dagdharanya, I was observed by his attendant birds and asked -- Who are you and where have you come from?
तदा मयोक्तम् -- कर्पूरद्वीपस्य राजचक्रवर्तिनो हिरण्यगर्भस्य
राजहंसस्यानुचरोऽहं । कौतुकाद्देशान्तरं द्रष्टुमागतोऽस्मि ।
Whereupon I replied -- I am a follower of his Imperial Majesty, the royal swan, Hiranyagarbha, king of Karpuradvipa and have come here out of curiosity to see foreign countries.
एतच्छ्रुत्वा पक्षिभिरुक्तम् -- अनयोर्देशयोः को देशो भद्रतरो
राजा च । मयोक्तम् -- आः किमेवमुच्यते -- महदन्तरम् ।
On hearing this, the birds asked me -- Which of the two countries and kings you think to be the better? I replied -- Why is the question necessary? Great is the difference.
यतः कर्पूरद्वीपः स्वर्ग एव राजहंसश्च द्वितीयः स्वर्गपतिः ।
अत्र मरुस्थले पतिता यूयं किं कुरुथ ।
Karpuradvipa is heaven itself, while the royal swan is the second lord of heaven. Condemned to this desolate place, what do you do here?
आगच्छतास्मद्देशो गम्यताम् ।
ततोऽस्मद्वचनमाकर्ण्य सर्वे सकोपा बभूवुः ।
Come away; let us go to our country. Then on hearing my words all flew into a passion.
तथा चोक्तम् --
पयःपानं भुजङ्गानां केवलं विषवर्धनम् ।
उपदेशो हि मूर्खाणां प्रकोपाय न शान्तये ॥ ४॥
For, To feed serpents on milk is simply to add to their poison : advice given to fools leads to provocation and not to satisfaction.
अन्यच्च । विद्वानेवोपदेष्टव्यो नाविद्वांस्तु कदाचन ।
वानरानुपदिश्याथ स्थानभ्रष्टा ययुः खगाः ॥ ५॥
Moreover, A learned man only should be advised, and never an illiterate one; for having offered advice to monkeys, the birds had to go away being deprived of their place of abode.
राजोवाच -- कथमेतत् ।
दीर्घमुखः कथयति --
The king asked how it was. Dirghamukha thus related --
॥ कथा १ ॥
अस्ति नर्मदातीरे पर्वतोपत्यकायां विशालः शाल्मलीतरुः ।
तत्र निर्मितनीडक्रोडे पक्षिणः सुखं वर्षास्वपि निवसन्ति ।
There is a large Salmali tree on the bank of the Narmada, in the vicinity of a hill. There, in the interiors of nests built by themselves lived certain birds in happiness even in the monsoons.
अथैकदा वर्षासु नीलपटलैरिव
Once in the rainy season, looking like so many dark veils,
जलधरपटलैरावृते नभस्तले धारासारैर्महती वृष्टिर्बभूव ।
the sky being overcast with masses of clouds , there fell a heavy shower of rain in large streams.
ततो वानरांस्तरुतलेऽवस्थिताञ्शीतार्तान्कम्पमानान्
अवलोक्य कृपया पक्षिभिरुक्तम् -- भो भो वानराः शृणुत ।
Then the birds seeing some monkeys at the foot of the tree, suffering from cold and shivering, said, through mercy - Ho monkeys, hear --
अस्माभिर्निर्मिता नीडाश्चञ्चुमात्राहृतैस्तृणैः ।
हस्तपादादिसंयुक्ता यूयं किमिति सीदथ ॥ ६॥
We have built nests with straws brought by means of nothing else but our bills: why do you (then), who are endowed with hands and feet, experience suffering?
वानरैर्जातामर्षैरालोचितम् -- अहो निर्वातनीडगर्भावस्थिताः
सुखिनः पक्षिणोऽस्मान्निन्दन्ति । तद् भवतु तावद्वृष्टेरुपशमः ।
Hearing this, the monkeys being enraged said to themselves - Oh, the birds comfortably lodged in the interior of their neats not exposed to the blast, are reproaching us! Well, let the showers just cease.
अनन्तरं शान्ते पानीयवर्षे
तैर्वानरैर्वृक्षमारुह्य । सर्वे नीडा भग्नास्तेषामण्डानि
चाधः पातितानि । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- विद्वानेवोपदेष्टव्यः इत्यादि ।
Thereafter, when the downpour of rain had stopped, the monkeys climbed up the tree, and smashed all the nests, so that the eggs of the birds fell down. Hence I say -- A learned man only should be advised &c.
राजोवाच -- ततस्तैः किं कृतम् ।
बकः कथयति -- ततस्तैः पक्षिभिः कोपाद् उक्तम् --
What did they do then? -- asked the king. The crane replied -- Then the birds said, in anger --
केनासौ राजहंसो कृतो राजा । ततो मयापि जातकोपेनोक्तम् --
युष्मदीयमयूरः केन राजा कृतः । एतच्छ्रुत्वा
ते सर्वे मां हन्तुमुद्यताः । ततो मयापि स्वविक्रमो दर्शितः ।
Who made the royal swan king? Thereupon I too being irritated asked them -- By whom was your peacock made king? Hearing this they all became ready to kill me, whereupon I also displayed my valour.
यतः ।
अन्यदा भूषणं पुंसः क्षमा लज्जेव योषितः ।
पराक्रमः परिभवे वैयात्यं सुरतेष्विव ॥ ७॥
For, On other occasions forbearance is an ornament to men as modesty is to women; but on the occasion of an insult a heroic action is an ornament as boldness (absence of modesty) is to a woman at the time of sexual enjoyment.
राजा विहस्याह --
आत्मनश्च परेषां च यः समीक्ष्य बलाबलम् ।
अन्तरं नैव जानाति स तिरस्क्रियतेऽरिभिः ॥ ८॥
The king smiled and observed -- He, who having well considered his own strength or weakness as well as that of his enamies is not at all able to mark the difference, is despised by the enemies.
अन्यच्च । सुचिरं हि चरन्नित्यं क्षेत्रे सस्यम् अबुद्धिमान् ।
द्वीपिचर्मपरिच्छन्नो वाग्दोषाद्गर्दभो हतः ॥ ९॥
Again, A stupid ass, that daily fed upon corn in a field for a long time, being covered with a tiger's skin, suffered death for the fault of his voice.
बकः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
राजा कथयति --
The crane asked how it was. The king related --
॥ कथा २ ॥
Fable 2
अस्ति हस्तिनापुरे विलासो नाम रजकः । तस्य गर्दभोऽतिवाहनाद्
दुर्बलो मुमूर्षुरिवाभवत् । ततस्तेन रजकेनासौ व्याघ्रचर्मणा
प्रच्छाद्यारण्यकसमीपे सस्यक्षेत्रे विमुक्तः ।
There lived, in Hastinapura, a washerman, Vilasa by name. His ass had become feeble on account of carrying burdens too heavy for him and was almost at the point of death. Thereapon the washerman, having wrapped him up in a tiger's skin, let him loose in a corn-field near a forest.
ततो दूरात् तमवलोक्य व्याघ्रबुद्ध्या क्षेत्रपतयः सत्वरं पलायन्ते ।
Now the masters of the field seeing him from a distance used quickly run away taking him for a tiger.
अथैकदा केनापि सस्यरक्षकेण धूसरकम्बलकृततनुत्राणेन
धनुःकाण्डं सज्जीकृत्यानतकायेनैकान्ते स्थितम् ।
Then, one day, one of the men setting guard over the corn having protected his body with a dusky blanket and got a bow and arrow ready, remained waiting in a corner with his body bent down (in a bent posture).
तं च दूराद् दृष्ट्वा गर्दभः पुष्टाङ्गो यथेष्टसस्यभक्षणजातबलो
गर्दभीयमिति मत्वोच्चैः शब्दं कुर्वाणस्तदभिमुखं धावितः ।
Seeing him from a distance the donkey who had grown stout and gained strength by eating corn at pleasure thought him to be a female ass and setting up a loud bray ran towards her.
ततस्तेन सस्यरक्षकेण चीत्कारशब्दान्निश्चित्य गर्दभोऽयमिति
लीलयैव व्यापादितः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- सुचिरं हि
चरन्नित्यम् इत्यादि ॥ ततस्ततः ।
The corn-keeper knowing for certain from his braying that it was an ass killed him easily. Hence I say -- A stupid ass, that daily fed on corn &c. What next?
दीर्घमुखो ब्रूते -- ततस्तैः पक्षिभिरुक्तम् -- अरे पाप
दुष्ट बक अस्माकं भूमौ चरन्नस्माकं स्वामिनमधिक्षिपसि ।
Dirghamukha replied -- Then the birds said -- Ah villain, vile crane, treading on our ground, thou revilest our lord !
तन् न क्षन्तव्यमिदानीम् । इत्युक्त्वा सर्वे मां चञ्चुभिर्हत्वा सकोपा ऊचुः --
पश्य रे मूर्ख स हंसस्तव राजा सर्वथा मृदुः ।
This cannot be borne now. With these words all of them pecked at me with their bills and said wrathfully -- Look here, thou blockhead, that swan, thy king, is extremely mild.
तस्य राज्येऽधिकारो एव नास्ति । यत एकान्ततो मृदुः करतलगतमप्यर्थं
रक्षितुमक्षमः । कथं स पृथिवीं शास्ति राज्यं वा तस्य किम् ।
He has no claim at all to sovereignty. For he who is all mildness is not able to save even the thing on the palm of his hand. How can he govern the earth then, or what is a kingdom to him?
त्वं कूपमण्डूकस्तेन तदाश्रयमुपदिशसि । शृणु ।
You too are a frog in a well (an inexperienced fellow) and hence you advise us to seek his shelter. Listen --
सेवितव्यो महावृक्षः फलच्छायासमन्वितः ।
यदि दैवात्फलं नास्ति च्छाया केन निवार्यते ॥ १०॥
A large tree, endowed with fruit and shade, should be resorted to: if, through ill luck, there be no fruit who can take off the shade?
अन्यच्च । हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः ।
पयोऽपि शौण्डिकीहस्ते वारुणीत्यभिधीयते ॥ ११॥
Moreover, A mean person should not be served; shelter should be taken with a great man; (for) even milk in the hands of a liquor-selling-woman is said to be (taken for) wine.
अन्यच्च । महानप्यल्पतां याति निर्गुणे गुणविस्तरः ।
आधाराधेयभावेन गजेन्द्र इव दर्पणे ॥ १२॥
The extent (lit, multitude) of merits, although great, shrinks into smallness when coming in contact with one void of merits, by the relation of the receiver and the received, like a large elephant in a mirror.
विशेषतश्च । व्यपदेशेऽपि सिद्धिः स्यादतिशक्ते नराधिपे ।
शशिनो व्यपदेशेन शशकाः सुखमासते ॥ १३॥
Especially, When a king is very powerful, success can be obtained even by using a fiction: the hares lived happily by the fiction (fictitiously representing themselves as the servants) of the moon.
मयोक्तम् -- कथमेतत् ।
पक्षिणः कथयन्ति --
॥ कथा ३ ॥
I asked how it was; and the birds related -- FABLE III.
कदाचिद्वर्षास्वपि वृष्टेरभावात्
तृषार्तो गजयूथो यूथपतिमाह -- नाथ कोभ्युपायोऽस्माकं
जीवनाय । अस्त्यत्र क्षुद्रजन्तूनां अपि निमज्जनस्थानम् । वयं तु
निमज्जनाभावादन्धा इव । क्व यामः किं कुर्मः ।
Once upon a time, as there was no rain even in the rainy season, a herd of elephants, being oppressed with thirst, said to their chief-Lord, what means have we to save our lives? There is a place here (only) for little creatures to bathe; but for want of a bath we are as though blind; so whither can we go? What can we do?
ततो हस्तिराजो
नातिदूरं गत्वा निर्मलं ह्रदं दर्शितवान् । ततो दिनेषु गच्छत्सु
तत्तीरावस्थिताः गजपादाहतिभिश्चूर्णिताः क्षुद्रशशकाः ।
Thereupon the lord of the herd, going to a place not very far off, showed them a pond full of clear water. Then, as days passed on, the little hares that lived on its bank were crushed by the treadings of the elephants.
अनन्तरं शिलीमुखो नाम शशकश्चिन्तयामास -- अनेन गजयूथेन
पिपासाकुलितेन प्रत्यहमत्रागन्तव्यम् । अतो विनश्यत्यस्मत्कुलम् ।
Upon this a hare, Silimukha by name, thus deliberated. This herd of elephants, being troubled by thirst, must be coming here every day and thus our race is destroyed.
ततो विजयो नाम वृद्धशशकोऽवदत् । मा विषीदत ।
मयात्र प्रतीकारः कर्तव्यः ।
ततोऽसौ प्रतिज्ञाय चलितः । गच्छता च तेनालोचितम् --
मया गजयूथसमीपे स्थित्वा वक्तव्यम् ।
Then a certain old hare, Vijaya by name, said -- Be not sorry. I will remedy this. He then set out, having undertaken to achieve that. On his way he reflected. How shall I stand before the herd of elephants and address them -- For,
स्पृशन्न् अपि गजो हन्ति जिघ्रन्न् अपि भुजङ्गमः ।
हसन्नपि नृपो हन्ति मानयन्न् अपि दुर्जनः ॥ १४॥
An elephant kills though only touching; a serpent when simply smelling; a king though smiling; and a wicked man although (outwardly) showing honour.
अतोऽहं पर्वतशिखरमारुह्य यूथनाथं संवादयामि ।
तथानुष्ठिते यूथनाथ उवाच -- कस्त्वम् । कुतः समायातः ।
I shall, therefore, mount the top of the hill and address the leader of the herd. That being done, the leader of the herd asked him -- Who are you and where have you come from?
स ब्रूते --
शशकोऽहम् । भगवता चन्द्रेण भवदन्तिकं प्रेषितः ।
यूथपतिराह -- कार्यमुच्यताम् ।
विजयो ब्रूते --
He replied, I am a hare sent to you by the divine Moon. Declare your purpose, said the chief of the herd. Vijaya replied --
उद्यतेष्वपि शस्त्रेषु दूतो वदति नान्यथा ।
सदैवावध्यभावेन यथार्थस्य हि वाचकः ॥ १५॥
A messenger never speaks falsely even though weapons be raised against him: for he always declares the truth on account of the immunity from being killed which he always enjoys.
तद् अहं तदाज्ञया ब्रवीमि -- शृणु । यदेते चन्द्रसरोरक्षकाः
शशकास्त्वया निःसारितास्तन्न युक्तं कृतम् । यतस्ते
शशकाश्चिरमस्माकं रक्षिताः । अत एव मे शशाङ्कः इति प्रसिद्धिः ।
I, therefore, speak by his order. Listen. You did not act properly inasmuch as you caused the hares, the guardians of the Moonlake, to be dispersed. For these hares have long been my proteges. Hence it is that I am called Sasanka (the hare-emblemed).
एवमुक्तवति दूते यूथपतिर्भयादिदमाह -- इदमज्ञानतः
कृतम् । पुनर्न गमिष्यामि ।
When the messenger had thus declared himself, the head of the herd said thus in terror -- This was done in ignorance, I will not go there again.
दूत उवाच यद्येवं तद् अत्र सरसि कोपात् कम्पमानं भगवन्तं शशाङ्कं प्रणम्य
प्रसाद्य गच्छ । ततो रात्रौ यूथपतिं नीत्वा जले
चञ्चलं चन्द्रबिम्बं दर्शयित्वा स यूथपतिः प्रणामं कारितः ।
The messenger said -- If so, pay your homage to the lord Moon, trembling with anger in the lake, and having (thus) propitiated him, you may go. Then at night the chief of the herd was taken to the pond there shown the tremulous disk of the moon (reflected) in the water and made to bow down.
उक्तं च तेन -- देव अज्ञानादनेनापराधः कृतः । ततः
क्षम्यताम् । नैवं वारान्तरं विधास्यते । इत्युक्त्वा प्रस्थापितः ।
The messenger said -- Lord, he committed the fault through ignorance; he should, therefore, be forgiven. He will not do so a second time. With these words he was sent away.
अतोहं ब्रवीमि -- व्यपदेशेऽपि सिद्धिः स्यात् इति । ततो
मयोक्तम् -- स एवास्मत्प्रभू राजहंसो महाप्रतापोऽतिसमर्थः ।
Hence I say -- When the king is very powerful, success can be obtained &c. Then I said -- That royal swan, our master, alone is mighty in valour and is exceedingly powerful.
त्रैलोक्यस्यापि प्रभुत्वं तत्र युज्यते किं पुना राज्यम् इति । तदाहं
तैः पक्षिभिः दुष्ट कथमस्मद्भूमौ चरसि इत्यभिधाय
राज्ञश्चित्रवर्णस्य समीपं नीतः ।
Even the sovereignty of the three worlds would become him, what of a kingdom then! Thereupon the birds, saying -- "Villain, what business have you to tread on our ground?" took me to king Chitravarna.
ततो राज्ञः पुरो मां प्रदर्श्य तैः प्रणम्योक्तम् -- देव अवधीयताम् ।
एष दुष्टो यदस्मद्देशे चरन्नपि देवपादान् अधिक्षिपति ।
Then having presented me before the king they said after bowing -- Sire, please note -- this wicked crane, although travelling in our country, speaks contemptuously of your Majesty's feet.
राजाह -- कोऽयम् । कुतः समायातः ।
ते ऊचुः --
हिरण्यगर्भनाम्नो राजहंसस्यानुचरः कर्पूरद्वीपाद् आगतः ।
The king demanded who I was and where, I came from. They replied -- He is an attendant of the royal swan, Hiranyagarbha by name, and has come here from Karpuradvipa.
अथाहं गृध्रेण मन्त्रिणा पृष्टः -- कस्तत्र मुख्यो मन्त्री इति ।
मयोक्तम् -- सर्वशास्त्रार्थपारगः सर्वज्ञो नाम चक्रवाकः ।
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- युज्यते । स्वदेशजोऽसौ । यतः ।
Thereafter, the minister, a vulture, asked me -- Who is the prime minister there? I replied -- A Chakravaka, named Sarvajna(all-knowing), who is an adept in the principles of all the Sastras (sciences). The vulture remarked--This is proper. He is a native of the same country.
स्वदेशजं कुलाचारं विशुद्धमुपधाशुचिम् ।
मन्त्रज्ञमव्यसनिनं व्यभिचारविवर्जितम् ॥ १६॥
A king should fittingly appoint, as his minister, one who is born in the same country, who is nobly bred (lit. observes the family practices, or who is nobly born and of virtuous conduct; see com.), who is pure and of tried honesty, who is a sound counsellor, who is not addicted to vices and does not swerve from the right path,
अधीतव्यवहाराङ्गं मौलं ख्यातं विपश्चितम् ।
अर्थस्योत्पादकं सम्यग्विदध्यान्मन्त्रिणं नृपः ॥ १७॥
who has mastered the law relating to disputes, who is hereditary, reputed, learned and an expert in raising revenue.
अत्रान्तरे शुकेनोक्तम् -- देव
कर्पूरद्वीपादयो लघुद्वीपा जम्बुद्वीपान्तर्गता एव । तत्रापि
देवपादानामेवाधिपत्यम् । ततो राज्ञाप्युक्तम् -- एवमेव । यतः ।
Just then a parrot observed--Please Your Highness, Karpuradvipa and other small countries are inciuded in Jambudvipa and therefore the authority of Your Highness extends over them also. To this the king replied that it was so. For,
राजा मत्तः शिशुश्चैव प्रमदा धनगर्वितः ।
अप्राप्यमपि वाञ्छन्ति किं पुनर्लभ्यमेव यत् ॥ १८॥
A king, a mad man, a child, a young woman, and one elated with the pride of wealth, desire what is unattainable; how much more so then what can be certainly obtained?
ततो मयोक्तम् -- यदि वचनम्मात्रेणैवाधिपत्यं सिद्ध्यति ।
तदा जम्बुद्वीपेऽप्यस्मत्प्रभोर्हिरण्यगर्भस्य स्वाम्यमस्ति ।
To this I said -- If by mere words one's sovereignty can be established, our lord Hiranyagarbha too has mastery over Jambudvipa.
शुक उवाच -- कथमत्र निर्णयः ।
मयोक्तं -- संग्राम एव ।
राज्ञा विहस्योक्तम् -- स्वस्वामिनं गत्वा सज्जीकुरु ।
The parrot said -- How can this matter be decided? I replied -- By war. The king said smilingly -- Go and ask your king to be ready.
तदा मयोक्तम् -- स्वदूतोऽपि प्रस्थाप्यताम् ।
राजोवाच -- कः प्रयातु दौत्येन । यत एवम्भूतो दूतः कार्यः ।
Then I said -- You should send your ambassador also. The king asked -- Who will go as an ambassador? For a person of this description should be appointed an ambassador.
भक्तो गुणी शुचिर्दक्षः प्रगल्भोऽव्यसनी ।
ब्राह्मणः परमर्मज्ञो दूतः स्यात्प्रतिभानवान् ॥ १९॥
A messenger should be devoted to his master, pure (or, honest), diligent, bold, unaddicted to vices, forgiving, a Brahmana, one knowing the weak points (or, secrets of the enemy) and ready-witted.
गृध्रो वदति -- सन्त्येव दूता बहवः । किंतु ब्राह्मण एव कर्तव्यः ।
यतः ।
The vulture observed -- Many are fit to be ambassadors, no doubt; but a Brahmana alone should be preferred. For,
प्रसादं कुरुते पत्युः सम्पत्तिं नाभिवाञ्छति ।
कालिमा कालकूटस्य नापैतीश्वरसङ्गमात् ॥ २०॥
He pleases his master and does not aim at his wealth: the blackness of Kalakuta (a kind of deadly poison) does not vanish even by its contact with Isvara (Siva).
राजाह -- ततः शुक एव व्रजतु ।
शुक त्वमेवानेन सह गत्वास्मदभिलषितं ब्रूहि ।
The king - Let the parrot go then. Parrot, you yourself then go with him and declare our will.
शुको ब्रूते -- यथाज्ञापयति देवः । किंत्वयं
दुर्जनो बकः । तदनेन सह न गच्छामि । तथा चोक्तम् --
The Parrot said -- As Your Majesty commands. But this crane is a villain; I will not go with him. For, it is said --
खलः करोति दुर्वृत्तं नूनं फलति साधुषु ।
दशाननो हरेत्सीतां बन्धनं स्यान् महोदधेः ॥ २१॥
A wicked man commits an evil deed, while its consequences are sure to be suffered by the good. Ravana carried away Sita, while the great ocean suffered confinement (had a bridge built over it).
अपरं च । न स्थातव्यं न गन्तव्यं दुर्जनेन समं क्वचित् ।
काकसङ्गाद्धतो हंसस्तिष्ठन्गछंश्च वर्तकः ॥ २२॥
Moreover, One should not, in any case, live with a wicked man: from their contact with a crow were killed a goose who lived with him and a quail for going on a journey with him.
राजोवाच -- कथमेतत् ।
शुकः कथयति --
॥ कथा ४ ॥
The king asked how that was, whereupon the parrot related -- FABLE IV.
अस्त्युज्जयिनीवर्त्मनि प्रान्तरे महान् पिप्पलीवृक्षः । तत्र हंसकाकौ
निवसतः । कदाचिद् ग्रीष्मसमये परिश्रान्तः कश्चित्पथिकस्तत्र
तरुतले धनुःकाण्डं सन्निधाय सुप्तः ।
There is a large fig-tree in a forest bordering on the road leading to Ujjayini, upon which lived a goose and a crow. One day in the sultry season, a traveller, being fatigued, slept under the treo, having placed a bow and arrow by his side.
क्षणान्तरे तन्मुखाद्वृक्षच्छायापगता । ततः सूर्यतेजसा तन्मुखं
व्याप्तमवलोक्य तद्वृक्षस्थितेन हंसेन पक्षौ प्रसार्य
पुनस्तन्मुखे छाया कृता । ततो निर्भरनिद्रासुखिना
तेनाध्वन्येन मुखव्यादानं कृतम् ।
After a short while the shadow of the tree moved away from his face. Then, seeing that his face was covered with the sun, a swan, that lived on the tree, through mercy, spread his wings and shaded his face again. Thereafter the traveller, happy in the enjoyment of sound sleep, yawned.
अथ परसुखमसहिष्णुः स्वभावदौर्जन्येन स काकस्तस्य मुखे
पुरीषोत्सर्गं कृत्वा पलायितः । ततो यावद् असौ पान्थ उत्थायोर्ध्वं
निरीक्षते तावत्तेनावलोकितो हंसः काण्डेन हत्वा व्यापादितः ।
Now the crow, unable to bear the happiness of others, through the wickedness natural to his species, muted into his mouth and flew away. Thereupon, as soon as the traveller rose and looked up, he saw the goose whom he killed with an arrow.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- दुर्जनेन सम न स्थातव्यमिति ।
Hence I say -- One should not live with a wicked man.
वर्तककथामपि कथयामि --
॥ कथा ५ ॥
I will also relate the story of the quail. FABLE V.
एकदा सर्वे पक्षिणः भगवतो
गरुडस्य यात्राप्रसङ्गेन समुद्रतीरं प्रचलिताः ।
Once upon a time all the birds went to the sea-side, on a pilgrimage in honour of Garuda (the divine Eagle).
तत्र काकेन सह वर्तकश्चलितः । अथ गच्छतो गोपालस्य
मस्तकस्थितभाण्डाद्दधि वारंवारं तेन काकेन खाद्यते ।
Among them a quail travelled with a crow. Now the crow repeatedly ate of the curds in a pot which a cowherd was carrying on his head.
ततो यावदसौ दधिभाण्डं भूमौ निधायोर्ध्वमवलोकते तावत्
तेन काकवर्तकौ दृष्टौ । ततस्तेन खेदितः काकः पलायितः ।
वर्तकः मन्दगतिस्तेन प्राप्तो व्यापादितः ।
Thereupon, as he placed his pot on the ground and looked up, the cowherd saw the crow and the quail. The crow being affrighted by him flew away, while the quail being slow of flight was caught and put to death.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- न स्थातव्यं न गन्तव्यम् इत्यादि ॥ ततो मयोक्तम् -- भ्रातः शुक
किमेवं ब्रवीषि । मां प्रति यथा श्रीमद्देवपादास्तथा भवान्
अपि । शुकेनोक्तम् -- अस्त्वेवम् । किंतु ।
Hence I say -- One should neither live nor go with &c. I then observed -- Brother parrot, why do you talk so? I esteem you as much as I do His Majesty. The parrot replied -- Be it so; but --
दुर्जनैरुच्यमानानि सस्मितानि प्रियाण्यपि ।
अकालकुसुमानीव भयं संजनयन्ति हि ॥ २३॥
Even sweet things accompained with smiles, said by the wicked, certainly cause fear, like flowers appearing out of season.
दुर्जनत्वं च भवतो वाक्यादेव ज्ञातम् ।
यदनयोर्भूपालयोर्विग्रहे भवद्वचनमेव निदानम् । पश्य ।
As for your wickedness, that was known from your very speech, since your words are the cause of the fight between these two kings. See --
प्रत्यक्षेऽपि कृते दोषे मूर्खः सान्त्वेन तुष्यति ।
रथकारो निजां भार्यां सजारां शिरसाकरोत् ॥ २४॥
A fool is pleased by conciliatory words, even though an offence be committed before his eyes: (as was) a wheel-wright (who) took on his head his wife with her paramour.
राज्ञोक्तम् -- कथमेतत् ।
शुकः कथयति --
॥ कथा ६ ॥
The king asked how that was, upon which the parrot related -- FABLE VI.
अस्ति यौवनश्रीनगरे
मन्दमतिर्नाम रथकारः । स च स्वभार्यां बन्धकीं जानाति ।
किंतु जारेण समं स्वचक्षुषा नैकस्थाने पश्यति ।
There was a wheel-wright in the town of Yauvanasri named Mandamati (Dull-wit). He knew his wife was false, but had never seen her, with his own eyes, with her lover in the same place.
ततोऽसौ रथकारः अहमन्यं ग्रामं गच्छामि इत्युक्त्वा चलितः । कियद्
दूरं गत्वा निभृतं पुनरागत्य स्वगृहे खट्वातले स्थितः ।
Then the wheel-wright saying that he was going to a village set out, but after having gone some way he returned secretly and hid himself in his house under the cot.
अथ रथकारो ग्रामान्तरं गत इत्युपजातविश्वासया तद्वध्वा
जारः संध्याकाल एवाहूतः ।
Now the wife of the wheel-wright, confident that he had gone to another village, called her lover just in the evening.
पश्चात्तेन समं तस्यां खट्वायां निर्भरं क्रीडन्ती
खट्वातलस्थितेन सहानुभूतकिंचिद् अङ्गसंस्पर्शात्स्वामिनं विज्ञाय सा विषण्णाभवत् ।
Thereafter, as she was sporting heartily with him on the cot, she got a slight touch of his (the wheel-wright's) body as he lay under the cot, and feeling sure that it was her husband, became disconcerted.
ततो जारेणोक्तम् -- किमिति त्वमद्य
मया सह निर्भरं न रमसे । विस्मितेव प्रतिभासि ।
Thereupon the gallant asked her - Why don't you sport with me lustily to-day but appear to be bewildered?
अथ तयोक्तम् --
अनभिज्ञोऽसि । योऽसौ मम प्राणेश्वरो येन ममाकौमारं
सख्यं सः अद्य ग्रामान्तरं गतः । तेन विना सकलजनपूर्णोऽप्ययं
ग्रामो मां प्रत्यरण्यवत्प्रतिभाति ।
To this she replied -- You are quite ignorant of the truth. He who is the lord of my life, and with whom I have been in friendship from childhood has gone to a village. Without him, this village, although full of people, is to me as a desert.
किं भावि तत्र परस्थाने किं खादितवान्कथं वा प्रसुप्त इत्यस्मद्धृदयं विदीर्यते ।
जारो ब्रूते -- तव किमेवंविधा स्नेहभूमिः स ते रथकारः ।
How has he fared in that strange place? What has he eaten ? How has he managed for his bedding ?- with such thoughts is my mind distracted. What then, asked the gallant, is that wheel-wright such an object of love to you?
बन्धक्यवदत् -- रे बर्बर किं ब्रवीषि । शृणु ।
The whore replied -- You blockhead, why do you chatter thus? Listen --
परुषाण्यपि चोक्ता या दृष्टा या क्रुद्धचक्षुषा ।
सुप्रसन्नमुखी भर्तुः सा नारी धर्मभाजनम् ॥ २५॥
She, who, although addressed in harsh words or looked at with angry eyes, receives her husband with a cheerful countenance, is the abode of religious merit.
अपरं च । नगरस्थो वनस्थो वा पापो वा यदि वा शुचिः ।
यासां स्त्रीणां प्रियो भर्ता तासां लोका महोदयाः ॥ २६॥
The worlds of great bliss are (in reserve) for those women who love their husband, whether living in a city or a wilderness, whether reprobate or virtuous.
अन्यच्च । भर्ता हि परमं नार्या भूषणं भूषणैर्विना ।
एषा विरहिता तेन शोभनापि न शोभना ॥ २७॥
Again, The husband is the most precious ornament of a woman althogh without (other) ornaments: for without him, she, even though decorated, is without grace.
त्वं जारो
मनोलौल्यात्पुष्पताम्बूलसदृशः कदाचित्सेव्यसे ।
You are a paramour. Through levity of heart, I sometimes consort with you, as I would chew a roll of betel-nut leaves or put on flowers.
स च स्वामी मां विक्रेतुं देवेभ्यो
ब्राह्मणेभ्योऽपि वा दातुमीश्वरः । किं बहुना । तस्मिज्जीवति जीवामि ।
तन्मरणे चानुमरणं करिष्यामीत्येष मे निश्चयः । यतः ।
But he is my master, having power to sell me, or to give me away to the gods or the Brahmanas. In short, I live while he lives, and will die with him when he dies. This is my resolve. For,
तिस्रः कोट्योऽर्धकोटी च यानि लोमानि मानवे ।
तावत्कालं वसेत्स्वर्गे भर्तारं यानुगच्छति ॥ २८॥
For years three crores and a half - which is the number of hair on the human body -- does a woman live in heaven, who follows her husband in death
अन्यच्च । व्यालग्राही यथा व्यालं बलादुद्धरते बिलात् ।
तद्वद्भर्तारमादाय स्वर्गलोके महीयते ॥ २९॥
Moreover, Just as a snake-catcher forcibly draws a serpent out of its hole, so does she take her husband to heaven and is exalted with him.
अपरं च । चितौ परिष्वज्य विचेतनं पतिं
प्रिया हि या मुञ्चति देहमात्मनः ।
कृत्वापि पापं शतसंख्यमप्यसौ
पतिं गृहीत्वा सुरलोकमाप्नुयात् ॥ ३०॥
Moreover, The wife, who having clasped her dead husband on the funeral pyre quits her body, will, although she might have committed sins to be counted by hundreds, go to heaven with her husband.
एतत्सर्वं श्रुत्वा स रथकारोऽवदत् -- धन्योऽहं
यस्येदृशी प्रियवादिनी स्वामिवत्सला भार्या इति मनसि
निधाय तां खट्वां स्त्रीपुरुषसहितां मूर्ध्नि कृत्वा सानन्दं
ननर्त । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- प्रत्यक्षेऽपि कृते दोषे इत्यादि ॥
Having heard all that, that wheel-wright said to himself -- Blessed am I whose wife is so sweet-speaking and attached to her lord! With these thoughts in his mind, he having taken on his head the cot with the man and woman upon it danced with joy. Hence I say - A fool is pleased &c.
ततोऽहं तेन राज्ञा यथाव्यवहारं संपूज्य प्रस्थापितः ।
शुकोऽपि मम पश्चादागच्छन् आस्ते ।
I was then treated with the usual formalities by the king and dismissed. The parrot too is coming after me.
एतत्सर्वं परिज्ञाय यथाकर्तव्यमनुसंधीयताम् । चक्रवाको
विहस्याह -- देव बकेन तावद्देशान्तरमपि गत्वा यथाशक्ति
राजकार्यमनुष्ठितम् । किंतु देव स्वभाव एष मूर्खानाम् । यतः ।
All this being considered, let the course to be adopted be well attended to. The Chakravaka observed smilingly -- Please Your Highness, the crane, for one, has advanced Your Highness's interests to the best of his ability. But my lord, this is the nature of fools. For,
शतं दद्यान्न विवदेदिति विज्ञस्य संमतम् ।
विना हेतुमपि द्वन्द्वमेतन्मूर्खस्य लक्षणम् ॥ ३१॥
One should give a hundred but not quarrel — this is the opinion of the wise : but a strife without cause is the sign of the foolish.
राजाह -- किमतीतोपालम्भनेन । प्रस्तुतमनुसंधीयताम् ।
चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- देव विजने ब्रवीमि । यतः ।
The king remarked -- What is the use of finding fault with the past? Let us attend to the matter in hand. Chakravaka -- My lord, I will speak in private. For,
वर्णाकारप्रतिध्वानैर्नेत्रवक्त्रविकारतः ।
अप्यूहन्ति मनो धीरास्तस्माद्रहसि मन्त्रयेत् ॥ ३२॥
The wise read the thoughts of others from complexion, outward features and the echo of voice, as also from the movements of the eyes and the mouth: one should, therefore, hold a consultation in private.
राजा मन्त्री च तत्र स्थितौ । अन्येऽन्यत्र
गताः । चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- देव अहमेवं जानामि ।
कस्याप्यस्मन्नियोगिनः प्रेरणया बकेनेदमनुष्ठितम् । यतः ।
The king and the minister remained there; the rest withdrew to other places. The Chakravaka spoke -- Sire, my idea is this -- The crane has done this at the instigation of some one of our officers. For,
वैद्यानामातुरः श्रेयान्व्यसनी यो नियोगिनाम् ।
विदुषां जीवनं मूर्खः सद्वर्णो जीवनं सताम् ॥ ३३॥
A sick man is most welcome to physicians, and such is one who is vicious (or, one in trouble) to the officers of state: the clever prey upon fools, while one of a high caste is the life of the good.
राजाब्रवीत् -- भवतु कारणमत्र
पश्चान्निरूपणीयम् । सम्प्रति यत्कर्तव्यं तन् निरूप्यताम् ।
The king remarked -- Be that as it may. The cause may be investigated afterwards. Just now let it be determined what steps we are to take.
चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- देव प्रणिधिस्तावत्तत्र
यातु । ततस्तदनुष्ठानं बलाबलं च जानीमः । तथा हि ।
Chakravaka -- My lord, let our spy first go there so that we may know of their doings as well as their strength and weaknees. For,
भवेत्स्वपरराष्ट्राणां कार्याकार्यावलोकने ।
चारश्चक्षुर्महीभर्तुर्यस्य नास्त्यन्ध एव सः ॥ ३४॥
A spy is the eye of a king in the determination of what policy to pursue or what to abandon with regard to his own kingdom or that of his enemies: he who has it not is quite blind.
स च द्वितीयं विश्वासपात्रं गृहीत्वा यातु ।
तेनासौ स्वयं तत्रावस्थाय द्वितीयं तत्रत्यमन्त्रकार्यं
सुनिभृतं निश्चित्य निगद्य प्रस्थापयति । तथा चोक्तं --
Let him, too, take with him a second person worthy of confidence, so that himself staying there he might very secretly ascertain the secret measures adopted by the enemy there, and having communicated the same to him, would send him here. For it is said
तीर्थाश्रमसुरस्थाने शास्त्रविज्ञानहेतुना ।
तपस्विव्यञ्जनोपेतैः स्वचरैः सह संवसेत् ॥ ५॥
(A king ) should hold discourse with his spies gathered under the disguise of ascetics at some holy place or a hermitage or a temple with the (outward) object of learning the truths of the sastras.
गूढचारश्च यो जले स्थले
चरति । ततोऽसावेव बको नियुज्यताम् । एतादृश एव कश्चिद्
बको द्वितीयत्वेन प्रयातु । तद्गृहलोकाश्च राजद्वारे तिष्ठतु ।
किंतु देव एतदपि सुगुप्तमनुष्ठातव्यम् । यतः ।
A secret spy is one who can move in water or on land. Let that very crane, therefore be appointed. Let some such other crane go with him as his companion; and let the members of their families stay at the royal gate. But my lord, all thiş should be done, with the profoundest secrecy. For,
षट्कर्णो भिद्यते मन्त्रस्तथा प्राप्तश्च वार्तया ।
इत्यात्मना द्वितीयेन मन्त्रः कार्यो महीभृता ॥ ३६॥
Counsel when reaching six ears (if heard by a third person) leaks out as well as that got by hearsay: wherefore a king should deliberate with himself as the second (i. e. with his minister alone).
पश्य । मन्त्रभेदेऽपि ये दोषा भवन्ति पृथिवीपतेः ।
न शक्यास्ते समाधातुमिति नीतिविदां मतम् ॥ ३७॥
Observe. The evils resulting to a king from his counsels getting out are not capable of being remedied -- such is the opinion of those who are versed in politics.
राजा विमृश्योवाच -- प्राप्तस्तावन्मयोत्तमः प्रणिधिः ।
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- तदा सङ्ग्रामविजयोऽपि प्राप्तः ।
The king after reflecting -- I have got the best emissary. The minister -- Then success in battle too is got.
अत्रान्तरे प्रतीहारः प्रविश्य
प्रणम्योवाच देव -- जम्बुद्वीपादागतो द्वारि शुकस्तिष्ठति ।
राजा चक्रवाकमालोकते । चक्रवाकेनोक्तम् -- कृतावासे तावद्गत्वा भवतु ।
Just then the door-keeper, having entered, said after bowing -- Sire, a parrot who has come from Jambudvipa is waiting at the door. The king looked at Chakravaka. Chakravaka said -- let him first go to the residence prepared for him and wait there.
पश्चादानीय द्रष्टव्यः ।
प्रतीहारस्तमावासस्थानं नीत्वा गतः ।
We shall send for him afterwards and grant him an interview. The door-keeper took the parrot to the residence and departed.
राजाह -- विग्रहस्तावदुपस्थितः ।
चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- देव तथापि सहसा विग्रहो न विधिः । यतः ।
The king -- As for war it is imminent. Chakravaka -- Still to go to war all at once is no wise policy. For,
सचिवः किं स मन्त्री वा य आदावेव भूपतिम् ।
युद्धोद्योगं स्वभूत्यागं निर्दिशत्यविचारितम् ॥ ३८॥
Is he a servant or a counsellor, who, without due consideration, advises his sovereign at the outset to prepare for war or to quit his land?
अपरं च । विजेतुं प्रयतेतारीन्न युद्धेन कदाचन ।
अनित्यो विजयो यस्माद् दृश्यते युध्यमानयोः ॥ ३९।
Moreover, One should try to put down an enemy but never by means of fight: for victory in the case of combatants is always uncertain.
अन्यच्च । साम्ना दानेन भेदेन समस्तैरथवा पृथक् ।
साधितुं प्रयतेतारीन् न युद्धेन कदाचन ॥ ४०॥
Again, One should strive to subdue an enemy by conciliatory means, by gifts, by (sowing seeds of) discord -- by all these simultaneously or singly -- but never by battle.
यतः । सर्व एव जनः शूरो ह्यनासादितविग्रहः ।
अदृष्टपरसामर्थ्यः सदर्पः को भवेन्न हि ॥ ४१॥
And further, Every man is a hero as long as not engaged in a fight: who will not be proud that has not yet experienced the strength of his enemy (or, of another)?
किं च । न तथोत्थाप्यते ग्रावा प्राणिभिर्दारुणा यथा ।
अल्पोपायान्महासिद्धिरेतन्मन्त्रफलं महत् ॥ ४२॥
Moreover, A stone is not raised by men so easily as it is with a pole (serving as a lever); great success by trifling means is the great fruit of counsel.
किंतु विग्रहमुपस्थितं विलोक्य व्यवह्रियताम् । यतः ।
But seeing that war is at hand let the necessary steps be taken. For,
यथा कालकृतोद्योगात् कृषिः फलवती भवेत् ।
तद्वन्नीतिरियं देव चिरात् फलति न क्षणात् ॥ ४३॥
As husbandry becomes fruitful from labour spent upon it in due season, so, my lord, this policy (political measures) bears fruit after a long time (when the proper time comes), and not in a moment.
अपरं च । महतो दूरभीरुत्वमासन्ने शूरता गुणः ।
विपत्तौ हि महांल्लोके धीरतामधिगच्छति ॥ ४४॥
Again Fearing a danger when at a distance but displaying bravery when it is at hand is a virtue that belongs to the great : a great man, in this world, conducts himself bravely in adversity.
अन्यच्च । प्रत्यूहः सर्वसिद्धीनामुत्तापः प्रथमः किल ।
अतिशीतलमप्यम्भः किं भिनत्ति न भूभृतः ॥ ४५॥
Also, Mental agitation is the first (greatest) obstacle to success of every kind: does not water, even though exceedingly cold, break through a mountain?
विशेषतश्च देव महाबलोऽसौ चित्रवर्णो राजा । यतः ।
More particularly because king Chitravarna is very powerful. For,
बलिना सह योद्धव्यमिति नास्ति निदर्शनम् ।
तद्युद्धं हस्तिना सार्धं नराणां मृत्युमावहेत् ॥ ४६॥
There is no ordinance to the affect that one should fight with the powerful: that fight which is between men and elephants must result in the destruction of the former.
अन्यच्च । स मूर्खः कालमप्राप्य योऽपकर्तरि वर्तते ।
कलिर्बलवता सार्धं कीटपक्षोद्गमो यथा ॥ ४७॥
Again, He is a fool who without getting the proper opportunity commences operations against his adversary: a strife with the powerful is like an insect getting wings (UAT v. l. like the exertions of an insect's wings, i. e. quite futile ).
किं च । कौर्मं संकोचमास्थाय प्रहारमपि मर्षयेत् ।
प्राप्तकाले तु नीतिज्ञ उत्तिष्ठेत्क्रूरसर्पवत् ॥ ४८॥
Moreover, Having recourse to the tortoise's mode of contracting its body one should suffer even a blow: but when the right time comes, one, knowing the policy, should rise like a fierce cobra.
शृणु देव । महत्यल्पेऽप्युपायज्ञः सममेव भवेत् क्षमः ।
समुन्मूलयितुं वृक्षांस्तृणानीव नदीरयः ॥ ४९॥
I invite your attention, my lord, to this, One who knows how to use the proper remedies is able to uproot the great and the small equally, as is the current of a river which sweeps away the trees and grass.
शुकोऽत्राश्वास्य तावद्ध्रियतां यावद्दुर्गं सज्जीक्रियते । यतः ।
For this purpose, let this parrot, the enemy's emissary, be given assurances and detained here until the fortress is prepared. For,
एकः शतं योधयति प्राकारस्थो धनुर्धरः ।
शतं शतसहस्राणि तस्माद् दुर्गं विधीयते ॥ ५०॥
A single bowman standing on the battlement can fight a hundred, and, a hundred a hundred thousand : hence a fortress is set down (* by writers of military science) as necessary.
अदुर्गोविषयः कस्य नारेः परिभवास्पदम् ।
अदुर्गोऽनाश्रयो राजा पोतच्युतमनुष्यवत् ॥ ५१॥
The territory of what king which is without strongholds is not liable to be conquered by the enemy? A king who has no fortress is helpless like a man fallen overboard.
दुर्गं कुर्यान् महाखातमुच्चप्राकारसंयुतम् ।
सयन्त्रं सजलं शैलसरिन्मरुवनाश्रयम् ॥ ५२॥
One should build a castle with a large trench, furnished with lofty battlements, having machines, and a good supply of water and situated in a place sarrounded by hills, rivers and deserts.
विस्तीर्णतातिवैषम्यं रसधान्येध्मसंग्रहः ।
प्रवेशश्चापसारश्च सप्तैता दुर्गसम्पदः ॥ ५३॥
Spaciousness, extreme difficulty of access (lit. ruggedness of the ground), a large store of water, grain and fuel and the means of ingress and egress -- these seven are the precious possessions of a fort.
राजाह -- दुर्गानुसंधाने को नियुज्यताम् ।
चक्रो ब्रूते --
The king -- Who should be entrusted with the work of getting the fortress ready? Chakravaka said --
यो यत्र कुशलः कार्ये तं तत्र विनियोजयेत् ।
कर्मस्वदृष्टकर्मा यः शास्त्रज्ञोऽपि विमुह्यति ॥ ५४॥
One should employ a man in that business in which he is skilled. He who has no practical knowledge of a work gets bewildered (when set to it), although well versed in science.
तदाहूयतां सारसः । तथानुष्ठिते सत्यागतं सारसमालोक्य
राजोवाच -- भोः सारस त्वं सत्वरं दुर्गमनुसंधेहि ।
Let Sarasa be called then. That being done, when Sarasa came the king looked at him and said -- Sarasa, quickly attend to the fitting up of a fortress.
सारसः प्रणम्योवाच -- देव दुर्गं तावदिदमेव चिरात्
सुनिरूपितमास्ते महत्सरः ।
किंत्वत्र मध्यवर्तिद्वीपे द्रव्यसङ्ग्रहः कार्यताम् । यतः ।
Sarasa replied after bowing -- As for a fortress, Sire, I have long well marked this large lake as such; only let a stock of provisions be ordered to be laid up in the island which is in its centre. For,
धान्यानां संग्रहो राजन्नुत्तमः सर्वसंग्रहात् ।
निक्षिप्तं हि मुखे रत्नं न कुर्यात्प्राणधारणम् ॥ ५५॥
The store of grains, O king, is the best of all stores; because a jewel put into the mouth cannot support life.
किं च । ख्यातः सर्वरसानां हि लवणो रस उत्तमः ।
गृहीतं च विना तेन व्यञ्जनं गोमयायते ॥ ५६॥
Moreover, Of all spiced things salt is known to be the best : for a condiment taken without it tastes like cowdung (is quite insipid).
राजाह -- सत्वरं गत्वा सर्वमनुतिष्ठ ।
The king -- Go and attend to everything with despatch.
पुनः प्रविश्य
प्रतीहारो ब्रूते -- देव सिंहलद्वीपादागतो मेघवर्णो नाम वायसराजः
सपरिवारो द्वारि तिष्ठति । देवपादं द्रष्टुमिच्छति ।
The door-keeper having entered again -- Sire, a crow, Meghavarna (cloud-colour) by name, who has come from Ceylon, is waiting at the gate with his retinue and wishes to see Your Majesty's feet.
राजाह --
काकः पुनः सर्वज्ञो बहुद्रष्टा च । तद् भवति संग्राह्यः ।
The king -- A crow again knows everything and has a wide range of observation and is, for this reason, worthy of being retained.
चक्रो ब्रूते -- देव अस्त्येवं । किंतु काकः
स्थलचरः । तेनास्मद्विपक्षपक्षे नियुक्तः कथं संग्राह्यः ।
तथा चोक्तम् --
Chakravaka observed -- Sire, this may be. But the crow is a land-bird and is consequently set on the side of our enemies. How should he be admitted, then? For it is said --
आत्मपक्षं परित्यज्य परपक्षेषु यो रतः ।
स परैर्हन्यते मूढो नीलवर्णशृगालवत् ॥ ५७॥
That fool, who deserting his own side is attached to the enemy's party, is killed by the enemies, like the jackal with the blue colour.
राजोवाच -- कथमेतत् ।
मन्त्री कथयति --
॥ कथा ७ ॥
The king asked how it was. The minister related -- FABLE VII.
अस्त्यरण्ये कश्चिच्छृगालः स्वेच्छया नगरोपान्ते भ्राम्यन् नीलीभाण्डे पतितः ।
पश्चात्तत उत्थातुमसमर्थः प्रातरात्मानं मृतवत् संदर्श्य स्थितः ।
A certain jackal that lived in a forest, fell, while wandering on the borders of a town, into an indigo-pot. Thereupon, not being able to get out of it, he feigned himself dead in the morning and so remained.
अथ नीलीभाण्डस्वामिना मृत इति ज्ञात्वा
तस्मात्समुत्थाप्य दूरे नीत्वापसारितस्तस्मात्पलायितः ।
Now the master of the indigo-pot, taking him to be dead, lifted him out of it, and carrying him to a distance, cast him off, whence he ran off.
ततोऽसौ वनं गत्वा स्वकीयमात्मानं नीलवर्णमवलोक्याचिन्तयत् --
अहमिदानीमुत्तमवर्णः । तद् अहं स्वकीयोत्कर्षं किं न साधयामि ।
Then on going into the forest, and finding himself turned blue, he thus meditated -- I have now got the best colour. Why should I not, then, secure my own exaltation?
शृगालानाहूय तेनोक्तं - अहं भगवत्या वनदेवतया
स्वहस्तेनारण्यराज्ये सर्वौषधिरसेनाभिषिक्तः ।
Having thus cogitated he called together the jackals and said I am installed king of the forest by the revered goddess of the woods with her own hands being anointed with the juice of the sarvaushadhi.
तदद्यारभ्यारण्येऽस्मदाज्ञया व्यवहारः कार्यः ।
शृगालाश्च तं विशिष्टवर्णमवलोक्य साष्टाङ्गपातं प्रणम्योचुः --
Hence, from to-day all business should be carried on in the forest according to my orders. The jackals on their part, observing that he possessed the particular colour, prostrated themselves before him and said --
यथाज्ञापयति देव इति अनेनैव क्रमेण
सर्वेष्वरण्यवासिष्वाधिपत्यं तस्य बभूव ।
It will be as Your Majesty commands. In the same way his sovereignty was gradually established over the other tenants of the forest.
ततस्तेन स्वज्ञातिभिरावृतेनाधिक्यं साधितम् । ततस्तेन व्याघ्रसिंहादीन्
उत्तमपरिजनान् प्राप्य सदसि शृगालान् अवलोक्य लज्जमानेनावज्ञया
दूरीकृताः स्वज्ञातीयाः । ततो विषण्णाञ्शृगालानवलोक्य
केनचिद् वृद्धशृगालेनैतत् प्रतिज्ञातं --
Thereafter being surrounded by his brethren he attained supreme power. After a while, having obtained servants of superior rank ench as the tiger, the lion and the like, he was ashamed to find the jackals in the court and discarded them with scorn. Then, finding the jackals dejected, an old jackal thus declared himself --
मा विषीदत । यदनेनानभ्ज्ञेन
नीतिविदो मर्मज्ञा वयं स्वसमीपात्परिभूतास्तद्यथायं नश्यति तथा विधेयम् ।
Do not be sorry. Since by him who does not know his interest, we, who are well versed in policy and know his weak points, have been dismissed from his presence, that must be done by which he will perish.
यतोऽमी व्याघ्रादयो वर्णमात्रविप्रलब्धाः
शृगालमज्ञात्वा राजानमिमं मन्यन्ते ।
For these (nobler animals) the tiger and others, deceived by him mere colour and not recognizing him as a jackal consider him their king.
तद्यथायं परिचितो भवति तथा कुरुत । तत्र चैवमनुष्ठेयम् ।
यत् सर्वे संध्यासमये तत्संनिधाने महारावमेकदैव करिष्यथ ।
ततस्तं शब्दमाकर्ण्य जातिस्वभावात्तेनापि शब्दः कर्तव्यः । यतः ।
Act, therefore, in such a way that he will be found out. To this end this should be done. That at the evening time you shall, all of you, set up a loud yell simultaneously in his hearing (lit. near him); so that on hearing that howl, he too following the natural disposition of his species, will utter a cry. For,
यः स्वभावो हि यस्यास्ति स नित्यं दुरतिक्रमः ।
श्वा यदि क्रियते राजा तत् किं नाश्नात्युपानहम् ॥ ५८॥
That which is the natural disposition of one is always hard to be got rid of. If a dog were made a king would he not gnaw a shoe?
ततः शब्दादभिज्ञाय स व्याघ्रेण
हन्तव्यः । ततस्तथानुष्ठिते सति तद् वृत्तम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Upon this, being discovered by his voice he will be killed by the tiger. Then that being done that happened (i. e. the plan being put into execution the event turned out as anticipated). For it is said --
छिद्रं मर्म च वीर्यं च सर्वं वेत्ति निजो रिपुः ।
दहत्यन्तर्गतश्चैव शुष्कं वृक्षमिवानलः ॥ ५९॥
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- आत्मपक्षं परित्यज्य इत्यादि ।
An enemy of our own tribe knows our weak points, our secrets, our valour - our everything, and when such a one is in our midst he burns, as fire in the interior does a dry tree. I say, therefore, -- That fool who having left off his own side &c.
राजाह -- यद्येवं तथापि
दृश्यतां तावदयं दूराद् आगतः । तत्संग्रहे विचारः कार्यः ।
The king -- Although this is the case, still he must be seen as he has come from a distance. We shall consider the question of his being retained here.
चक्रो ब्रूते -- देव प्रणिधिः
प्रहितो दुर्ग्श्च सज्जीकृतः । अतः शुकोऽप्यालोक्य प्रस्थाप्यताम् । किं तु
The minister -- Please Your Highness, the emissary has been sent and the castle put in readiness. Let the parrot, therefore, be granted an interview and dismissed. But,
नन्दं जघान चाणक्यस्तीक्ष्णदूतप्रयोगतः ।
तच्छूरान्तरितं दूतं पश्येद्धीरसमन्वितः ॥ ६०॥
Chanakya killed Nanda through the agency of a sharp spy: one should, therefore, see an emissary, accompanied by wise men and with brave men intervening.
ततः सभां कृत्वाहूतः शुकः काकश्च । शुकः किंचिदुन्नतशिरा
दत्तासन उपविश्य ब्रूते -- भो हिरण्यगर्भ त्वां महाराजाधिराजः
श्रीमच्चित्रवर्णः समाज्ञापयति ।
Thereafter a council being called, the parrot and the crow were sent for. The parrot, with his neck raised a little, sat on the seat that was offered him and said -- His Imperial Majesty, the great Chitravarna commands you --
यदि जीवितेन श्रिया वा प्रयोजनमस्ति तदा सत्वरमागत्यास्मच्चरणौ प्रणम ।
नो चेद् अवस्थातुं स्थानान्तरं चिन्तय ।
If you care anything for your life or wealth, come quickly and bow to our feet; or else think of some other place to live in.
राजा सकोपमाह -- आः
सभायां कोऽप्यस्माकं नास्ति य एनं गलहस्तयति ।
The king said in a rage -- Is there none among our servants here who will seize him by the neck (and turn him out)?
उत्थाय मेघवर्णो ब्रूते -- देव आज्ञापय । हन्मि दुष्टं शुकम् ।
सर्वज्ञो राजानं
काकं च सान्त्वयन्ब्रूते -- शृणु तावत् ।
Meghavarna rising -- Sire, give but your command and I will kill the vile parrot. Sarvajna, having pacified the king and the crow, said -- Please listen --
न सा सभा यत्र न सन्ति वृद्धा वृद्धा न ते ये न वदन्ति धर्मम् ।
धर्मः स नो यत्र न सत्यमस्ति सत्यं न तद्यच्छलमभ्युपैति ॥ ६१॥
That is not an assembly which has no old men in it; those are not old men who do not declare what is just. That is no justice which has no truth in it; and that is not truth which borders on (leaves room for, partakes of) fraud.
यतो धर्मश्चैषः । दूतो म्लेच्छोऽप्यवध्यः स्याद्राजा दूतमुखो यतः ।
उद्यतेष्वपि शस्त्रेषु दूतो वदति नान्यथा ॥ ६२॥
And justice requires this -- A messenger, even though he be a Mlechchha (an out-caste) is exempt from being put to death; for a king has a messenger for his mouth (i.e. it is the king who speaks through his messenger). A messenger, does not speak otherwise (than directed) although weapons be raised against him.
अपरं च । स्वापकर्षं परोत्कर्षं दूतोक्तैर्मन्यते तु कः ।
सदैवावध्यभावेन दूतः सर्वं हि जल्पति ॥ ६३॥
Moreover, Who believes in his own inferiority or his enemy's superiority from the words of a messenger? For, from his nature of not being punishable by death, a messenger speaks anything and everything.
ततो राजा काकश्च स्वां
प्रकृतिमापन्नौ । शुकोऽप्युत्थाय चलितः । पश्चाच्चक्रवाकेणानीय
प्रबोध्य कनकालङ्कारादिकं दत्वा संप्रेषितो ययौ ।
On hearing this the king and the crow were pacified (lit. were themselves again). The parrot, too, got up and went away. He was, however, brought back by Chakravaka, and after matters had been explained to him, was presented with gold ornaments and the like and dismissed, upon which he departed.
शुकोऽपि विन्ध्याचलं गत्वा राजानं प्रणतवान् ।
तमालोक्य चित्रवर्णो राजोवाच -- शुक का वार्ता । कीदृशोऽसौ देशः ।
The parrot having returned to the Vindhya mountain paid his respects to his sovereign. Seeing him the king Chitravarna asked him -- What is the news? What sort of country is that?
शुको ब्रूते -- देव संक्षेपादियं वार्ता । संप्रति युद्धोद्योगः
क्रियताम् । देशश्चासौ कर्पूरद्वीपः स्वर्गैकदेशः
कथं वर्णयितुं शक्यते ।
The parrot replied -- Sire, in brief this is the news. Let preparations be made for war. As for the country of Karpuradvipa, it is (as it were) a part of heaven; how can it be possible to describe it?
ततः सर्वान् शिष्टानाहूय राजा मन्त्रयितुमुपविष्टः । आह च -- संप्रति
कर्तव्यविग्रहे यथाकर्तव्यमुपदेशं ब्रूत । विग्रहः पुनरवश्यं
कर्तव्यः । तथा चोक्तम् --
The King, on hearing this, summoned all the principal persons together and sat down to deliberate with them. Said he -- With reference to the war presently to be carried on, advise me as to what is proper to be done. As for war it is absolutely determined upon. For it is said: --
असंतुष्टा द्विजा नष्टा संतुष्टाश्च महीभुजः ।
सलज्जा गणिका नष्टा निर्लज्जाश्च कुलस्त्रियः ॥ ६४॥
Brahmanas are ruined when discontented, and kings when contented, a harlot full of modesty is ruined and so are ladies of family, if without modesty.
दूरदर्शी नाम गृध्रो ब्रूते --
देव व्यसनितया विग्रहो न विधिः । यतः ।
The vulture named Duradarsi (Far-seeing) observed -- My lord it is not advisable to enter upon war under adverse circumstances. For,
मित्रामात्यसुहृद्वर्गा यदा स्युर्दृढभक्तयः ।
शत्रूणां विपरीताश्च कर्तव्यो विग्रहस्तदा ॥ ६५॥
When one's friends, ministers and allies are deeply attached, and of the enemy the reverse of this (i. e. disaffected with their sovereign), then only should war be made.
अन्यच्च । भूमिर्मित्रं हिरण्यं च विग्रहस्य फलं त्रयम् ।
यदैतन्निश्चितं भावि कर्तव्यो विग्रहस्तदा ॥ ६६॥
Moreover, (The acquisition of) land, an ally and gold -- these three are the benefits accruing from war; when these can be counted upon as sure then only war should be made.
राजाह --
मम बलानि तावदवलोकयतु मन्त्री । तदैतेषामुपयोगो ज्ञायताम् ।
एवमाहूयतां मौहूर्तिकः । निर्णीय शुभलग्नं यात्रार्थं ददातु ।
The King observed -- Let the minister first inspect my forces, so that it may be known how far they will be useful. Similarly, let the astrologer be called who will determine and tell us the lucky time for starting.
मन्त्री ब्रूते --
तथापि सहसा यात्राकरणमनुचितम् । यतः ।
The minister -- Still, to begin the expedition all at once is not advisable. For,
विशन्ति सहसा मूढा ये विचार्य द्विषद्बलम् ।
खड्गधारापरिष्वङ्गं लभन्ते ते सुनिश्चितम् ॥ ६७॥
Those fools, who without taking counsel rashly enter into the enemy's army, are sure to get an embrace with the edges of their swords.
राजाह -- मन्त्रिन् ममोत्साहभङ्गं सर्वथा
मा कृथाः । विजिगीषुर्यथा परभूमिमाक्रमति तथा कथय ।
The king said -- Minister, do not at all damp my spirits. Tell me how one wishing for conquest invades his enemy's territory.
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- तत्कथयामि ।
किंतु तदनुष्ठितमेव फलप्रदम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
The vulture replied I will tell you that. But it will yield fruit (prove beneficial) only if acted upon. For it is said --
किं मन्त्रेणाननुष्ठाने शास्त्रवत्पृथिवीपतेः ।
न ह्यौषधपरिज्ञानाद्व्याधेः शान्तिः क्वचिद् भवेत् ॥ ६८॥
What is the use of counsel given according to the Sastras (or, like the knowledge of the Sastras) to a king, if it be not acted upon? In no case can a disease be cured by the mere knowledge of medicine.
राजादेशश्चानतिक्रमणीय इति यथाश्रुतं निवेदयामि । शृणु ।
But as the command of a king is not to be transgressed, I will relate what I have learnt from the tests on the subject. Please to listen --
नद्यद्रिवनदुर्गेषु यत्र यत्र भयं नृप ।
तत्र तत्र च सेनानीर्यायाद्व्यूहीकृतैर्बलैः ॥ ६९॥
In rivers, mountains, wilds and difficult passes, wherever there is danger, O king, there the general should march with his forces drawn in battle-array.
बलाध्यक्षः पुरो यायात्प्रवीरपुरुषान्वितः ।
मध्ये कलत्रं स्वामी च कोशः फल्गु च यद् बलम् ॥ ७०॥
The commander of the forces should march in the van, accompained by the flower of the army; in the middle should be stationed the women, the king, the treasury and the unimportant sections of the army.
पार्श्वयोरुभयोरश्वा अश्वानां पार्श्वतो रथाः ।
रथानां पार्श्वयोर्नागा नागानां च पदातयः ॥ ७१॥
On each flank the horse; on the sides of the horse the chariots; on both sides of the chariots the elephants, and on the flanks of the elephants the foot-soldiers.
पश्चात्सेनापतिर्यायात्खिन्नानाश्वासयञ्छनैः ।
मन्त्रिभिः सुभटैर्युक्तः प्रतिगृह्य बलं नृप ॥ ७२॥
In the rear should slowly march, O king, the commander-in-chief, accompained by ministers and brave warriors, cheering those that are fatigued and backing the army.
समेयाद्विषमं नागैर्जलाढ्यं समहीधरम् ।
सममश्वैर्जलं नौभिः सर्वत्रैव पदातिभिः ॥ ७३॥
One should traverse uneven ground abounding in water and full of hills by means of elephants, plains by means of horses, and rivers by means of boats, while the infantry should be employed in all place.
हस्तिनां गमनं प्रोक्तं प्रशस्तं जलदागमे ।
तद् अन्यत्र तुरङ्गाणां पत्तीनां सर्वदैव हि ॥ ७४॥
A march with elephants is said to be advantageous at the approach of the rainy season, with the horse at other times, and with foot-soldiers in all seasons.
शैलेषु दुर्गमार्गेषु विधेयं नृपरक्षणम् ।
सुयोधै रक्षितस्यापि शयनं योगनिद्रया ॥ ७५॥
In hills and difficult passes the king should be protected; and he should sleep wakefully even though guarded by brave men.
नाशयेत् कर्षयेच्छत्रून्दुर्गकण्टकमर्दनैः ।
परदेशप्रवेशे च कुर्यादाटविकान्पुरः ॥ ७६॥
One should destroy and harass the enemy by hard-pressing him in difficult places; and at the time of entering into the enemy's country, the foresters should be placed foremost.
यत्र राजा तत्र कोशो विना कोशान्न राजता ।
स्वभृत्येभ्यस्ततो दद्यात्को हि दातुर्न युध्यते ॥ ७७॥
Where the king is, there the treasure should also be; without the treasure there can be no royalty: from it (the treasure) the king should make payments to his servants: for who does not fight for one who gives (freely)?
यतः । न नरस्य नरो दासो दासस्त्वर्थस्य भूपते ।
गौरवं लाघवं वापि धनाधननिबन्धनम् ॥ ७८॥
For, Man is not the servant of men, O king, but he is the servant of money. Greatness or littleness too depends on the possession or absence of wealth.
अभेदेन च युध्येरन् रक्षेयुश्च परस्परम् ।
फल्गु सैन्यं च यत्किंचिन्मध्ये व्यूहस्य कारयेत् ॥ ७९॥
They (the warriors) should fight in a compact body and defend one another; and whatever worthless portion of the army there may be should be placed in the middle of the column.
पदातींश्च महीपालः पुरोऽनीकस्य योजयेत् ।
उपरुध्यारिमासीत राष्ट्रं चास्योपपीडयेत् ॥ ८०॥
A king should place the infantry in the front of the army (or, send the infantry ahead of the army); he should wait having blocked up the enemy and also harass his country.
स्यन्दनाश्वैः समे युध्येदनूपे नौद्विपैस्तथा ।
वृक्षगुल्मावृते चापैरसिचर्मायुधैः स्थले ॥ ८१॥
Upon even ground he should fight with chariots and horses; in a place overflowing with water with boats and elephants; in a place covered with trees and shrubs, with bows; and on open land with swords, shields and other weapons.
दूषयेच्चास्य सततं यवसान्नोदकेन्धनम् ।
भिन्द्याच्चैव तडागानि प्राकारान् परिखास्तथा ॥ ८२॥
He should ever and anon spoil his (enemy's) fodder, food, water and firewood; and demolish his tanks, ramparts and ditches.
बलेषु प्रमुखो हस्ती न तथान्यो महीपतेः ।
निजैरवयवैरेव मातङ्गोऽष्टायुधः स्मृतः ॥ ८३॥
The elephant forms the chief factor in a king's army: there is none other like him, because the elephant is said to possess eight weapons in his very limbs.
बलमश्वश्च सैन्यानां प्राकारो जङ्गमो यतः ।
तस्मादश्वाधिको राजा विजयी स्थलविग्रहे ॥ ८४॥
The cavalry is the strength of the army inasmuch as it forms a moving bulwark; a king, therefore, who is rich in cavalry, is victorious in a land-fight.
तथा चोक्तम् । युध्यमाना हयारूढा देवानामपि दुर्जयाः ।
अपि दूरस्थितास्तेषां वैरिणो हस्तवर्तिनः ॥ ८५॥
For it is said -- Warriors fighting on horseback are difficult to be conquered even by the gods; the enemies, even though stationed at a distance, are (as it were) in their hands.
प्रथमं युद्धकारित्वं समस्तबलपालनम् ।
दिङ्मार्गाणां विशोधित्वं पत्तिकर्म प्रचक्षते ॥ ८६॥
Striking the first blow in a battle, taking care of the whole army, and the clearing of roads in all directions -- (these three) they say, form the duty of the infantry.
स्वभावशूरमस्त्रज्ञमविरक्तं जितश्रमम् ।
प्रसिद्धक्षत्रियप्रायं बलं श्रेष्ठतमं विदुः ॥ ८७॥
That army they declare to be the best, the soldiers in which are naturally brave, skilled in the use of weapons, loyal (lit. attached to their master), inured to fatigue and mostly drawn from the ranks of renowned Kshatriyas.
यथा प्रभुकृतान्मानाद्युध्यन्ते भुवि मानवाः ।
न तथा बहुभिर्दत्तैर्द्रविणैरपि भूपते ॥ ८८॥
As men fight in this world, O king, by honour being shown to them by their lord, so they do not, even by large sums of money being given to them.
वरमल्पबलं सारं न कुर्यान्मुण्डमण्डलीम् ।
कुर्यादसारभङ्गो हि सारभङ्गमपि स्फुटम् ॥ ८९॥
It is better to have a small army of chosen men than a multitude of heads: for the defeat of the weak will evidently lead to that of the strong.
अप्रसादोऽनधिष्ठानं देयांशहरणं च यत् ।
कालयापोऽप्रतीकारस्तद्वैराग्यस्य कारणम् ॥ ९०॥
Witholding of favour, not getting posts of honour [* Lit. non-leadership], seizing the portion due (to any one), delay (in payment or advancement) and non-retaliation (or, not redressing wrongs) -- these are the causes of the disaffection of the troops.
अपीडयन्बलं शत्रूञ्जिगीषुरभिषेणयेत् ।
सुखसाध्यं द्विषां सैन्यं दीर्घयानप्रपीडितम् ॥ ९१॥
One wishing to gain victory should attack his enemies without hard-pressing his own army: for the army of the enemies, when extremely wearied by long marches, can be easily overpowered.
दायादाद् अपरो मन्त्रो नास्ति भेदकरो द्विषाम् ।
तस्मादुत्थापयेद् यत्नाद्दायादं तस्य विद्विषः ॥ ९२॥
There is no cleverer stroke of policy than a kinsman (of the enemy won over) causing the over-throw of an enemy: one should, therefore, set up, by all means, a kinsman of the enemy against him.
सन्धाय युवराजेन यदि वा मुख्यमन्त्रिणा ।
अन्तः प्रकोपनं कार्यमभियोक्तुः स्थिरात्मनः ॥ ९३॥
Having entered into a league with the heir-apparent or the principal minister (of the enemy), [* Or, one should cause internal discord (in the camps of) an invader who is &c.] an invader who is steady of purpose, should cause internal dissentions (in his enemy's camps).
क्रूरं मित्रं रणे चापि भङ्गं दत्त्वाभिघातयेत् ।
अथवा गोग्रहाकृष्ट्या तन्मुख्याश्रितबन्धनात् ॥ ९४॥
One should cause the destruction of a formidable ally (of his enemy) by giving him a defeat on the battlefield (or by fleeing before him and then suddenly turning upon him), or by seizing his cattle and capturing his principal men and dependants.
स्वराज्यं वासयेद्राजा परदेशापवाहनात् ।
अथवा दानमानाभ्यां वासितं धनदं हि तत् ॥ ९५॥
A king should cause his country to be populated by men brought forcibly from other countries, or rather, by means of gifts and the bestowal of honour; for when replenished with subjects it proves prosperous.
राजाःअ -- आः किं बहुनोदितेन ।
The king observed -- Ah, why waste more words on this?
आत्मोदयः परज्यानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती ।
तदूरीकृत्य कृतिभिर्वाचस्पत्यं प्रतायते ॥ ९६॥
The aggrandizement of one's power and the decline of that of the enemy -- the accomplishment of these two is all policy : having put forth this pre-eminently, those versed in policy display great eloquence (lit. play the Brihaspati).
मन्त्रिणा विहस्योक्तम् -- सर्वं सत्यमेतत् । किंतु ।
The minister observed with a smile -- All this is true, but --
अन्यद् उच्छृङ्खलं सत्त्वमन्यच्छास्त्रनियन्त्रितम् ।
सामानाधिकरण्यं हि तेजस्तिमिरयोः कुतः ॥ ९७॥
Unrestrained might is one thing, while might guided (or governed) by (the principles of) science is quite another: for whence can there be the existence of light and darkness in one and the same place?
तत उत्थाय राजा मौहूर्तिकावेदितलग्ने प्रस्थितः । अथ
प्रणिधिप्रहितश्चरो हिरण्यगर्भमागत्योवाच --
Then the king, having got up set out at the auspicious hour declared by the astrologers. Now the spy despatched by his emissary came to Hiranyagarbha and said --
देव समागतप्रायो राजा चित्रवर्णः । संप्रति मलयपर्वताधित्यकायां
समावासितकटको वर्तते । दुर्गशोधनं प्रतिक्षणमनुसंधातव्यम्
यतोऽसौ गृध्रो महामन्त्री । किं च केनचित्सह तस्य
विश्वासकथाप्रसङ्गेनैव तदिङ्गितमवगतं मया ।
यदनेन कोऽप्यस्मद्दुर्गे प्रागेव नियुक्तः ।
Sire, king Chitavarna is almost arrived. Now he is on the table-land of the Malaya mountain with his army encamped there. The castle should be carefully searched every moment: for, the vulture is a great statesman and in the course of his confidential talk with some one, I came to know his secret that he had already placed some one in our castle.
चक्रो ब्रूते -- देव काक एवासौ संभवति ।
राजाह -- न कदाचिद् एतत् । यद्येवं तदा कथं
My lord, said Chakravaka, that could be the crow alone. It can never be, remarked the king. For, if this were the case, how
तेन शुकस्याभिभवायोद्योगः कृतः ।
अपरं च । शुकस्य गमनात् तस्य विग्रहोत्साहः । स चिराद् अत्रास्ते ।
could he have shown readiness to punish the parrot? Besides, it was after the departure of the parrot, that an eagerness for war was displayed there, while he is here for a long time.
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- तथाप्यागन्तुकः शङ्कनीयः ।
राजाह --
आगन्तुका अपि कदाचिदुपकारका दृश्यन्ते । शृणु ।
The minister remarked -- Still a stranger must be suspected. The king rejoined -- Even strangers are sometimes observed to be benefactors. Listen --
परोऽपि हितवान्बन्धुर्बन्धुरप्यहितः परः ।
अहितो देहजो व्याधिर्हितमारण्यमौषधम् ॥ ९८॥
Even a stranger doing good is a relative, while a relative doing harm is a stranger (an enemy); a disease taking its birth in the body is injurious, while a medicinal herb produced in the forest is salutary.
अपरं च । आसीद्वीरवरो नाम शूद्रकस्य महीभृतः ।
सेवकः स्वल्पकालेन स ददौ सुतमात्मनः ॥ ९९॥
Moreover, There was a servant of the king Sudraka, Viravara by name, who in a short time, offered up his son.
चक्रः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
राजा कथयति --
॥ कथा ८ ॥
Chakravaka asked how it was; the king related -- FABLE VIII.
अहं पुरा शूद्रकस्य राज्ञः क्रीडासरसि कर्पूरकेलिनाम्नो
राजहंसस्य पुत्र्या कर्पूरमञ्जर्या सहानुरागवानभवम् ।
Formerly I fell in love with Karpuramanjari, daughter of the royal gander, Karpurakeli by name, who lived in the pleasure-lake of king Sudraka.
तत्र वीरवरो नाम राजपुत्रः कुतश्चिद्देशादागत्य राजद्वारमुपगम्य प्रतीहारमुवाच --
अहं तावद्वर्तनार्थी राजपुत्रः रजदर्शनं कारय ।
A certain prince, Viravara by name, coming from some country, approached the royal gate and addressed the porter thus -- I, for one, am a prince whose object is wages (to seek service); procure me the sight of the king.
ततस्तेनासौ राजदर्शनं कारितो ब्रूते -- देव
यदि मया सेवकेन प्रयोजनमस्ति तदास्मद्वर्तनं क्रियताम् ।
Thereupon, he, being ushered into the royal presence by him, said -- Sire, if you wish to engage me as a servant fix my salary.
शूद्रक उवाच -- किं ते वर्तनम् ।
वीरवरो ब्रूते -- प्रत्यहं सुवर्णशतचतुष्टयम् ।
Sudraka asked -- What is your salary? Viravara replied -- Four hundred gold coins per day.
राजाह -- का ते सामग्री ।
वीरवरो ब्रूते -- द्वौ बाहू । तृतीयश्च खड्गः ।
The king demanded -- What are your accoutrements? Viravara replied -- my two arms, and the third, my sword.
राजाह -- नैतच्छक्यम् ।
तच्छ्रुत्वा वीरवरः प्रणम्य चलितः । अथ मन्त्रिभिरुक्तम् --
The king said -- This is not possible. On hearing that he bowed and departed. Now the ministers observed --
देव दिनचतुष्टयस्य वर्तनं दत्त्वा ज्ञायतामस्य
स्वरूपम् । किमुपयुक्तोऽयमेतावद्वर्तनं गृह्णात्यनुपयुक्तो वेति ।
Sire, having given him his four days' pay let us know his characteristic nature -- whether he receives such salary usefully (deservedly), or without being of use.
ततो मन्त्रिवचनाद् आहूय वीरवराय ताम्बूलं दत्त्वा
सुवर्णशतचतुष्टयं दत्तम् । तद्विनियोगश्च राज्ञा सुनिभृतं निरूपितः ।
Then, in accordance with the ministers' advice, Viravara was called back and given a betel-nut-roll and four hundred coins of gold. The king very secretly watched the use he made of them.
तदर्धं वीरवरेण देवेभ्यो ब्राह्मणेभ्यश्च दत्तम् ।
स्थितस्यार्धं दुःखितेभ्यः । तदवशिष्टं भोज्यव्ययविलासव्ययेन व्ययितम् ।
Half of the money Viravara gave to the gods and the Brahmanas; half of what remained to the distressed, and the remainder he spent in food and amusements.
एतत्सर्वं नित्यकृत्यं कृत्वा राजद्वारमहर्निशं खड्गपाणिः सेवते ।
यदा च राजा स्वयं समादिशति तदा स्वगृहमपि याति ।
Having done all these daily duties he attended, sword in hand, at the king's door, day and night. He also went home whenever the king ordered him to do so.
अथैकदा कृष्णचतुर्दश्यां रात्रौ राजा सकरुणं क्रन्दनध्वनिं
शुश्राव । शुद्रक उवाच -- कः कोऽत्र द्वारि ।
Once, on the fourteenth night of the dark half of a month, the king heard a plaintive sound of lamentation. Sudraka asked -- Who waits at the door?
तेनोक्तं -- देव अहं वीरवरः ।
राजोवाच -- क्रन्दनानुसरणं क्रियताम् ।
He replied -- I, Viravara. The king said -- Follow the sound of wailing.
वीरवरः यथाज्ञापयति देव इत्युक्त्वा चलितः ।
राज्ञा च चिन्तितम् -- नैतदुचितम् । अयमेकाकी राजपुत्रो मया सूचीभेद्ये तमसि
प्रेरितः । तदनु गत्वा किमेतदिति निरूपयामि ।
Saying, 'As Your Majesty commands', away went Viravara. Now the king reflected -- It is not proper that I sent this prince, all alone, in the pitchy darkness. I will, therefore, go after him and see what this might mean.
ततो राजापि
खड्गमादाय तदनुसरणक्रमेण नगराद्बहिर्निर्जगाम ।
So the king, too, took his sword and went out of the city, following his course.
गत्वा च वीरवरेण सा रुदती रूपयौवनसंपन्ना सर्वालङ्कारभूषिता काचित्
स्त्री दृष्टा पृष्टा च -- का त्वम् । किमर्थं रोदिषीति ।
Viravara, on reaching the place, saw a woman, endowed with beauty and youth and decorated with ornaments of every description, crying; and asked her -- Who are you? Why do you weep?
स्त्रियोक्तम् -- अहमेतस्य शूद्रकस्य राज्ञो लक्ष्मीः ।
चिरादेतस्य भुजच्छायायां महता सुखेन विश्रान्ता । इदानीमन्यत्र गमिष्यामि ।
The woman replied -- I am the goddess of royalty of this king, Sudraka. I have long lived in great happiness under the shadow of his arms, but now I shall (have to) go elsewhere.
वीरवरो ब्रूते -- यत्रापायः संभवति तत्रोपायोऽप्यस्ति ।
तत्कथं स्यात् पुनरिहावलम्बनं भगवत्याः ।
Viravara said -- Where there is a possibility of danger there is also a remedy. By what means then will the stability of your divine self here be ensured?
लक्ष्मीरुवाच -- यदि त्वमात्मनः पुत्रं शक्तिधरं
द्वात्रिंशल्लक्षणोपेतं भगवत्याः सर्वमङ्गलाया उपहारीकरोषि
तदाहं पुनरत्र सुचिरं सुखं निवसामि । इत्युक्त्वादृश्याभवत् ।
The goddess of royalty said -- If you will offer up your son, Saktidhara, endowed with thirty-two auspicious marks, to the goddess Sarvamangala (presiding over all blessings), then I can again live here happily for a long time. Saying so she disappeared from view.
ततो वीरवरेण स्वगृहं
गत्वा निद्राणा स्ववधूः प्रबोधिता पुत्रश्च ।
Viravara then went home and roused his wife, who was asleep, and his son.
तौ निद्रां परित्यज्योत्थायोपविष्टौ । वीरवरस्तत्सर्वं लक्ष्मीवचनमुक्तवान् ।
They having shaken off their sleep rose and sat down. Viravara communicated to them all that the goddess had said to him.
तच्छ्रुत्वा सानन्दः शक्तिधरो ब्रूते -- धन्योऽहमेवम्भूतः ।
स्वामिराज्यरक्षार्थं यस्योपयोगः । तत्तात कोऽधुना विलम्बस्य हेतुः ।
Hearing that Saktidhara, being full of joy, said -- Blessed am I, being such as will be useful for the preservation of our lord's sovereignty. Then father, what occasion is there for delay?
कदापि तावदेवंविध एव कर्मण्येतस्य देहस्य विनियोगः श्लाघ्यः । यतः ।
The use of this body, in such a cause as this, whenever it may be, is praiseworthy, For --
धनानि जीवितं चैव परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् ।
सन्निमित्तं वरं त्यागो विनाशे नियते सति ॥ १००॥
A wise man should give up his wealth and life for others; their abandonment in a good cause is better when destruction is certain.
शक्तिधरमातोवाच -- यद्येतन्न कर्तव्यं तत्केनान्येन
कर्मणा मुख्यस्य महावर्तनस्य निष्क्रयो भविष्यति ।
Saktidhara's mother remarked -- If this is not to be done, then by what other act can a return be made for the high salary paid in gold?
इत्यालोच्य सर्वे सर्वमङ्गलायाः स्थानं गताः । तत्र सर्वमङ्गलां संपूज्य
वीरवरो ब्रूते -- देवि प्रसीद । विजयतां विजयतां शूद्रको महाराजः ।
Having thus deliberated they all went to the temple of Sarvamangala. There having offered worship to the goddess, Viravara said –- goddess, be propitiated. May the great king Sudraka be ever triumphant (prosper)!
गृह्यतामयमुपहारः । इत्युक्त्वा पुत्रस्य शिरश्चिच्छेद । ततो
वीरवरश्चिन्तयामास -- गृहीतराजवर्तनस्य तावन्निस्तारः कृतः ।
Accept this offering. With these words he cut off his son's head. Then Viravara thought to himself -- As for the salary received from the king, it has been repaid.
अधुना निष्पुत्रस्य मे जीवनं विडम्बनम् । इत्यालोच्यात्मनः शिरश्चिन्नवान् ।
ततः स्त्रियापि स्वामिनः पुत्रस्य च शोकार्तया तद् अनुष्ठितम् ।
Now that I have become sonless, life is but a mockery (miserable) with me. Thinking so he cut off his own head. Then his wife, too, being oppressed with grief for her husband and son, did the same.
एतत्सर्वं श्रुत्वा दृष्ट्वा च स राजा साश्चर्यं चिन्तयामास --
Having heard and seen all that, the king, filled with astonishment, said to himself --
जीवन्ति च म्रियन्ते च मद्विधाः क्षुद्रजन्तवः ।
अनेन सदृशो लोके न भूतो न भविष्यति ॥ १०१॥
Insignificant creatures, like myself, live and die: but there never has been nor will ever be, in this world, one like unto him.
तदेतत्परित्यक्तेन मम राज्येनापि अप्रयोजनम् । ततः
स्वशिरश्छेत्तुमुल्लासितः खड्गः शूद्रकेणापि ।
So I shall have nothing to do with my kingdom, which is deserted by him. Then the sword was raised by Sudraka also to lop off his head.
अथ भगवत्या सर्वमङ्गलया प्रत्यक्षभूतया राजा हस्ते धृत उक्तश्च --
पुत्र प्रसन्नास्मि ते ।
Now the goddess Sarvamangala, appearing in a visible form, seized the king by the hand and said -- Son, I am pleased with thee.
एतावता साहसेनालम् । जीवनान्तेऽपि तव राज्यभङ्गो नास्ति ।
राजा च साष्टाङ्गपातं प्रणम्योवाच -- देवि किं मे राज्येन ।
जीवितेन वा किं प्रयोजनम् ।
Desist from this adventure. Thy kingdom is secure even after thy death. The king prostrating himself before her said -- O goddess, of what use is kingdom to me or what have I to do with life?
यद्यहमनुकम्पनीयस्तदा ममायुःशेषेणायं सदारपुत्रो
वीरवरो जीवतु । अन्यथाहं यथाप्राप्तां गतिं गच्छामि ।
If you wish to take compassion upon me, let this Viravara, with his wife and son, live (be reanimated) with the remnant of my life. Or else, I will pursue the course which has fallen to my lot.
भगवत्युवाच -- पुत्र अनेन ते सत्त्वोत्कर्षेण
भृत्यवात्सल्येन च सर्वथा संतुष्टास्मि । गच्छ विजयी भव ।
The goddess said -- Son, by this noble generosity of thy heart and thy kindness to thy servants, I am pleased with thee in every way. Go and prosper.
अयमपि सपरिवारो राजपुत्रो जीवतु । इत्युक्त्वा देव्यदृश्याभवत् ।
ततो वीरवरः सपुत्रदारः प्राप्तजीवनः स्वगृहं गतः ।
Let this prince, too, with his family, revive. With these words the goddess vanished from sight. Thereupon Viravara, being restored to life with his wife and son, went home.
राजापि तैरलक्षितः सत्वरं प्रासादगर्भं गत्वा तथैव सुप्तः ।
The king, too, quickly returned unobserved by them, and having entered the inner apartment of his palace slept as before.
वीरवरो द्वारस्थः पुनर्भूपालेन पृष्टः सन्नुवाच --
Now Viravara, on guard at the door, being again questioned by the king replied --
देव सा रुदती मामवलोक्यादृश्याभवत् । न काप्यन्या वार्ता विद्यते ।
तद्वचनमाकर्ण्य संतुष्टो राजा साश्चर्यं अचिन्तयत् --
कथमयं श्लाघ्यो महासत्त्वः । यतः ।
My liege, the woman who was crying disappeared when she saw me. There is no further news. Hearing those words the king was pleased and said in astonishment -- How praiseworthy is this magnanimous person! For,
प्रियं ब्रूयादकृपणः शूरः स्यादविकत्थनः ।
दाता नापात्रवर्षी च प्रगल्भः स्यादनिष्ठुरः ॥ १०२॥
Being generous he should speak sweetly; he should be valiant without boasting; he should be munificent, but without shedding his bounty on the unworthy; and he should be bold without being harsh.
एतन्महापुरुषलक्षणमेतस्मिन्सर्वमस्ति ।
ततः स राजा प्रातः शिष्टसभां कृत्वा
सर्ववृत्तान्तं प्रस्तुत्य प्रसादात्तस्मै कर्णाटराज्यं ददौ ।
All these characteristics of a great man are found in him. Then in the morning the king having called together a council of great men, narrated before them the whole account and bestowed on him the kingdom of Karnata, as a mark of his favour.
तत् किमागन्तुको जातिमात्राद्दुष्टः । तत्राप्युत्तमाधममध्यमाः सन्ति ।
चक्रवाको ब्रूते --
What then, is a stranger wicked merely because of his nature (or class)? Even among these (strangers) there are those who are good, bad and middling. Chakravaka said --
योऽकार्यं कार्यवच्छास्ति स किंमन्त्री नृपेच्छया ।
वरं स्वामिमनोदुःखं तन्नाशो न त्वकार्यतः ॥ १०३॥
He is a bad minister (or, is he a minister) who, having regard to the will of the king represents (recommends) what ought not to be done as proper to be done: better is the pain caused to the master's mind than his ruin brought about by his doing what is improper.
वैद्यो गुरुश्च मन्त्री च यस्य राज्ञः प्रियंवदाः ।
शरीरधर्मकोशेभ्यः क्षिप्रं स परिहीयते ॥ १०४॥
A king, whose physician, spiritual guide and minister are flatterers, fast loses his health, his religious merit and treasure.
शृणु देव । पुण्याल्लब्धं यदेकेन तन्ममापि भविष्यति ।
हत्वा भिक्षुमतो मोहान्निध्यर्थी नापितो हतः ॥ १०५॥
Hear, my liege. 'What was obtained by one through the force of merit I too shall gain'- A barber, who, through avarice, thus coveted a treasure, lost his life for having killed a mendicant.
राजा पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
मन्त्री कथयति --
॥ कथा ९ ॥
The King asked how that was. The minister related -- FABLE IX.
अस्त्ययोध्यायां पुरि चूडामणिर्नाम क्षत्रियः । तेन धनार्थिना
महता कायक्लेशेन भगवांश्चन्द्रार्धचूडामणिश्चिरमाराधितः ।
There was in the city of Ayodhya, a Kshatriya, by name Chudamani. He, longing after wealth, long worshipped Siva (lit. the god who has the crescent-moon for his crest-jewel) undergoing great bodily hardships.
ततः क्षीणपापोऽसौ स्वप्ने दर्शनं दत्त्वा
भगवदादेशाद्यक्षेश्वरेणादिष्टः -- यत्त्वमद्य प्रातः
Thereafter when he was purified of his sins, the lord of the Yakshas, at the command of the Lord, appeared before him in a dream and bade him thus -- To-day in the morning thou
क्षौरं कृत्वा लगुडहस्तः सन्स्वगृहद्वारि निभृतं स्थास्यसि ।
ततो यमेवागतं प्राङ्गणे भिक्षुकं
पश्यसि तं निर्दयं लगुडप्रहारेण हनिष्यसि ।
shalt get yourself shaved and stand concealed, stick in hand, at the door of thy house. Then whatever mendicant thou shalt see coming into thy courtyard, him thou shalt strike mercilessly with thy stick.
ततोऽसौ भिक्षुः तत्क्षणात्सुवर्णकलशो भविष्यति । तेन त्वया
यावज्जीवं सुखिना भवितव्यम् । ततस्तथानुष्ठिते तद्वृत्तम् ।
Then the very moment the mendicant will turn into a pot full of gold coins. With that (wealth) thou canst live happily during the rest of thy life. Then these instructions being carried out the result followed (as directed).
तच्च क्षौरकरणायानीतेन नापितेनालोक्य चिन्तितम् --
अये निधिप्राप्तेरयमुपायः । तदहमप्येवं किं न करोमि ।
Now the barber who was called for shaving saw this and said to himself. Ah, this is the way to obtain a treasure. Why should I not then try the same!
ततः प्रभृति स नापितः प्रत्यहं तथाविधो लगुडहस्तः सुनिभृतं
भिक्षोरागमनं प्रतीक्षते । एकदा तेन तथा प्राप्तो भिक्षुर्लगुडेन व्यापादितः ।
Thenceforward the barber, lying concealed in that manner every day, stick in hand, awaited a beggar's arrival. One day he, having found such a beggar, struck him with his stick and killed him.
तस्मादपराधात्सोऽपि नापितो राजपुरुषैस्ताडितः पञ्चत्वं गतः ।
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- पुण्याल्लब्धं यदेकेन इत्यादि ।
For that offence the barber, being punished by the king's officers, lost his life. Therefore I say, 'What was obtained by one through the force of merit' &c.
राजाह --
पुरावृत्तकथोद्गारैः कथं निर्णीयते परः ।
स्यान्निष्कारणबन्धुर्वा किं वा विश्वासघातकः ॥ १०६॥
The king remarked -- How can a stranger (i.e. his real character) be known by narrating stories of the past -- whether he is a disinterested friend or a traitor ?
यातु । प्रस्तुतमनुसंधीयताम् । मलयाधित्यकायां चेच्चित्रवर्णस्तद्
अधुना किं विधेयम् । मन्त्री वदति --
Well, let it pass. Let us attend to what concerns us immediately. If Chitravarna is on the table-land of Malaya, what is best to be done now? The minister said --
देव आगतप्रणिधिमुखान् मया श्रुतं यन्महामन्त्रिणो गृध्रस्योपदेशे चित्रवर्णेनानादरः
कृतः । अतोऽसौ मूढो जेतुं शक्यः । तथा चोक्तम् --
I have heard from the mouth of the spy that came here that Chitravarna has disregarded the counsel of the great minister, Vulture. It will be easy, therefore, to conquer the fool. For it is said --
लुब्धः क्रूरोऽलसोऽसत्यः प्रमादी भीरुरस्थिरः ।
मूढो योधावमन्ता च सुखच्छेद्यो रिपुः स्मृतः ॥ १०७॥
An enemy who is avaricious, cruel, lazy, treacherous, careless, cowardly, unsteady, foolish, and a despiser of warriors, can be easily destroyed.
ततोऽसौ यावदस्मद्दुर्गद्वाररोधं न करोति
तावन्नद्यद्रिवनवर्त्मसु तद्बलानि
हन्तुं सारसादयः सेनापतयो नियुज्यन्ताम् । तथा चोक्तम् ॥
Therefore before he blocks up the gates of our castle, let Sarasa and the other generals be ordered to rout his army in the rivers, mountains, wilds and passes. For it is said --
दीर्घवर्त्मपरिश्रान्तं नद्यद्रिवनसंकुलम् ।
घोराग्निभयसंत्रस्तं क्षुत्पिपासाहितक्लमम् ॥ १०८॥
When it is fatigued by long marches, hemmed in by rivers, mountains and forests, terrified by the fear of dreadful fires, distressed by hunger and thirst,
प्रमत्तं भोजनव्यग्रं व्याधिदुर्भिक्षपीडितम् ।
असंस्थितमभूयिष्ठं वृष्टिवातसमाकुलम् ॥ १०९॥
(and when it is) careless, engaged in eating, afflicted with diseases and famine (or want of supplies), not in good order (disorderly), reduced in numbers, distressed by rain and wind,
पङ्कपांशुजलाच्छन्नं सुव्यस्तं दस्युविद्रुतम् ।
एवम्भूतं महीपालः परसैन्यं विघातयेत् ॥ ११०॥
(and when it is) incommodiously situated in places full of mud, dust or water, scattered about, or put to flight by robbers, when the enemy's army is of such a quality king should cause the enemy's army to be destroyed.
अन्यच्च । अवस्कन्दभयाद्राजा प्रजागरकृतश्रमम् ।
दिवासुप्तं समाहन्यान्निद्राव्याकुलसैनिकम् ॥ १११॥
Moreover, A king should destroy (his enemy's army) sleeping by day being fatigued by its keeping awake (the whole night) through the fear of an attack, and thus having the soldiers in it over-powered by sleep.
अतस्तस्य प्रमादिनो बलं गत्वा यथावकाशं दिवानिशं
घ्नन्त्वस्मत्सेनापतयः ।
For this reason, let our generals go and destroy the force of that careless (lit. blundering) king day and night, according to the opportunities they might get.
तथानुष्ठिते चित्रवर्णस्य सैनिकाः सेनापतयश्च बहवो निहताः । ततश्चित्रवर्णो विषण्णः
स्वमन्त्रिणं दूरदर्शिनमाह -- तात किमित्यस्मदुपेक्षा
क्रियते । किं क्वाप्यविनयो ममास्ति । तथा चोक्तम् --
This being done, many of the soldiers and generals of Chitravarna were killed. Upon this Chitravarna being dejected said to his minister, Duradarsi -- Sir, why do you neglect us? Have I in any matter acted insolently towards (insulted) you? For it is said --
न राज्यं प्राप्तमित्येव वर्तितव्यमसांप्रतम् ।
श्रियं ह्यविनयो हन्ति जरा रूपमिवोत्तमम् ॥ ११२॥
One should not act in an unbecoming way simply because one has obtained a kingdom; for insolence (lit. want of modesty) destroys wealth as old age destroys excellent beauty.
अन्यच्च । दक्षः श्रियमधिगच्छति पथ्याशी कल्यतां सुखमरोगी ।
उद्युक्तो विद्यान्तं धर्मार्थयशांसि च विनीतः ॥ ११३॥
Moreover, One who is diligent gets wealth; he who eats what is wholesome gets health; a man who is healthy gets happiness; one who is resolute (lit. closely applying oneself to study) gets mastery over learning; and one who is well-trained, gets religious merit, wealth and fame.
गृध्रोऽवदत् -- देव शृणु ।
अविद्वानपि भूपालो विद्यावृद्धोपसेवया ।
परां श्रियमवाप्नोति जलासन्नतरुर्यथा ॥ ११४॥
The Vulture said -- My lord, hear me -- A king although illiterate (not well-versed in politics) attains great prosperity by having in his service men advanced in knowledge, as does a tree growing by the water-side.
अन्यच्च । पानं स्त्री मृगया द्यूतमर्थदूषणमेव च ।
वाग्दण्डयोश्च पारुष्यं व्यसनानि महीभुजाम् ॥ ११५॥
Moreover, drinking, (inordinate attachment to) women, hunting, gambling, squandering (lit. wrong use) of money and the harshness of speech and punishment -- these are the vices in (or, the sources of calamities to) kings.
किं च । न साहसैकान्तरसानुवर्तिना
Again, Neither by one wholly intent on enterprise (and hence acting precipitately),
न चाप्युपायोपहतान्तरात्मना ।
nor by one whose mind is tossed between means (and not coming to a decision),
विभूतयः शक्यमवाप्तुमूर्जिता
can noble riches be obtained.
नये च शौर्ये च वसन्ति संपदः ॥ ११६॥
fortune abides in statesmanship and heroism.
त्वया स्वबलोत्साहमवलोक्य साहसैकरसिना मयोपन्यस्तेष्वपि
मन्त्रेष्वनवधानं वाक्पारुष्यं च कृतम् ।
Your Highness, observing (or, taking note of) the (over-)enthusiasm (or activity) of your army and solely intent on adventure, did not heed even the counsels I laid before you, and used harsh words.
अतो दुर्नीतेः फलमिदमनुभूयते । तथा चोक्तम् --
Hence this is the fruit of your mis-behaviour (or, erroneous policy) that you have been experiencing. For it is said --
दुर्मन्त्रिणं कमुपयान्ति न नीतिदोषाः
संतापयन्ति कमपथ्यभुजं न रोगाः ।
What king who is ill-advised, (or, has bad ministers) does not suffer from the (evil consequences of) errors of policy? Whom, eating unwholesome things, do diseases not afflict?
कं श्रीर्न दर्पयति कं न निहन्ति मृत्युः
कं स्त्रीकृता न विषयाः परितापयन्ति ॥ ११७॥
Whom does not wealth make proud? Whom does not Death kill? And whom do not the amorous sports of women torment?
अपरं च । मुदं विषादः शरदं हिमागमस्तमो विवस्वान् सुकृतं कृतघ्नता ।
प्रियोपपत्तिः शुचमापदं नयः श्रियं समृद्धामपि हन्ति दुर्नयः ॥ ११८॥
Moreover, Dejection destroys joy, the advent of winter (the beauty of) autumn, the sun darkness, ingratitude a benedictory act, the attainment of what is desired (or, liked) sorrow, a right course of conduct adversity, and misbehaviour wealth, although abundant.
ततो मयाप्यालोचितम् -- प्रज्ञाहीनोऽयं राजा । न चेत्कथं
नीतिशास्त्रकथाकौमुदीं वागुल्काभिस्तिमिरयति । यतः ।
Then I too thought to myself -- This king is wanting in discrimination. Or else, how can he obscure the moonlight of the counsels of political science with the flameless fire-brand (or, meteors) of (foolish) speeches? For,
यस्य नास्ति स्वयं प्रज्ञा शास्त्रं तस्य करोति किम् ।
लोचनाभ्यां विहीनस्य दर्पणः किं करिष्यति ॥ ११९॥
What good can science do to him who is himself wanting in talent? Of what service is a lamp [sic: mirror] to him who has no eyes?
इत्याहमपि तूष्णीं स्थितः । अथ राजा बद्धाञ्जलिराह -- तात
अस्त्वयं ममापराधः । इदानीं यथाहमवशिष्टबलसहितः
प्रत्यावृत्य विन्ध्याचलं गच्छामि तथोपदिश ।
For this reason I too remained quiet. Upon this the king said with folded hands -- Sir, let this my fault be connived at. Now instruct me in such a way that having returned with the remnant of my forces I shall go back to the mountain Vindhya.
गृध्रः स्वगतं चिन्तयति -- क्रियतामत्र प्रतीकारः । यतः ।
The Vulture said to himself -- This must be remedied. For,
देवतासु गुरौ गोषु राजसु ब्राह्मणेषु च ।
नियन्तव्यः सदा कोपो बालवृद्धातुरेषु च ॥ १२०॥
In the case of deities, one's preceptor, cows, kings, Brahmanas, as also children, old men and sickly persons, anger should always be restrained.
मन्त्री विहस्य ब्रूते -- देव मा भैषीः । समाश्वसिहि । शृणु देव ।
The minister having smiled said -- Fear not my lord. Take heart. Listen, my lord--
मन्त्रिणां भिन्नसंधाने भिषजां सांनिपातिके ।
कर्मणि व्यज्यते प्रज्ञा सुस्थे को वा न पण्डितः ॥ १२१॥
The talent of ministers is tested (or, is exhibited) when a plan fails (or, when an alliance is broken), and that of physicians in disease wherein all the three humours are most malignantly disturbed: for who is not wise when all goes on smoothly?
अपरं च । आरम्भन्तेऽल्पमेवाज्ञाः कामं व्यग्रा भवन्ति च ।
महारम्भाः कृतधियस्तिष्ठन्ति च निराकुलाः ॥ १२२॥
Moreover, little minds attempt little and are greatly embarrassed; while men of firm minds undertake great things and remain undisturbed.
तद् अत्र भवत्प्रतापादेव दुर्गं भङ्क्त्वा
कीर्तिप्रतापसहितं त्वामचिरेण कालेन विन्ध्याचलं नेष्यामि ।
Having therefore stormed the (enemy's) castle I will take you, in a short time, to the Vindhya mountain, accompanied with glory and power.
राजाह -- कथमधुना स्वल्पबलेन तत्संपद्यते ।
गृध्रो वदति -- देव सर्वं भविष्यति ।
The king asked -- How can this be achieved now with the small force (at our command)? The Valture said -- My lord, everything will be accomplished.
यतो विजिगीषोरदीर्घसूत्रता विजयसिद्धेरवश्यंभावः ।
तत्सहसैव दुर्गद्वारावरोधः क्रियताम् ।
Because in the case of a conqueror promptness of action is the guarantee for the accomplishment of success. Let the gates of the castle then be blocked up at once.
अथ प्रणिधिना बकेनागत्य हिरण्यगर्भस्य कथितम् -- देव
स्वल्पबल एवायं राजा चित्रवर्णो
गृध्रस्य मन्त्रोपष्टम्भादागत्य दुर्गद्वारावरोधं करिष्यति ।
After this, the spy, crane came to Hiranyagarbha and told him -- Sire, king Chitravarna relying on the advice of the Vulture, small as his army is, is going to blockade the castle-gates.
राजहंसो ब्रूते -- सर्वज्ञ किमधुना विधेयम् । चक्रो ब्रूते -- स्वबले सारासारविचारः
क्रियताम् । तज्ज्ञात्वा सुवर्णवस्त्रादिकं यथार्हं प्रसादप्रदानं च क्रियताम् । यतः ।
The royal Swan said -- Sarvajna, what is to be done now? Chakravaka replied -- Let the discrimination of strong and weak men in our army be made. On that being known let presents of gold, garments and the like be made, as marks of royal favour, according to merit. For,
यः काकिनीमप्यपथप्रपन्नां समुद्धरेन्निष्कसहस्रतुल्याम् ।
कालेषु कोटिष्वपि मुक्तहस्तस्तं राजसिंहं न जहाति लक्ष्मीः ॥ १२३॥
The goddess of wealth never leaves him, the lion among kings, who saves even a cowri from being ill-spent, as if it were worth a thousand coins of gold, but spends in crores with a liberal hand on proper occasions.
अन्यच्च । क्रतौ विवाहे व्यसने रिपुक्षये यशस्करे कर्मणि मित्रसंग्रहे ।
प्रियासु नारीष्वधनेषु बान्धुषु ह्यतिव्ययो नास्ति नराधिपाष्टसु ॥ १२४॥
Again, In a sacrifice, on the occasion of a wedding, in (averting) a calamity, for the destruction of the enemy, in an act which would redound to one's fame, in securing friends, on beloved women, in (relieving) relations who are penniless-in these eight casess money can never be (said to be) over-spent.
यतः । मूर्खः स्वल्पव्ययत्रासात्सर्वनाशं करोति हि ।
कः सुधीस्त्यजते भाण्डं शुल्कस्यैवातिसाध्वसात् ॥ १२५॥
For, A fool for fear of spending a little brings about the ruin of the whole: what wise man will forego his merchandise through the extreme dread of duty (to be levied on it)?
राजाह -- कथमिह समयेऽतिव्ययो
युज्यते । उक्तं च -- आपदर्थे धनं रक्षेत् --
The king asked -- How can an extraordinary expenditure be advisable at this (critical time)? For it is said -- One should save money against (pecuniary) difficulties.
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- श्रीमतां कथमापदः ।
राजाह -- कदाचिच्चलते लक्ष्मीः
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- संचितापि विनश्यति ॥ १२६ ॥
The minister -- How can a monarch have difficulties? The king -- Lakshmi sometimes forsakes (a king). The minister -- (wealth) even though hoarded vanishes.
तद्देव कार्पण्यं विमुच्य स्वसुभटा दानमानाभ्यां पुरस्क्रियन्ताम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Leave aside, therefore, parsimony, my lord, and encourage your valiant soldiers with gifts and honours. For it is said --
परस्परज्ञाः संहृष्टास्त्यक्तुं प्राणान्सुनिश्चिताः ।
कुलीनाः पूजिताः सम्यग्विजयन्ते द्विषद्बलम् ॥ १२७॥
Warriors who know each other, who are well pleased, who are bent on even sacrificing their lives and who are nobly born, when well honoured, conquer the enemy's force.
अपरं च । सुभटाः शीलसम्पन्नाः संहताः कृतनिश्चयाः ।
अपि पञ्चशतं शूरा मृद्नन्ति रिपुवाहिनीम् ॥ १२८॥
Moreover, even five hundred good warriors, who are possessed of excellent character, united, resolute and brave, can rout a whole army of the enemy.
किं च । शिष्टैरप्यविशेषज्ञ उग्रश्च कृतनाशकः ।
त्यज्यते किं पुनर्नान्यैर्यश्चाप्यात्मंभरिर्नरः ॥ १२९॥
Again, A man who does not know how to discriminate (distinguish between good and bad), who is fierce and ungrateful, as also a seeker of self-interest, is abandoned even by the great; how much more so then by ordinary men?
यतः । सत्यं शौर्यं दया त्यागो नृपस्यैते महागुणाः ।
एतैस्त्यक्तो महीपालः प्राप्नोति खलु वाच्यताम् ॥ १३०॥
For, veracity, bravery, mercifulness and munificence -- these are the principal qualities of a king : a prince who is void of those certainly meets with censure.
ईदृशि प्रस्तावेऽमात्यास्तावदवश्यमेव पुरस्कर्तव्याः । तथा चोक्तम् --
On such an occasion, the ministers themselves, must, of necessity, be treated with marks of distinction. Says the precept --
यो येन प्रतिबद्धः स्यात्सह तेनोदयी व्ययी ।
स विश्वस्तो नियोक्तव्यः प्राणेषु च धनेषु च ॥ १३१॥
He whose fortune is bound up with one's own, and who rises or falls along with one -- him, a trusty person, one (a king) should appoint to guard his body (lit. life) and the treasury.
यतः । धूर्तः स्त्री वा शिशुर्यस्य मन्त्रिणः स्युर्महीपतेः ।
अनीतिपवनक्षिप्तः कार्याब्धौ स निमज्जति ॥ १३२॥
For, The king who has for his counsellors a rogue, a woman or a child, sinks into the ocean of state-business, being hurled into it by the gales of erroneous policy.
शृणु देव । हर्षक्रोधौ यतौ यस्य शास्त्रार्थे प्रत्ययस्तथा ।
नित्यं भृत्यान्ववेक्षा च तस्य स्याद्धनदा धरा ॥ १३३॥
Listen, my lord. The earth will yield wealth to him whose joy and anger are well regulated, who has a firm belief in the teachinge of the Sastras, and who, every day, attends to his servants.
येषां राज्ञा सह स्यातामुच्चयापचयौ ध्रुवम् ।
अमात्या इति तान्राजा नावमन्येत्कदाचन ॥ १३४॥
A king should never despise his ministers as such, whose rise and fall take place with his own.
यतः । महीभुजो मदान्धस्य विषमे कार्यसागरे ।
स्खलतो हि करालम्बः सुहृत्सचिवचेष्टितम् ॥ १३५ ॥
Since, When a king, blinded by vanity, sinks into the perilous ocean of state-matters, the action of a friendly ministry proves to be a helping hand (to him).
अथागत्य प्रणम्य मेघवर्णो ब्रूते -- देव
दृष्टिप्रसादं कुरु । एष युद्धार्थो विपक्षो दुर्गद्वारि वर्तते ।
Now Meghavarna, having come and bowed to the king, said -- My lord, favour me with a glance. The enemy is at the castle-gate anxious for fight.
तद् देवपादादेशाद् बहिर्निःसृत्य
स्वविक्रमं दर्शयामि । तेन देवपादानामानृण्यमुपगच्छामि ।
Sallying forth then, at the command of Your Majesty's feet, I will display my valour, by which (act) I will pay off the debt I owe to Your Majesty.
चक्रो ब्रूते -- मैवम् । यदि बहिर्निःसृत्य
योद्धव्यम् तदा दुर्गाश्रयणमेव निष्प्रयोजनम् ।
Not so said Chakravaka. If we are to go out and fight, then in vain have we taken shelter in the fortress.
अपरं च । विषमोऽपि यथा नक्रः सलिलान् निसृतो वशः ।
वनाद्विनिर्गतः शूरः सिंहोऽपि स्याच्छृगालवत् ॥ १३६॥
Moreover, A crocodile, although formidable, can be easily overcome when come out of water; and the lion, although brave, is like a jackal when he is out of the forest.
देव स्वयं गत्वा दृश्यतां युद्धम् । यतः ।
My lord, you should go in person and witness the fight. For,
पुरस्कृत्य बलं राजा योधयेदवलोकयन् ।
स्वामिनाधिष्ठितः श्वापि किं न सिंहायते ध्रुवम् ॥ १३७॥
Having put forth his army, a king should make it fight under his own inspection: for, does not even a dog act the lion, indeed, when led on by his master?
अनन्तरं ते सर्वे दुर्गद्वारं गत्वा महाहवं कृतवन्तः ।
अपरेद्युश्चित्रवर्णो राजा गृध्रमुवाच -- तात ।
Then they all went forth to the castle-gate and fought a great battle. The next day king Chitravarna said to the Vulture -- Sir,
स्वप्रतिज्ञातमधुना निर्वाहय ।
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- देव शृणु तावत् ।
fulfil (lit. bear out) your promise now. The Vulture said -- My lord, just hear me.
अकालसहमत्यल्पं मूर्खव्यसनिनायकम् ।
अगुप्तं भीरुयोधं च दुर्गव्यसनमुच्यते ॥ १३८॥
When it (a fortress) is incapable of holding out for a long time, or is very small, or is commanded by a foolish or vicious officer, or is not well protected, or is manned by timid soldiers, that is said to be the calamity of a fortress.
तत् तावद् अत्र नास्ति । उपजापश्चिरारोधोऽवस्कन्दस्तीव्रपौरुषम् ।
दुर्गस्य लङ्घनोपायाश्चत्वारः कथिता इमे ॥ १३९॥
As to this, it does not exist here. Treachery, a prolonged siege, assault and daring valour (a desperate fight) these are declared as the four ways of capturing a fort.
अत्र च यथाशक्ति क्रियते यत्नः । कर्णे कथयति एवमेव ।
ततोऽनुदित एव भास्करे चतुर्ष्वपि दुर्गद्वारेषु प्रवृत्ते युद्धे
दुर्गाभ्यन्तरगृहेष्वेकदा काकैरग्निर्निक्षिप्तः ।
In this direction I will make an effort to the best of my ability. He whispers into his ear -- Thus, thus. Then, as the battle raged at (all) the four gates of the fort, even before the sun had risen, the crows set fire to the houses in the interior of the fort all at once.
ततः गृहीतं गृहीतं दुर्गम् इति
कोलाहलं श्रुत्वानेकगृहेषु च प्रदीप्तं पावकं प्रत्यक्षेणावलोक्य राजहंसस्य
सैनिकास्तथान्ये दुर्गवासिनः सत्वरं ह्रदं प्रविष्टाः । यतः ।
Thereafter, hearing the tumultuous cries -- 'The fort is taken, the fort is taken,' -- and seeing the fire actually spreading through several houses, the soldiers of the royal Swan, as well as the other residents of the fortress, quickly entered the pond. For,
सुमन्त्रितं सुविक्रान्तं सुयुद्धं सुपलायितम् ।
प्राप्तकाले यथाशक्ति कुर्यान्न तु विचारयेत् ॥ १४०॥
At the proper time and to the best of one's ability one should hold a good consultation, display good valour, fight bravely or effect an honourable (or, orderly) retreat, but should not (pause to think i.e., should not hesitate, but promptly act)
राजा हंसश्च सुखिस्वभावान् मन्दगतिः । सारसद्वितीयश्च चित्रवर्णस्य
सेनापतिना कुक्कुटेनागत्य वेष्टितः । हिरण्यगर्भः सारसमाह --
The royal Swan, who, being habituated to ease, was moving slowly, accompanied by Sarasa, was attacked by the Cock, Chitravarna's general, and surrounded. Hiranyagarbha said to Sarasa --
सारस सेनापते ममानुरोधादात्मानं कथं व्यापादयिष्यसि ।
गन्तुं त्वंअधुनापि समर्थः । तद्गत्वा
जलं प्रविश्यात्मानं परिरक्ष ।
General Sarasa, you should not destroy yourself out of regard for me. You can still make good your escape. Go, then, and save yourself by plunging into the water.
अस्मत्पुत्रं चूडामणिनामानं सर्वज्ञसंमत्या राजानं करिष्यसि ।
सारसो ब्रूते -- देव न वक्तव्यमेवं दुःसहं वचः ।
Make my son, Chudamani by name, king, with the consent of Sarvajna. Sarasa said -- My lord, please utter not such unbearable words.
यावच्चन्द्रार्कौ दिवि तिष्ठतस्तावद्विजयतां देवः ।
अहं देव दुर्गाधिकारी मन्मांसासृग्विलिप्तेन
द्वारवर्त्मना प्रविशतु शत्रुः । अपरं च देव ।
May Your Majesty be triumphant as long as the sun and moon endure in heaven. My lord, I am the commanding officer of the castle. So the enemy shall enter by the gate-way smeared with my flesh and blood. Moreover, my lord --
क्षमी दाता गुणग्राही स्वामी दुःखेन लभ्यते ।
राजाह -- सत्यमेवैतत् । किंतु ।
A master who is forbearing, munificent and an appreciator of merits, is obtained with difficulty. The king observed -- This is true, indeed, but --
शुचिर्दक्षोऽनुरक्तश्च जाने भृत्योऽपि दुर्लभः ॥ १४१॥
सारसो ब्रूते -- अन्यच्च देव शृणु ।
Even a servant who is honest, diligent and devoted (to his master) is, I think, difficult to be found. Sarasa said -- My lord, hear me again.
यदि समरमपास्य नास्ति मृत्योर्-
भयमिति युक्तमितोऽन्यतः प्रयातुम् ।
अथ मरणमवश्यमेव जन्तोः
किमिति मुधा मलिनं यशः क्रियेत ॥ १४२॥
If after having avoided a fight there could be no fear of death, then it would be proper to go away from here : but if death be the inevitable lot of a creature, why should reputation be tarnished in vain?
अन्यच्च । भवेऽस्मिन्पवनोद्भ्रान्तवीचिविभ्रमभङ्गुरे ।
जायते पुण्ययोगेन परार्थे जीवितव्ययः ॥ १४३॥
Again, In this wordly existence, which is as evanescent as the curling up (or, sportive motion) of a wave raised by the wind, the sacrificing of one's life for another's sake happens by virtue of merit.
स्वाम्यमात्यश्च राष्ट्रं च दुर्गं कोशो बलं सुहृत् ।
राज्याङ्गानि प्रकृतयः पौराणां श्रेणयोऽपि च ॥ १४४॥
The king, the ministry, the country, the forts, the treasure, the army, the allies, the subjects (in general) and the orders of citizens are the essential constituents of a kingdom.
देव त्वं च स्वामी सर्वथा रक्षणीयः । यतः ।
My lord, you are the master, and must be saved by every means. For,
प्रकृतिः स्वामिना त्यक्ता समृद्धापि न जीवति ।
अपि धन्वन्तरिर्वैद्यः किं करोति गतायुषि ॥ १४५॥
The subjects when abandoned by the king cannot live, though prosperous : What can a physician do, although he be a Dhanvantari, to one whose life is spanned?
अपरं च । नरेशे जीवलोकोऽयं निमीलति निमीलति ।
उदेत्युदीयमाने च रवाविव सरोरुहम् ॥ १४६॥
Moreover, When the lord of men perishes, the world of mortals also perishes, and when he rises it rises, even as a lotus fades when the sun sets and blooms when he rises.
अथ कुक्कुटेनागत्य राजहंसस्य शरीरे खरतरनखाघातः कृतः ।
ततः सत्वरमुपसृत्य सारसेन स्वदेहान्तरितो राजा ।
By this time the Cock came and inflicted very severe wounds on the royal Swan's body with his claws. Thereupon the Sarasa quickly coming up screened the king with his own body.
अनन्तरं कुक्कुटेन नखमुखप्रहारैर्जर्जरीकृतेन सारसेन स्वाङ्गेनाच्छाद्य प्रेर्य राजा
जले क्षिप्तः । कुक्कुटसेनापतिश्च चञ्चुप्रहारेण व्यापादितः ।
पश्चात्सारसोऽपि बहुभिः संभूय व्यापादितः ।
Thereafter the Sarasa, although overwhelmed with the strokes given by the Cock with his nails and bill, protected the king with his body and threw him into water with a push; and then slew the Cock, the general, with a stroke of his bill. Afterwards the Sarasa, too, was killed by many (attacking him) in a body.
अथ चित्रवर्णो राजा दुर्गं प्रविश्य दुर्गावस्थितं द्रव्यं ग्राहयित्वा
बन्दिभिर्जयशब्दैरानन्दितः स्वस्कन्धावारं जगाम ।
Now king Chitravarna entered the castle, caused the things in it to be taken away, and being hailed by bards singing the panegyrics of his victory, went back to his army.
अथ राजपुत्रैरुक्तं -- तस्मिन्राजहंसबले स पुण्यवान्सारस एव
येन स्वदेहत्यागेन स्वामी रक्षितः । उक्तं चैतत् --
Now the princes observed -- In that army of the king that Sarasa alone was meritorious who saved his master by sacrificing his own body. For it is said --
जनयन्ति सुतान् गावः सर्वा एव गवाकृतीन् ।
विषाणोल्लिखितस्कन्धं काचिदेव गवां पतिम् ॥ १४७॥
All cows bring forth calves that have the shape of the cowkind: but some one alone produces one, the master of a herd (the best of bulls), having stout and muscular shoulders (lit., having shoulders that are rubbed against by his horns).
विष्णुशर्मोवाच -- स तावद्विद्याधरीपरिजनः
स्वर्गसुखमनुभवतु महासत्त्वः । तथा चोक्तम् --
Vishnusharma said -- May he, the magnanimous one, enjoy the blessings of heaven, having the females of the Vidyadharas as his attendants. For it is said --
आहवेषु च ये शूराः स्वाम्यर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
भर्तृभक्ताः कृतज्ञाश्च ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ॥ १४८॥
Those brave men, devoted to their master and grateful, who sacrifice their lives for their master, go to heaven.
यत्र यत्र हतः शूरः शत्रुभिः परिवेष्टितः ।
अक्षयांल्लभते लोकान्यदि क्लैब्यं न गच्छति ॥ १४९॥
Wherever a brave man is killed, surrounded by his enemies, he obtains the eternal worlds, if he does not show weakness (cowardice in battle).
विग्रहः श्रुतो भवद्भिः राजपुत्रैरुक्तम् -- श्रुत्वा सुखिनो भूता वयम् ।
विष्णुशर्माब्रवीत् -- अपरमप्येवमस्तु ।
You have heard (all that relates to) War. The princes said -- We have heard it and become happy. Vishnusharma said -- Let there be this much more also:

विग्रहः करितुरङ्गपत्तिभिर्नो कदापि भवतान् महीभुजाम् ।
नीतिमन्त्रपवनैः समाहताः संश्रयन्तु गिरिगह्वरं द्विषः ॥ १५०॥
Let kings never wage war, with elephants, horses and footsoldiers: but let their enemies flee for shelter to the caverns of mountains, being borne away by the gales of policy and counsel.
इति हितोपदेशे विग्रहो नाम तृतीयः कथासंग्रह समाप्तः ।
॥ संधिः ॥
पुनः कथारम्भकाले राजपुत्रैरुक्तम् -- आर्य विग्रहः श्रुतोऽस्माभिः । संधिरधुनाभिधीयताम् ।
विष्णुशर्मेणोक्तम् -- श्रूयताम् । संधिमपि कथयामि यस्यायमाद्यः श्लोकः --
At the time of narrating the stories again the princes said -- Sir, we have heard about war. Tell us what relates to Peace now. Vishnusharma said -- May you listen. I will tell you even about Peace which is introduced by the following verse: --
वृत्ते महति सङ्ग्रामे राज्ञोर्निहतसेनयोः ।
स्थेयाभ्यां गृध्रचक्राभ्यां वाचा संधिः कृतः क्षणात् ॥ १॥
When the great battle had taken place between the two kings whose armies were annihilated, a peace was made in a moment with their words by the arbiters, the Vulture and the Chakravaka.
राजपुत्रा ऊचुः -- कथमेतत् । विष्णुशर्मा कथयति --
ततस्तेन राजहंसेनोक्तम् -- केनास्मद्दुर्गे निक्षिप्तोऽग्निः । किं पारक्येण
किंवास्मद्दुर्गवासिना केनापि विपक्षप्रयुक्तेन । चक्रो ब्रूते -- देव । भवतो
The princes asked how it was. Vishnusharma thus related -- Then the royal Swan asked -- Who was it that threw fire into our fort? Was it a stranger (one from the party of the enemy) or some one residing in our fort, instigated by the enemy? Chakra, said -- My lord,
भवतः निष्कारणबन्धुरसौ मेघवर्णः सपरिवारो न दृश्यते । तन्मन्ये तस्यैव विचेष्टितमिदम् ।
That causeless (disinterested) friend of Your Highness, Meghavarna, with his retinue, is not to be seen. So I think it must have been his work.
राजा क्षणं विचिन्त्याह -- अस्ति तावदेव मम दुर्दैवमेतत् । तथा चोक्तम् --
The king reflecting for a moment said -- This is surely (the play of) my evil luck. For it is said --
अपराधः स दैवस्य न पुनर्मन्त्रिणामयम् ।
कार्यं सुघटितं क्वापि दैवयोगाद्विनश्यति ॥ २॥
It is the fault of (adverse) fate and not of ministers, that a business, although well-planned, sometimes fails, as destiny would have it.
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- उत्क्तमेवैतत् ।
विषमां हि दशां प्राप्य दैवं गर्हयते नरः ।
आत्मनः कर्मदोषांस्तु नैव जानात्यपण्डितः ॥ ३॥
The minister said -- This also is said -- Being reduced to an adverse state a man blames his fate; but the fool never knows (that it was the result of) his own faults in actions.
अपरं च । सुहृदां हितकामानां यो वाक्यं नाभिनन्दति ।
स कूर्म इव दुर्बुद्धिः काष्ठाद्भ्रष्टो विनश्यति ॥ ४॥
Moreover, That foolish man (lit. of wicked intellect), who does not approvingly follow the advice of his friends who have his welfare at heart, perishes like the silly tortoise that fell off from a piece of wood.
राजाह -- कथमेतत् । मन्त्री कथयति --
The king asked how it was, and the minister related --
॥ कथा १ ॥
अस्ति मगधदेशे फुल्लोत्पलाभिधानं सरः । तत्र चिरं
संकटविकटनामानौ हंसौ निवसतः । तयोर्मित्रं कम्बुग्रीवनामा
कूर्मश्च प्रतिवसति । अथैकदा धीवरैरागत्य तत्रोक्तं --
In the country of Magadha there is a lake called Phullotpala (with-full-blown-lotuses). In it lived for a long time two geese, named Samkata and Vikata, and also a tortoise, their friend, named Kambugriva. Once some fishermen, having come there said --
यदत्रास्माभिरद्योषित्वा प्रातर्मत्स्यकूर्मादयो व्यापादयितव्याः ।
तदाकर्ण्य कूर्मो हंसावाह --
We shall stay here to-day and (to-morrow) morning kill the fishes, turtles and others. On hearing that the tortoise said to the geese --
सुहृदौ । श्रुतोऽयं धीवरालापः अधुना किं मया कर्तव्यम् ।
Friends, have you heard the talk of the fishermen? What should I do now?
हंसावाहतुः --
ज्ञायतां पुनस्तावत्प्रातर्यदुचितं तत्कर्तव्यम् ।
कूर्मो ब्रूते --
The geese replied -- Let it be ascertained again (what they will do) and then we shall do in the morning what is proper to be done. The tortoise observed --
मैवम् । यतो दृष्टव्यतिकरोऽहमत्र । तथा चोक्तम् --
Not so. For I have seen a past occurrence here (or, I have seen the evil consequences of such a course here; or, I see danger in this). And in respect of this it is said --
अनागतविधाता च प्रत्युत्पन्नमतिस्तथा ।
द्वावेतौ सुखमेधेते यद्भविष्यो विनश्यति ॥ ५॥
Anagatavidhata (Provider-against-the-evil-not-come) and Pratyutpannamati (Ready-witted) -- these two flourish happily while Yadbhavishya (Come-what-will-be) perishes.
तावाहतुः -- कथमेतत् ।
कूर्मः कथयति --
॥ कथा २ ॥
The two asked -- How was this? The tortoise then related -- FABLE II.
पुरास्मिन्नेव सरस्येवंविधेषु
धीवरेषूपस्थितेषु मत्स्यत्रयेणालोचितम् । तत्रानागतविधाता
नामैको मत्स्यः । तेनोक्तं -- अहं तावज्जलाशयान्तरं गच्छामि ।
Formerly in this very lake, when fishermen like these had come, three fishes took counsel together. A fish, Anagatavidhata by name, was one of them. He said - -As for myself I will go to another pond.
इत्युक्त्वा ह्रदान्तरं गतः । अपरेण प्रत्युत्पन्नमतिनाम्ना
मस्त्येनाभिहितम् -- भविष्यदर्थे प्रमाणाभावात्कुत्र मया गन्तव्यम् ।
तदुत्पन्ने यथाकार्यमनुष्ठेयम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
Having said so he went to another pool. Another fish, Pratyutpannamati by name, observed -- Since there is no certainty of future events happening (as expected or in a particular way) where can I go? So when the emergency arises I shall act as the occasion would require. For it is said--
उत्पन्नामापदं यस्तु समाधत्ते स बुद्धिमान् ।
वणिजो भार्यया जारः प्रत्यक्षे निह्नुतो यथा ॥ ६॥
He is (really) talented who counteracts (surmounts) a difficulty as it arises; just as the wife of a merchant concealed her lover before (his very) eyes.
यद्भविष्यः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
प्रत्युत्पन्नमतिराह --
॥ कथा ३ ॥
Yadbhavishya asked how it was. Pratyutpannamati related -- FABLE III.
अस्ति विक्रमपुरे समुद्रदत्तो नाम वणिक् । तस्य
रत्नप्रभा नाम वधूः केनापि स्वसेवकेन सह सदा रमते । यतः ।
There was in Vikramapura a merchant, Samudradatta by name. His wife, named Ratnaprabha, always sported with one of her servants. For,
न स्त्रीणामप्रियः कश्चित् प्रियो वापि न विद्यते ।
गावस्तृणमिवारण्ये प्रार्थयन्ति नवं नवम् ॥ ७॥
There is no one who is disagreeable to women, nor one who is beloved by them ; but they ever long for a new one, like Cows seeking fresh grass in a forest.
अथैकदा सा
रत्नप्रभा तस्य सेवकस्य मुखे चुम्बनं ददती समुद्रदत्तेनावलोकिता ।
ततः सा बन्धकी सत्वरं भर्तुः समीपं गत्वाह --
Now on one occasion that Ratnaprabha was seen impressing a kiss on the servant's mouth, by Samudradatta. Thereupon that profligate woman going up to him quickly said --
नाथ एतस्य सेवकस्य महती निर्वृतिः । यतोऽयं चौरिकां कृत्वा
कर्पूरं खादतीति मयास्य मुखमाघ्राय ज्ञातम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
My lord, great must be the fondness for ease of this our servant, since I have found out by smelling his mouth that he eats camphor, having stolen it. For it is said
आहारो द्विगुणः स्त्रीणां बुद्धिस्तासां चतुर्गुणा ।
षड्गुणो व्यवसायश्च कामश्चाष्टगुणः स्मृतः ॥ ८॥
The eating capacity of women (lit. food -- as compared to that of men) is said to be twofold, their talent fourfold, their energy sixfold and their passion eightfold.
तच्छ्रुत्वा सेवकेन
प्रकुप्योक्तं -- यस्य स्वामिनो गृह एतादृशी भार्या
तत्र सेवकेन कथं स्थातव्यम् यत्र च प्रतिक्षणं गृहिणी
सेवकस्य मुखं जिघ्रति । ततोऽसावुत्थाय चलितः ।
Hearing those words (of the woman) the servant getting angry said -- Who can stay in the house of a master whose wife is of this sort house wherein the mistress smells the mouth of a servant every moment? Saying this he got up and walked off.
साधुना यत्नात्प्रबोध्य धृतः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- उत्पन्नामापदम् इत्यादि ।
ततो यद्भविष्येणोक्तम् --
The merchant with great difficulty persuaded him and retained him in his service. Hence I say -- He is really talented who counteracts &c. Thereafter Yadbhavishya said --
यदभावि न तद्भावि भावि चेन्न तद् अन्यथा ।
इति चिन्ताविषघ्नोऽयमगदः किं न पीयते ॥ ९॥
What is not to happen can never happen and what is to happen can never be otherwise: Why is this medicine, which destroys the poison of anxiety, not drunk?
ततः प्रातर्जालेन बद्धः प्रत्युत्पन्नमतिर्मृतवदात्मानं संदर्श्य
स्थितः । ततो जालादपसारितो यथाशक्त्युत्प्लुत्य गभीरं नीरं
प्रविष्टः । यद्भविष्यश्च धीवरैः प्राप्तो व्यापादितः ।
Then in the morning Pratyutpannamati, being caught in the net, feigned himself dead and so remained. Thereafter being removed from the net he jumped to the utmost of his power and entered deep water. While Yadbhavishya being caught by the fishermen was killed.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- अनागतविधाता इत्यादि ॥ तद्यथाहमन्यद्ह्रदमद्य
प्राप्नोमि तथा क्रियताम् । हंसावाहतुः --
Hence I say -- Anagatavidhata &c. Therefore so contrive it that I shall get to another pond to-day. The two geese said --
जलाशयान्तरे प्राप्ते तव कुशलम् । स्थले गच्छतस्ते को विधिः । कूर्म आह --
You will be safe when another pond is reached. But what will be your means of safety (or, how will you fare) while going on land? The tortoise replied --
यथाहं भवद्भ्यां सहाकाशवर्त्मना यामि स उपायो विधीयताम् ।
हंसौ ब्रूतः -- कथमुपायः सम्भवति ।
Contrive that means by which I shall be able to go along with you by the aerial path. The two geese said -- How can such a contrivance be possible?
कच्छपो वदति -- युवाभ्यां चञ्चुधृतं काष्ठखण्डमेकं
मया मुखेनावलम्बितव्यम् । युवयोः पक्षबलेन मयापि
सुखेन गन्तव्यम् ।
The tortoise replied -- You take in your beaks a piece of wood which I will seize by my mouth, so that I too shall go with ease by the force of your wings.
हंसौ ब्रूतः -- सम्भवत्येष उपायः । किंतु
उपायं चिन्तयन् प्राज्ञो ह्यपायमपि चिन्तयेत् ।
पश्यतो बकमूर्खस्य नकुलैर्भक्षिताः प्रजाः ॥ १०॥
The two geese said -- This contrivance is possible. But, While thinking out a remedy a wise man should also take into account accident (or, possible hindrances, obstacles): the young of a foolish crane were eaten by mongooses before his very eyes.
कूर्मः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
तौ कथयतः --
॥ कथा ४ ॥
The tortoise asked how it was. The two geese thus narrated -- FABLE IV.
अस्त्युत्तरापथे गृध्रकूटो नाम पर्वतः । तत्रेरावतीतीरे न्यग्रोधपादपे
बका निवसन्ति । तस्य वृक्षस्याधस्ताद्विवरे सर्पस्तिष्ठति ।
There is in the Northern country a mountain Gridhrakuta by name. There in a fig tree on the bank of the Airavati lived some cranes; and in a hole at the foot of the tree lived a serpent ..
स च तेषां बालापत्यानि खादति । अथ शोकार्तानां बकानां विलापं श्रुत्वा
केनचिद्बकेनाभिहितं -- एवं कुरुत यूयं । मत्स्यानादाय
who used to eat their little ones. Now a certain old crane, hearing the wail of the cranes afflicted with grief, said -- Thus you should do -- Get some fish
नकुलविवरादारभ्य सर्पविवरं यावत्पङ्क्तिक्रमेणैकैकशो
मत्स्यान् विकीर्य धत्त । ततस्तदाहारलुब्धैर्नकुलैरागत्य सर्पो द्रष्टव्यः ।
स्वभावविद्वेषाद्व्यापादयितव्यश्च ।
and have them spread one by one in a line from the burrow of the mongooses to the hole of the serpent. Then by the mongooses coming here, being attracted by the food, the serpent will necessarily be seen and killed on account of their natural antipathy.
तथानुष्ठिते तद्वृत्तम् ।
ततस्तत्र वृक्षे नकुलैर्बकशावकानां रावः श्रुतः ।
पश्चात्तैर्वृक्षमारुह्य बकशावकाः खादिताः ।
Now this being done what was expected came to pass. But the mongooses heard the cry of the young cranes; so after that they mounted the trees and ate the young ones of the cranes.
अत आवां ब्रूवः -- उपायं चिन्तयन् इत्यादि ॥
For this reason we say -- While thinking out a remedy a wise man, &c.
आवाभ्यां नीयमानं त्वामवलोक्य लोकैः किंचिद्वक्तव्यमेव । तदाकर्ण्य यदि
त्वमुत्तरं दास्यसि तदा त्वन्मरणम् । तत्सर्वथात्रैव स्थीयताम् ।
On seeing you borne along by us the people must say something. Hearing that if you will give a reply your death is certain. So, all matters considered, you should stay here.
कूर्मो वदति -- किमहमअज्ञः ।
न किमपि मया वक्तव्यम् ।
The tortoise replied -- What? Am I a fool? I will not say anything.
ततस्तथानुष्ठिते तथाविधं कूर्ममालोक्य सर्वे गोरक्षकाः
पश्चाद्धावन्ति वदन्ति च ।
Then the plan being put into execution, all the cow-herds observing the tortoise in that situation ran after him and exclaimed:
तत्र कश्चिद् वदति -- यद्ययं कूर्मः पतति तदात्रैव पक्त्वा खादितव्यः ।
कश्चिद् वदति -- अत्रैव दग्ध्वा खादितव्योऽयम् ।
कश्चिद् ब्रुते -- गृहं नीत्वा भक्षणीयः इति ।
Among them one said -- If this tortoise falls he should be roasted just here and eaten. Another said -- He should be dressed on the spot and eaten. A third said -- We will take him home and eat him.
तत्परुषवचनं श्रुत्वा स कूर्मः कोपाविष्टो
विस्मृतपूर्वसंस्कारः प्राह -- युष्माभिर्भस्म भक्षितव्यम् ।
On hearing those harsh words the tortoise, full of rage and forgetting his original resolve, said -- You shall eat ashes.
इति वदन्नेव पतितो गोरक्षकैर्व्यापादितश्च ।
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि सुहृदां हितकामानाम् इत्यादि ॥
But just as he uttered these words he fell down and was killed by the cow-keepers. Hence I say -- That fool who does not, &c.
अथ प्रणिधिर्बकस्तत्रागत्योवाच -- देव प्रागेव मया निगदितं
दुर्गशोधनं हि प्रतिक्षणं कर्तव्यमिति । तच्च युष्माभिर्न कृतं ।
Now the crane, employed as a spy, came there and said -- My lord, just at the beginning I had said it was necessary to search the castle every moment. You did not do that.
ततस्तदनवधानस्य फलमनुभूतम् । दुर्गदाहश्चायं मेघवर्णनाम्ना
वायसेन गृध्रप्रयुक्तेन कृतः । राजा निःश्वस्याह --
And so the fruit of your neglect to attend to it (my warning) has been experienced. As to the burning of the fortress it was done by a crow named Meghavarna at the instigation of the minister, the Vulture. The king, sighing, said --
प्रणयादुपकाराद्वा यो विश्वसिति शत्रुषु ।
स सुप्त इव वृक्षाग्रात्पतितः प्रतिबुध्यते ॥ ११॥
He, who puts confidence in his enemies either for affection (shown) or a friendly act done, is awakened (roused to stern reality) when ruined, like a man sleeping when fallen from the top of a tree.
प्रणिधिरुवाच -- इतो दुर्गदाहं विधाय यदा गतो
मेघवर्णस्तदा चित्रवर्णेन प्रसादितेनोक्तम् -- अयं मेघवर्णोऽत्र
कर्पूरद्वीपराज्येऽभिषिच्यताम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
The spy said -- When, having effected the burning of the castle, Meghavarna went away, Chitravarna being pleased said -- Let this Meghavarna be installed king of this Karpuradvipa. For it is said --
कृतकृत्यस्य भृत्यस्य कृतं नैव प्रणाशयेत् ।
फलेन मनसा वाचा दृष्ट्या चैनं प्रहर्षयेत् ॥ १२॥
One should never ignore (lit. render fruitless) the service rendered by a servant who has done his duty; but should gladden (encourage) him by rewarding (his services) with the mind, speech and eyes.
चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- ततस्ततः ।
प्रणिधिरुवाच -- ततः प्रधानमन्त्रिणा गृध्रेणाभिहितम् ।
देव नेदमुचितम् । प्रसादान्तरं किमपि क्रियताम् । यतः ।
Chakravaka -- What then? The spy -- Then the prime minister, the Vulture, said -- my lord, this is not proper. Bestow upon him some other favour. For,
अविचारयतो युक्तिकथनं तुषखण्डनम् ।
नीचेषूपकृतं राजन्बालुकास्विव मूत्रितम् ॥ १३॥
Giving advice to one who is inconsiderate is simply like pounding chaff (a bootless labour); an obligation conferred upon a mean person is like pissing on sand.
अपरं च । महतामास्पदे नीचः कदापि न कर्तव्यः । तथा चोक्तम् --
Moreover, a base man should not be placed in the station of the great. For,
नीचः श्लाघ्यपदं प्राप्य स्वामिनं हन्तुमिच्छति ।
मूषिको व्याघ्रतां प्राप्य मुनिं हन्तुं गतो यथा ॥ १४॥
A low person having obtained an exalted position desires to kill his master, just as a mouse having been raised to the state of a tiger went forth to kill the sage.
चित्रवर्णः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
मन्त्री कथयति --
॥ कथा ५ ॥
Chitravarna asked -- How was this? The minister related -- FABLE V.
अस्ति गौतमस्य महर्षेस्तपोवने महातपा नाम मुनिः ।
तेनाश्रमसन्निधाने मूषिकशावकः काकमुखाद्भ्रष्टो दृष्टः ।
In the penance-grove of the great sage Gotama there lived a hermit, Mahatapas by name. He (once) saw, in the vicinity of his hermitage, a young mouse fallen from the mouth of a crow.
ततः स्वभावदयात्मना तेन मुनिना नीवारकणैः संवर्धितः ।
ततो बिडालस्तं मूषिकं खादितुमुपधावति ।
The sage being naturally tender-hearted reared it up with grains of wild rice. Now a cat ran to eat the mouse,
तमवलोक्य मूषिकस्तस्य मुनेः क्रोडे प्रविवेश । ततो मुनिनोक्तम् --
मूषिक त्वं मार्जारो भव । ततः स बिडालः कुक्कुरं दृष्ट्वा पलायते ।
on seeing which it ran to the sage's lap for shelter. Then the sage said -- O mouse, be thou a cat. Then the cat would run away on seeing a dog.
ततो मुनिनोक्तं -- कुक्कुराद्बिभेषि । त्वमेव कुक्कुरो भव ।
स कुक्कुरो व्याघ्राद्बिभेति । ततस्तेन मुनिना कुक्कुरो व्याघ्रः कृतः ।
Then the sage said -- Thou fearest a dog? Be thou a dog thyself. Now the dog was afraid of a tiger, so that the dog was changed into a tiger by the sage.
अथ व्याघ्रापि तं मूषिकनिर्विशेषं पश्यति स मुनिः । अथ तं मुनिं दृष्ट्वा व्याघ्रं च
सर्वे वदन्ति -- अनेन मुनिना मूषिको व्याघ्रतां नीतः ।
But although a tiger, the sage did not regard him as anything better than a mouse. Now all the people when they saw the sage and the mouse would say -- By the sage the mouse was changed into a tiger.
एतच्छ्रुत्वा स व्याघ्रः सव्यथोऽचिन्तयत् -- यावदनेन मुनिना
जीवितव्यं तावदिदं मे स्वरूपाख्यानमकीर्तिकरं न पलायिष्यते ।
Hearing this, the tiger, being distressed at heart, said to himself --So long as this saint lives, this ignominious talk about my real nature will not vanish.
इत्यालोच्य मुनिं हन्तुं गतः ।
ततो मुनिना तज्ज्ञात्वा पुनर्मूषिको भव इत्युक्त्वा मूषिक एव कृतः ।
Thus reflecting he went forth to kill the saint. Thereupon the holy man, knowing that (his intention), again changed him into a mouse, saying -- Be thou a mouse again.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- नीचः श्लाघ्यपदं इत्यादि ॥
अपरं च । सुकरमिदमिति न मन्तव्यम् । शृणु ।
Hence I say, a mean man having obtained an exalted post &c. Moreover, you should not think that this is easy to do. Listen --
भक्षयित्वा बहून्मत्स्यानुत्तमाधममध्यमान् ।
अतिलोभाद्बकः पश्चान्मृतः कर्कटकग्रहात् ॥ १५॥
Having devoured many fishes of the best, middle and the ordinary sort, a crane died afterwards through excessive greed, being seized by a crab.
चित्रवर्णः पृच्छति -- कथमेतत् ।
मन्त्री कथयति --
Chitravarna demanded how it was, whereupon the minister thus related --
कथा ६
अस्ति मालवविषये पद्मगर्भाभिधानं सरः ।
तत्रैको वृद्धो बकः सामर्थ्यहीन उद्विग्नमिवात्मानं
दर्शयित्वा स्थितः । स च केनचित्कुलीरणे दृष्टः
पृष्टश्च -- किमिति भवानत्राहारत्यागेन तिष्ठति ।
There is, in the Malaya (Malwa) country, a lake, Padmagarbha by name. There a certain crane who was old and decrepit stood showing himself to be sad at heart. He was observed by a crab and asked - Why do you stand thus without looking for food!
बकेनोक्तम् । भद्र शृणु । मत्स्या मम जीवनहेतवः । ते चावश्यं कैवर्तैरागत्य
व्यापादयितव्या इति वार्ता नगरोपान्ते मया श्रुता ।
The crane said -- Friend, listen. The fish are the means of my sustenance. And they are certain to be killed by fishermen coming here. (For) such a talk I heard near the city.
अतो वर्तनाभावाद् एवास्मन्मरणमुपस्थितमिति ज्ञात्वाहारेऽप्यनादरः कृतः ।
ततः सर्वैर्मत्स्यैरालोचितम् -- इह समये तावदुपकारक एवायं लक्ष्यतेऽस्माकम् ।
So for want of means of subsistence my death is imminent. Aware of this I am not thinking of eating even. Now all the fishes thought to themselves: -- This time at least he appears to be our benefactor.
तदयमेव यथाकर्तव्यं पृच्छ्यताम् । तथा चोक्तम् --
So let us just consult him as to what is best to be done. For it is said --
उपकर्त्रारिणा संधिर्न मित्रेणापकारिणा ।
उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षणमेतयोः ॥ १६॥
An alliance should be formed even with an enemy disposed to do a service, and not with a friend doing injury: for a deed of benevolence and injury should be known to be the signs of these (i.e., a man being a friend or foe).
मत्स्या ऊचुः -- भो बक कोऽत्र रक्षणोपायः ।
बको ब्रूते -- अस्ति
रक्षणोपायो जलाशयान्तराश्रयणम् । तत्राहमेकैकशो युष्मान्नयामि ।
The fishes asked -- o crane, what is the means of our safety now? The crane replied -- There is a remedy for your protection, viz., going to another pond. I shall carry you one by one there.
मत्स्या आहुः -- एवमस्तु । ततोऽसौ बकस्तान्मत्स्यानेकैकशो
नीत्वा खादति । अनन्तरं कुलीरस्तमुवाच -- भो बक मामपि तत्र नय ।
The fishes said -- Let it be so done. Then the crane carried the fishes one by one and devoured them. After that the crab said –- O crane, take me there also.
ततो बकोऽप्यपूर्वकुलीरमांसार्थी सादरं तं नीत्वा स्थले
धृतवान् ।
Thereupon, the crane too, longing for the flesh of the crab which he had never tasted before, carried him there and placed him on the ground.
कुलीरोऽपि मत्स्यकण्टकाकीर्णं तत्स्थलमालोक्याचिन्तयत् । हा हतोऽस्मि ।
मन्दभाग्यः । भवतु । इदानीं समयोचितं व्यवहरामि । यतः ।
The crab also, seeing the place strewn with the bones of the fishes, said to himself -- Alas! I am undone, an unlucky creature. Well, I will act now as the time requires. For --
तावद्भयात्तु भेतव्यं यावद्भयमनागतम् ।
आगतं तु भयं वीक्ष्य प्रहर्तव्यमभीतवत् ॥ १७॥
One should dread a danger so long as it has not come : but seeing that the danger has arrived, one should strike a blow like a hero (lit., like one not daunted, or boldly).
अपरं च । अभियुक्तो यदा पश्येन्न किंचिद्धितमात्मनः ।
युध्यमानस्तदा प्राज्ञो म्रियते रिपुणा सह ॥ १८॥
Moreover, When a wise man being attacked sees no benefit to himself (from not fighting) he dies fighting with his foe (or, he dies fighting, along with his foe).
अन्यच्च । यत्रायुद्धे ध्रुवो नाशो युद्धे जीवितसंशयः ।
तं कालमेकं युद्धस्य प्रवदन्ति मनीषिणः ॥ १९ ॥
Again, When without fighting destruction is certain, but in fighting there is some chance of living -- that the wise declare to be the time for fighting.
स कुलीरस्तस्य ग्रीवां चिच्छेद । स बकः पञ्चत्वं गतः ।
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि भक्षयित्वा बहून्मत्स्यान् इत्यादि ॥
Thus reflecting the crab cut off the neck of the crane, who threupon died. Hence I say –- Having devoured many fishes &c.
ततः स चित्रवर्णो राजाऽवदत् । शृणु तावन्मन्त्रिन् मयैतद्
आलोचितमस्ति यदत्रावस्थितेन मेघवर्णेन राज्ञा यावन्ति
वस्तूनि कर्पूरद्वीपस्योत्तमानि तावन्त्यस्माकमुपनेतव्यानि ।
Upon this king Chitravarna said again -- Just hear me, minister. I have thought thus of the matter. That Meghavarna, if left king here, will send us all the best things that are to be found in Karpuradvipa
तेन महता विलासेनास्माभिर्विन्ध्याचले स्थातव्यम् ।
दूरदर्शी विहस्याह -- देव
So that I might live in great luxury on mount Vindhya. Duradarsi, having smiled, said -- My lord,
अनागतवतीं चिन्तां कृत्वा यस्तु प्रहृष्यति ।
स तिरस्कारमाप्नोति भग्नभाण्डो द्विजो यथा ॥ २०॥
He who rejoices over things which have not come to pass suffers contempt like the Brahmana who broke the pots.
राजाह -- कथमेतत् ।
मन्त्री कथयति --
॥ कथा ७ ॥
The king asked how it was, the minister went on -- FABLE VII.
अस्ति देवीकोटनाम्नि नगरे देवशर्मा नाम ब्राह्मणः ।
तेन महाविषुवत्संक्रान्त्यां सक्तुपूर्णशराव एकः प्राप्तः ।
There was a Brahmana, called Devasarma, in the city of Devakota. On the great equinox day he got (as present) an earthen pot full of barley.
ततस्तमादायासौ कुम्भकारस्य भाण्डपूर्णमण्डपिकैकदेशे
रौद्रेणाकुलितः सुप्तः । ततः सक्तुरक्षार्थं हस्ते दण्डमेकमादायाचिन्तयत् --
With it, he, being oppressed with the heat of the sultry sun, slept in a part of a potter's shed filled with earthenware. Then having taken a stick in his hand to protect the Saktus (from mice) he fell into a reverie --
यद्यहं सक्तुशरावं
विक्रीय दश कपर्दकान्प्राप्स्यामि तदात्रैव तैः
कपर्दकैर्घटशरावादिकमुपक्रीय विक्रीयानेकधा
वृद्धैस्तद्धनैः पुनः पुनः पूगवस्त्रादिमुपक्रीय विक्रीय
If by selling this barley-pot I can get ten cowries, I will buy with them pitchers, Saravas and the like, just here. Selling these (at an advantage), and with the money thus increased manifold, I will buy, over and over again, betel-nuts, cloth and other articles,
लक्षसंख्यानि धनानि कृत्वा विवाहचतुष्टयं करिष्यामि । अनन्तरं तासु
स्वपत्नीषु रूपयौवनवती या तस्यामधिकानुरागं करिष्यामि ।
संजातेर्ष्यास्तत्सपत्न्यो यदा द्वन्द्वं करिष्यन्ति तदा कोपाकुलोऽहं ता इत्थं
लगुडेन ताडयिष्यामि ।
and will raise my fortune till it could be reckoned by lacs, and then marry four wives. I will then show greater love to her among the fellow-wives who is endowed with beauty and youth. Then when her co-wives, their jealousy being excited, will quarrel with her, I being overpowered by rage, will strike them with a stick thus --
इत्यभिधाय लगुडः क्षिप्तः । सक्तुशरावश्चूर्णितो
तेन भाण्डानि च बहूनि भग्नानि । ततस्तेन शब्देनागतेन कुम्भकारेण
तथाविधानि भाण्डान्यवलोक्य ब्राह्मणस्तिरस्कृतो मण्डपिकागर्भाद्बहिष्कृतश्च ।
With these words he hurled forth the stick (he had in his hand), so that his pot containing the barley was broken into pieces and many other pots destroyed. Now the noise brought in the potter who discovering the pots in that condition reproved the Brahmana and drove him out of the interior of the shed.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- अनागतवतीं चिन्ताम् इत्यादि ॥
I say therefore -- He who rojoices over things &c.
ततो राजा रहसि गृध्रमुवाच -- तात यथाकर्तव्यं उपदिश ।
गृध्रो ब्रूते --
On hearing this the king said to the Vulture -- Friend, tell me what is proper to be done. The Vulture said --
मदोद्धतस्य नृपतेः संकीर्णस्येव दन्तिनः ।
गच्छन्त्युन्मार्गयातस्य नेतारः खलु वाच्यताम् ॥ २१॥
Of a king swollen with pride as of an elephant in rut (infuriated, ungovernable), and therefore going astray, the leaders (advisers, drivers), indeed, meet with censure (incur blame).
शृणु देव किमस्माभिर्बलदर्पाद्दुर्गं भग्नम् नो वा
भवतः प्रतापाधिष्ठितेनोपायेन ।
I solicit your attention, my lord. Did we conquer the fort by the pride of our strength (or, army, i.e., by sheer force) or rather by a stratagem, suggested by your glory?
राजाह -- भवतामुपायेन ।
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- यद्यस्मद्वचनं क्रियते तदा स्वदेशे गम्यताम् ।
The king replied -- By means of a scheme devised by Your Excellency. The Vulture said - If my advice is to be followed, then let us go back to our country.
अन्यथा वर्षाकाले प्राप्ते तुल्यबलेन सह पुनर्विग्रहे
सत्यस्माकं परभूमिष्ठानां स्वदेशगमनमपि दुर्लभं भविष्यति ।
Else, after the advent of the rainy season, if the war is renewed with an enemy of equal power, it will be impossible for us, who are stationed in a foreign country, even to return home.
सुखशोभार्थं च संधाय गम्यताम् ।
दुर्गं भग्नं कीर्तिश्च लब्धैव । मम संमतं तावद् एतत् । यतः ।
So having made peace for the attainment of both prosperity and glory, let us go away. The fortress has already been taken and renown gained. This much is what I approve of. For,
यो हि धर्मं पुरस्कृत्य हित्वा भर्तुः प्रियाप्रिये ।
अप्रियाण्याह तथ्यानि तेन राजा सहायवान् ॥ २२॥
A king has a (true) adviser (lit. helper) in him, who considering his duty as foremost and not minding what his master likes or dislikes, says things which are true although unpalatable.
युद्धे विनाशो भवति कदाचिदुभयोरपि ।
नहि संशयितं कुर्यादित्युवाच बृहस्पतिः ॥ २३॥
In a battle both the parties are sometimes ruined; so one should not jeopardize his advantages : thus has Brihaspati declared.
अन्यच्च । सुहृद्बलं तथा राज्यमात्मानं कीर्तिमेव च ।
युधि संदेहदोलास्थं को हि कुर्यादबालिशः ॥ २४॥
Moreover, Who, that is not an idiot, will risk (lit., place on the swing of doubt) in a battle the army of his allies, his kingdom, his own self, as well as his reputation?
अपरं च । संधिमिच्छेत्समेनापि संदिग्धो विजयो युधि ।
सुन्दोपसुन्दावन्योन्यं नष्टौ तुल्यबलौ न किम् ॥ २५ ॥
Moreover, One should desire friendly alliance even with one's equals, since victory in a battle is uncertain : for were not Sunda and Upasunda, of equal valour, destroyed by each other?
राजोवाच -- कथमेतत् । मन्त्री कथयति --
॥ कथा ८ ॥
The king asked how it was: the minister told (the following tale): FABLE VIII.
पुरा दैत्यौ सहोदरौ सुन्दोपसुन्दनामानौ महता कायक्लेशेन
त्रैलोक्यराज्यकामनया चिराच्चन्द्रशेखरमाराधितवन्तौ ।
In days of yore, two demons, Sunda and Upasunda by name, who were brothers, with the desire of obtaining the sovereignty of the three worlds, devoted themselves to Siva's worship for a long time, suffering great bodily torment.
ततस्तयोर्भगवान्परितुष्टः वरं वरयतमित्युवाच ।
Then the deity being pleased with them asked them to name the boon they wanted.
अनन्तरं तयोः समधिष्ठितया सरस्वत्या तावन्यद्
वक्तुकामावन्यदभिहितवन्तौ । यद्यावयोर्भवान्परितुष्टस्तदा
स्वप्रियां पार्वतीं परमेश्वरो ददातु ।
Now the two, owing to the (influence of) the goddess of learning who had possessed them, gave utterance to quite a different wish from what they had intended to do. They said -- If the Almighty God is pleased with us, may he give us his consort Parvati.
अथ भगवता क्रुद्धेन वरदानस्यावश्यकतया विचारमूढयोः पार्वती प्रदत्ता ।
Then the Deity, although enraged, seeing that the granting of the boon was inevitable, gave Parvati to those fools.
ततस्तस्या रूपलावण्यलुब्धाभ्यां जगद्घातिभ्यां
मनसोत्सुकाभ्यां पापतिमिराभ्याम् ममेत्यन्योन्यकलहाभ्यां
Thereupon they two, the destroyers of the world and representing (as it were) sin and darkness (ignorance), being captivated by the excellence of her beauty and mentally yearning after her, began to quarrel, each saying that she was his.
प्रमाणपुरुषः कश्चित्पृच्छ्यतामिति मतौ कृतायां
स एव भट्टारको वृद्धद्विजरूपः समागत्य तत्रोपस्थितः ।
But they having agreed between themselves to refer the matter to an umpire, that same Deity stood before them having come there in the form of an old Brahmana.
अनन्तरंआवाभ्यामियं स्वबललब्धा
कस्येयमावयोर्भवति इति ब्राह्मणमपृच्छताम् । ब्राह्मणो ब्रूते --
Upon this the two asked the Brahmana -- We have obtained this (goddess) by our own might. To which of us does she belong? The Brahmana spoke --
ज्ञानश्रेष्ठो द्विजः पूज्यः क्षत्रियो बलवानपि ।
धनधान्याधिको वैश्यः शूद्रस्तु द्विजसेवया ॥ २६॥
A Brahmana is esteemed when he is distinguished for his knowledge, a Kshatriya when powerful, a merchant when pre-eminently in possession of wealth and grain, and a Sudra when serving the twice-born.
तद्युवां क्षत्रधर्मानुगौ । युद्ध एव युवयोर्नियमः ।
इत्यभिहिते सति साधूक्तमनेन इति कृत्वान्योन्यतुल्यवीर्यौ
समकालमन्योन्यघातेन विनाशमुपागतौ ।
Now you two are the followers of the duties proper for the Kshatriyas; and so the rule for you is to fight. After this declaration, saying 'He has spoken well', the two whose valour was equally matched, struck each other at one and the same time, and met their doom.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- संधिमिच्छेत्समेनापि इत्यादि ॥
Therefore I say -- One should form a friendly alliance even with one's equal, &c.
राजाह -- प्राग् एव किं नोक्तं भवद्भिः ।
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- मद्वचनं किमवसानपर्यन्तं श्रुतं भवद्भिः ।
तदापि मम संमत्या नायं विग्रहारम्भः ।
The king -- Why did you not say so before? The Minister -- Did Your Highness hear my speech to its end? And even then this war was not commenced with my consent.
सन्धेयगुणयुक्तोऽयं हिरण्यगर्भो न विग्राह्यः । तथा चोक्तं --
This Hiranyagarbha possesses qualities which make him a fit person to form an alliance, and not to wage war with. For it is said --
सत्यार्यौ धार्मिकोऽनार्यो भ्रातृसंघातवान्बली ।
अनेकयुद्धविजयी संधेयाः सप्त कीर्तिताः ॥ २७॥
One who is veracious, one who is noble-minded, one who is righteous, one who is mean-minded (or not an Aryan), one in union with a number of brothers (or, relatives), one who is powerful, and one who is victorious in many battles - those seven kings are mentioned as fit to be entered into an alliance with.
सत्योऽनुपालयन्सत्यं संधितो नैति विक्रियाम् ।
प्राणबाधेऽपि सुव्यक्तमार्यो नायात्यनार्यताम् ॥ २८॥
One, who is veracious, is ever faithful to truth, and will not change afterwards when united by an alliance. He who is noble-minded, it is quite evident, will never act meanly even though his life be threatened.
धार्मिकस्याभियुक्तस्य सर्व एव हि युध्यते ।
प्रजानुरागाद्धर्माच्च दुःखोच्छेद्यो हि धार्मिकः ॥ २९॥
For a righteous king, if attacked, every one will fight : he who is righteous is difficult to be uprooted on account of the love of his subjects and his dutifulness (his just conduct).
संधिः कार्योऽप्यनार्येण विनाशे समुपस्थिते ।
विना तस्याश्रयेणार्यः कुर्यान्न कालयापनम् ॥ ३०॥
An alliance should be formed even with one who is mean-minded, when destruction is imminent; for without his assistance one who is noble-minded cannot pass time happily.
संहतत्वाद्यथा वेणुर्निबिडैः कण्टकैर्वृतः ।
न शक्यते समुच्छेत्तुं भ्रातृसंघातवांस्तथा ॥ ३१॥
Just as a bamboo covered over with thorns cannot be (easily) uprooted on account or its being in close union (with others), so cannot one in union with a multitude of relatives.
बलिना सह योद्धव्यमिति नास्ति निदर्शनम् ।
प्रतिवातं न हि घनः कदाचिदुपसर्पति ॥ ३२॥
There is no ordinance which says that one should fight with one's superior in power; for a cloud cannot, indeed, move contrary to the wind.
जमदग्नेः सुतस्येव सर्वः सर्वत्र सर्वदा ।
अनेकयुद्धजयिनः प्रतापादेव भुज्यते ॥ ३३॥
Through the prowess of one who has been victorious in many battles, like that of Parasurama (the son of Jamadagni), every one is made subservient (to one's wishes) in every place and at all times.
अनेकयुद्धविजयी संधानं यस्य गच्छति ।
तत्प्रतापेन तस्याशु वशमायान्ति शत्रवः ॥ ३४॥
Enemies quickly yield to him with whom a victor in many battles forms an alliance, through his (the latter's) prowess.
तत्र तावद्बहुभिर्गुणैरुपेतः संधेयोऽयं राजा । चक्रवाकोऽवदत् --
प्रणिधे सर्वमवगतम् । व्रज पुनर्ज्ञात्वागमिष्यसि ।
Then this king, who is endowed with many qualities, should be made peace with. Chakravaka said -- Spy, we have known everything. Go now and come back having gathered further intelligence.
राजा चक्रवाकं पृष्ठवान् -- मन्त्रिन्
असंधेयाः कति ।
तानपि ज्ञातुमिच्छामि । मन्त्री ब्रूते -- देव कथयामि । शृणु ।
The king asked Chakravaka -- Minister, who are those with whom it is not advisable to form an alliance? I wish to know them also. The minister replied -- My lord, I will tell you that. Kindly listen.
बालो वृद्धो दीर्घरोगी तथा ज्ञातिबहिष्कृतः ।
भीरुको भीरुकजनो लुब्धो लुब्धजनस्तथा ॥ ३५॥
One who is a child, who is old, who is subject to protracted diseases, he who is excommunicated from (or, disowned by) his caste, who is timid or has timid servants, who is avaricious or has avaricious servants,
विरक्तप्रकृतिश्चैव विषयेष्वतिसक्तिमान् ।
अनेकचित्तमन्त्रस्तु देवब्राह्मणनिन्दकः ॥ ३६॥
whose subjects (or, ministers) are disattached, who is exceedingly addicted to carnal pleasures, who is fickle-minded in receiving his counsels, who talks ill (or speaks disrespectfully) of the gods and the Brahmanas (a blasphemer),
दैवोपहतकश्चैव दैवचिंतक एव च ।
दुर्भिक्षव्यसनोपेतो बलव्यसनसंकुलः ॥ ३७॥
One condemned by fate, a fatalist, he who is smitten with the calamity of famine, who is in danger (or, difficulty) from his army,
अदेशस्थो बहुरिपुर्युक्तः कालेन यश्च न ।
सत्यधर्मव्यपेतश्च विंशतिः पुरुषा अमी ॥ ३८॥
one not in his own country (or, one not a native of the country), one who has many enemies, one whom time does not favour (i.e., fighting at a very unfavourable time), and one who has departed from truth and religion (an apostate) -- these are the twenty men (or kings)
एतैः संधिं न कुर्वीत विगृह्णीयात्तु केवलम् ।
एते विगृह्यमाणा हि क्षिप्रं यान्ति रिपोर्वशम् ॥ ३९॥
with whom one should not make peace but simply fight on; for those, if warred against in no time, fall into their enemy's hands.
बालस्याल्पप्रभावत्वान्न लोको योद्धुमिच्छति ।
युद्धायुद्धफलं यस्माज्ज्ञातुं शक्तो न बालिशः ॥ ४०॥
On account of the little power (or, influence) a child(-king) possesses, people do not wish to fight for him; because one of a tender age is not able to know the fruit (consequences) of fighting or not fighting.
उत्साहशक्तिहीनत्वाद्वृद्धो दीर्घामयस्तथा ।
स्वैरेव परिभूयेते द्वावप्येतावसंशयम् ॥ ४१॥
He who is old, and he who has been long ailing -- these two, being destitute of the power of energy, are, undoubtedly, overpowered by their own men.
सुखोच्छेद्यस्तु भवति सर्वज्ञातिबहिष्कृतः ।
त एवैनं विनिघ्नन्ति ज्ञातयस्त्वात्मसात्कृताः ॥ ४२॥
He, who has been disowned by all his kinsmen, is easily uprooted; for those very kinsmen, when won over, kill him.
भीरुर्युद्धपरित्यागात्स्वयमेव प्रणश्यति ।
तथैव भीरुपुरुषः सङ्ग्रामे तैर्विमुच्यते ॥ ४३॥
A coward, by reason of his giving up fighting, draws down ruin on himself. Similarly he who has timid servants is deserted by them in a battle.
लुब्धस्यासंविभागित्वान्न युध्यन्तेऽनुयायिनः ।
लुब्धानुजीविकैरेष दानभिन्नैर्निहन्यते ॥ ४४॥
By reason of his not distributing the spoils of war, the followers of an avaricious king do not fight for him. He who has greedy followers is killed by them when estranged by gifts (given by his enemies).
संत्यज्यते प्रकृतिभिर्विरक्तप्रकृतिर्युधि ।
सुखाभियोज्यो भवति विषयेष्वतिसक्तिमान् ॥ ४५॥
He whose subjects (or, ministers) are disaffected is forsaken by them in battle. One excessively attached to pleasures is easily assailable.
अनेकचित्तमन्त्रस्तु द्वेष्यो भवति मन्त्रिणाम् ।
अनवस्थितचित्तत्वात्कर्ये तैः स उपेक्ष्यते ॥ ४६॥
He who is fickle-minded in receiving his counsels is disliked by his ministers; and, on account of the unsteadiness of his mind, he is neglected by them in an important affair (or, when a necessity arises).
सदा धर्मबलीयस्त्वाद्देवब्राह्मणनिन्दकः ।
विशीर्यते स्वयं ह्येष दैवोपहतकस्तथा ॥ ४७॥
Owing to the supreme power of Dharma (religion), he who speaks irreverently of the gods and the Brahmanas perishes of himself, as also one who is smitten by Fate.
सम्पत्तेश्च विपत्तेश्च दैवमेव हि कारणम् ।
इति दैवपरो ध्यायन्नात्मानमपि चेष्टते ॥ ४८॥
Fate, indeed, is the only cause of prosperity or adversity : he, who, depending on Fate, goes on thinking thus, does not move even for himself.
दुर्भिक्ष्यव्यसनी चैव स्वयमेवावसीदति ।
बलव्यसनयुक्तस्य योद्धुं शक्तिर्न जायते ॥ ४९॥
He who is overtaken by the calamity of a famine is ruined, while he who has danger from his army (or, whose army is disaffected) is unable to commence war.
अदेशस्थोहि रिपुणा स्वल्पकेनापि हन्यते ।
ग्राहोऽल्पीयानपि जले गजेन्द्रमपि कर्षति ॥ ५०॥
He who is out of his country can be easily killed even by a petty foe, just as an alligator, although small, can drag even a powerful elephant.
बहुशत्रुस्तु संत्रस्तः श्येनमध्ये कपोतवत् ।
येनैव गच्छति पथा तेनैवाशु विपद्यते ॥ ५१॥
He, who has many enemies, is, when embarrassed, like a pigeon in the midst of hawks; by whatever way he may pass, there he is killed in no time.
अकालसैन्ययुक्तस्तु हन्यते कालयोधिना ।
कौशिकेन हतज्योतिर्निशीथ इव वायसः ॥ ५२॥
He who marches with (lit. musters) his army out of season is killed by one fighting in right time (i. e. seizing the most advantageous opportunity), as is a crow, with its vision gone at midnight, by an owl.
सत्यधर्मव्यपेतेन न संदध्यात्कदाचन ।
स संधितोऽप्यसाधुत्वादचिराद्याति विक्रियाम् ॥ ५३॥
One should never make an alliance with him who is false to truth and religion; for, although won over by an alliance, such a man, on account of his perfidious nature, will soon undergo a change.
अपरमपि कथयामि ।
संधिविग्रहयानासनसंश्रयद्वैधीभावाः षाड्गुण्यम् ।
I will also give you additional information on the subject. Making peace, fighting, marching against the enemy, waiting (for better opportunities &c.), seeking shelter (by resorting to a fortress or a powerful king) and duplicity -- these are the six expedients.
कर्मणामारम्भोपायः पुरुषद्रव्यसम्पत् ।
देशकालविभागो विनिपातप्रतीकारः कार्यसिद्धिश्च
Finding out means to begin an undertaking, having at command an abundance of men and stores, the proper division (affixing) of time and place, providing against accidents, and the final attainment of the desired object --
पञ्चाङ्गो मन्त्रः । सामदानभेददण्डाश्चत्वार उपायाः ।
these are the five parts of (the results to be attained by) counsel. Conciliation (the use of pacific means), giving gifts, discord (sowing seeds of dissension) and chastisement, -- these are the four means.
उत्साहशक्तिर्मन्त्रशक्तिः प्रभुशक्तिश्चेति शक्तित्रयम् ।
The power arising from the king's personal energy, the power arising from good counsel, and the power due to the possession of an adequate army and treasury -- these are the three regal powers.
एतत्सर्वमालोच्य नित्यं विजिगीषवो भवन्ति महान्तः ।
Having always paid due attention to all these, sovereigns, who wish to make conquests, become great.
या हि प्राणपरित्यागमूल्येनापि न लभ्यते ।
सा श्रीर्नीतिविदां वेश्म चञ्चलापि प्रधावति ॥ ५४॥
Royal fortune, which is not to be obtained even for the price of the abandonment of life, runs to the house of those who are consummate politicians, although fickle.
तथा चोक्तं --
वित्तं यदा यस्य समं विभक्तं गूढश्च चारो निभृतश्च मन्त्रः ।
न चाप्रियं प्राणिषु यो ब्रवीति स सागरान्तां पृथिवीं प्रशास्ति ॥ ५५॥
It is also said -- He whose wealth is equally apportioned, whose spies are well-disguised, whose counsel is kept secret, and who never speaks a harsh word to men, governs the earth bounded by the oceans (the whole).
किंतु देव यद्यपि महामन्त्रिणा गृध्रेण
संधानमुपन्यस्तं तथापि तेन राज्ञा संप्रति भूतजयदर्पान्न मन्तव्यम् ।
Now, my lord, although the greater minister, Vulture, has proposed peace, yet that king, through the pride of his recent success, will not consent to it.
तदेवं क्रियतां । सिंहलद्वीपस्य महाबलो
नाम सारसो राजास्मन्मित्रं जम्बुद्वीपे कोपं जनयतु । यतः ।
So let this policy be adopted. Let the Sarasa king of Ceylon, Mahabala by name, our ally, cause a disturbance (by attacking it) in Jambudvipa. For,
सुगुप्तिमाधाय सुसंहतेन बलेन वीरो विचरन्नरातिम् ।
संतापयेद्येन समं सुतप्तस्तप्तेन संधानमुपैति तप्तः ॥ ५६॥
A war-like prince, marching about under profound secrecy with a well-composed army, should harass his enemy, so that he will be equally worried; for one, who is afflicted (lit. heated), will make peace with another equally afflicted.
राज्ञा एवमस्तु इति निगद्य
विचित्रनामा बकः सुगुप्तलेखं दत्त्वा सिंहलद्वीपं प्रस्थापितः ।
The king, having approved of the plan, sent a crane, named Vichitra, to Ceylon with a confidential letter.
अथ प्रणिधिरागत्योवाच --
देव श्रूयतां तत्रत्यः प्रस्तावः ।
Now the spy came and said -- Sire, please listen to the affairs of the place.
एवं तत्र गृध्रेणोक्तम् -- देव यन्मेघवर्णस्तत्र चिरमुषितः ।
स वेत्ति किं संधेयगुणयुक्तो हिरण्यगर्भो राजा न वा इति ।
The vulture said this there. Since Meghavarna had stayed there for a long time, he knows whether or not king Chitravarna possesses qualities which make him a worthy person to make an alliance with.
ततोऽसौ मेघवर्णश्चित्रवर्णेन राज्ञा समाहूय पृष्टः -- वायस
कीदृशोऽसौ हिरण्यगर्भः । चक्रवाको मन्त्री वा कीदृशः ।
Thereupon that Meghavarna was called and asked by the king -- Mr. crow, what sort of a king is that Hiranyagarbha or what sort of a minister is Chakravaka ?
वायस उवाच -- देव हिरण्यगर्भो राजा युधिष्ठिरसमो
महाशयः । चक्रवाकसमो मन्त्री न क्वाप्यवलोक्यते ।
The crow replied -- Sire, king Hiranyagarbha is as magnanimous as Yudhishthira, while a minister of Chakravaka's type can nowhere be found.
राजाह -- यद्येवं तदा कथमसौ त्वया वञ्चितः ।
विहस्य मेघवर्णः प्राह -- देव
विश्वासप्रतिपन्नानां वञ्चने का विदग्धता ।
अङ्कमारुह्य सुप्तं हि हत्वा किं नाम पौरुषम् ॥ ५७॥
What ingenuity is there in deceiving those who have reposed confidence (in you)? What sort of prowess is that if one kills a man who has fallen asleep having reclined on the lap?
शृणु देव तेन मन्त्रिणाहं प्रथमदर्शने एव ज्ञातः ।
किंतु महाशयोऽसौ राजा । तेन मया विप्रलब्धः । तथा चोक्तम् --
Listen, my lord. The minister knew me at first sight. But the king was noble-minded, and so I could deceive him. And it is said --
आत्मौपम्येन यो वेत्ति दुर्जनं सत्यवादिनम् ।
स तथा वञ्च्यते धूर्तैर्ब्राह्मणश्छागतो यथा ॥ ५८॥
He, who from his own analogy considers a knave to be a speaker of truth, is deceived, just as the Brahmana was by rogues with respect to a goat.
राजोवाच -- कथमेतत् ।
मेघवर्णः कथयति --
॥ कथा ९ ॥
The king asked how it was. The crow thus related -- FABLE IX.
अस्ति गौतमस्यारण्ये प्रस्तुतयज्ञः कश्चिद्ब्राह्मणः । स च
यज्ञार्थं ग्रामान्तराच्छागमुपक्रीय स्कन्धे धृत्वा गच्छन्
धूर्तत्रयेणावलोकितः ।
A certain Brahmana had commenced a sacrifice in Gotama's forest. As he was wending his way back after having purchased a goat for the sacrifice at some village and taken it on his shoulders, he was noticed by three villains.
ततस्ते धूर्ताः यद्येष छागः केनाप्युपायेन लभ्यते
तदा मतिप्रकर्षो भवतीति समालोच्य वृक्षत्रयतले
क्रोशान्तरेण तस्य ब्राह्मणस्यागमनं प्रतीक्ष्य पथि स्थिताः ।
Then the villains, thinking to themselves that if by some means they could get the goat they would display their wit to its utmost, stood under three trees at an interval of two miles each, on the way, awaiting the Brahmana's arrival.
तत्रैकेन धूर्तेन गच्छन्स ब्राह्मणोऽभिहितः -- भो ब्राह्मण
किमिति कुक्कुरः स्कन्धेनोह्यते ।
Now as the Brahmana passed on, one of the villains said -- Ho Brahmana, why is it that you are carrying a dog on your shoulder?
विप्रेणोक्तं -- नायं श्वा किंतु यज्ञच्छागः ।
अथान्तरस्थितेनान्येन धूर्तेन तथैवोक्तम् ।
The Brahmana replied -- this is not a dog, but a sacrificial goat. Then he was addressed the same question by another villain standing next (to the first).
तदाकर्ण्य ब्राह्मणश्छागं भूमौ निधाय मुहुर्निरीक्ष्य पुनः स्कन्धे कृत्वा
दोलायमानमतिश्चलितः । यतः ।
On hearing that the Brahmana took off the goat from his shoulder, placed it on the ground and having examined it again and again, replaced it on his shoulder and set off, but with a wavering mind. For,
मतिर्दोलायते सत्यं सतामपि खलोक्तिभिः ।
ताभिर्विश्वासितश्चासौ म्रियते चित्रकर्णवत् ॥ ५९॥
Surely the mind even of the good wavers on hearing the words of the wicked; and he who is led into confidence by such (words) perishes, as did the camel Chitrakarna.
राजाह -- कथमेतत् ।
स कथयति --
॥ कथा १० ॥
The king asked how it was, upon which he thus went on : -- FABLE X.
अस्ति कस्मिंश्चिद्वनोद्देशे
मदोत्कटो नाम सिंहः । तस्य सेवकास्त्रयः काको व्याघ्रो जम्बुकश्च ।
In a certain part of a forest there lived a lion, by name Madotkata. He had three servants, a crow, a tiger and a jackal.
अथ तैर्भ्रमद्भिः सार्थाद्भ्रष्टः कश्चिद् उष्ट्रो
दृष्टः पृष्टश्च कुतो भवानागतः ।
Once, as they were roaming about, they saw a camel that had strayed from the herd and asked him where he had come from.
स चात्मवृत्तान्तमकथयत् । ततस्तैर्नीत्वा सिंहेऽसौ
समर्पितः । तेनाभयवाचं दत्त्वा चित्रकर्ण इति नाम कृत्वा स्थापितः ।
He told his account. Then he was taken to the lion and presented. The lion gave him his word of safety, named him Chitrakarna and asked him to stay with him.
अथ कदाचित्सिंहस्य शरीरवैकल्याद्
भूरिवृष्टिकारणाच्चाहारमलभमानास्ते व्यग्रा बभूवुः ।
Now on one occasion, owing to the lion's indisposition and there being a heavy rain, they, not getting anything to eat, were in distress.
ततस्तैरालोचितम् । चित्रकर्णमेव यथा स्वामी व्यापादयति
तथानुष्ठीयताम् । किमनेन कण्टकभुजा । व्याघ्र उवाच --
Then they fell thinking -- Let us manage things in such a way that our master will kill Chitrakarna. What have we to do with this thorn-eater? The tiger said --
स्वामिनाभयवाचं दत्त्वानुगृहीतस्तत् कथमेवं
संभवति । काको ब्रूते -- इह समये परिक्षीणः स्वामी पापमपि
करिष्यति । यतः ।
Our master has favoured him by giving his word of surety. How can this be possible then? The crow observed -- Now that our master is grown lean (for want of food) he will commit even sin. For,
त्यजेत् क्षुधार्ता महिला स्वपुत्रं खादेत् क्षुधार्ता भुजगी स्वमण्डम् ।
बुभुक्षितः किं न करोति पापं क्षीणा नरा निष्करुणा भवन्ति ॥ ६०॥
A woman oppressed with hunger will abandon even her son; a female serpent distressed with hunger will eat even her egg; what sinful act is a hungry man not capable of? Men when reduced to poverty, become cruel.
अन्यच्च । मत्तः प्रमत्तश्चोन्मत्तः श्रान्तः क्रुद्धो बुभुक्षितः ।
लुब्धो भीरुस्त्वरायुक्तः कामुकश्च न धर्मवित् ॥ ६१॥
इति संचिन्त्य
सर्वे सिंहान्तिकं जग्मुः । सिंहेनोक्तम् -- आहारार्थं किंचित् प्राप्तम् ।
Having thus deliberated they went to the lion. The lion asked -- Have you got anything for food?
तैरुक्तम् -- यत्नादपि न प्राप्तं किंचित् ।
सिंहेनोक्तं -- कोऽधुना जीवनोपायः ।
काको वदति --
They said -- We have found nothing, even after an effort. The lion asked -- What is the means of our sustenance now? The crow replied --
देव स्वाधीनाहारपरित्यागात्सर्वनाशोऽयमुपस्थितः ।
सिंहेनोक्तम् अत्राहारः कः स्वाधीनः ।
By your not availing yourself of the food at command we are all in the jaws of death. What is the food at my command? -- asked the lion.
काकः कर्णे कथयति -- चित्रकर्णः इति ।
सिंहो भूमिं स्पृष्ट्वा कर्णौ स्पृशति ।
अभयवाचं दत्त्वा धृतोऽयमस्माभिः । तत्कथमेवं संभवति । तथा च ।
The crow whispered into his ear -- Chitrakarna. The lion having touched the ground and then his ears, said -- We have retained him here by pledging our word of safety. So how can this be possible ?
न भूप्रदानं न सुवर्णदानं न गोप्रदानं न तथान्नदानम् ।
यथा वदन्तीह महाप्रदानं सर्वेषु दानेष्वभयप्रदानम् ॥ ६२॥
As they (the wise) speak of the gift of safety as the greatest of all gifts, so they do not talk of land, nor of gold, nor of a cow, nor of food.
अन्यच्च । सर्वकामसमृद्धस्य अश्वमेधस्य यत्फलम् ।
तत्फलं लभ्यते सम्यग्रक्षिते शरणागते ॥ ६३॥
Moreover, If a supplicant be well protected, that fruit is obtained which is the reward of the performance of a horse-sacrifice which is rich in the gift of (i.e. which grants) all desires.
काको ब्रूते -- नासौ स्वामिना व्यापादयितव्यः ।
किंत्वस्माभिरेव तथा कर्तव्यं यथासौ स्वदेहदानमङ्गीकरोति ।
The crow said your lordship need not kill him. But we shall so contrive it that he will consent to offer his own body.
सिंहस्तच्छ्रुत्वा तूष्णीं स्थितः । ततोऽसौ लब्धावकाशः कूटं कृत्वा
सर्वानादाय सिंहान्तिकं गतः । अथ काकेनोक्तं --
The lion, on hearing this, remained silent. Getting an opportunity thereby, the crow fabricated a plot and taking them all with him went up to the lion. Now the crow said --
देव यत्नादप्याहारो न प्राप्तः । अनेकोपवासखिन्नः स्वामी ।
तद् इदानीं मदीयमांसमुपभुज्यताम् । यतः ।
Lord, even after busy search we have found nothing to eat. While our lord is distressed by many fasts. So let him eat my flesh. For,
स्वामिमूला भवन्त्येव सर्वाः प्रकृतयः खलु ।
समूलेषु हि वृक्षेषु प्रयत्नः सफलो नृणाम् ॥ ६४॥
All subjects have, indeed, the king for their root (chief support). If the trees have roots (then only) man's effort (to rear them) will be successful.
सिंहेनोक्तं -- भद्र
वरं प्राणपरित्यागः न पुनरीदृशि कर्मणि प्रवृत्तिः ।
जम्बुकेनापि तथोक्तम् । ततः सिंहेनोक्तं -- मैवम् ।
The lion replied -- Friend, better to part with life than to proceed to do a deed like this. The jackal, too, said the same thing, to which the lion replied that it could not be done.
अथ व्याघ्रेणोक्तं -- मद्देहेन जीवतु स्वामी ।
सिंहेनोक्तं -- न कदाचिदेवमुचितम् ।
अथ चित्रकर्णोऽपि जातविश्वासस्तथैवात्मदानमाह ।
Then the tiger said -- Let the master live on my flesh. The lion replied -- This can never be proper. Now Chitravarna too, having got confidence, made a similar offer of himself.
तद्वदन्नेवासौ व्याघ्रेण कुक्षिं विदार्य व्यापादितः
सर्वैर्भक्षितश्च । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- मतिर्दोलायते सत्यम् इत्यादि ॥
Just as he was saying that, the tiger ripped his side and killed him, after which he was eaten by them all. Hence I say -- Surely the mind of the good &c.
ततस्तृतीयधूर्तवचनं श्रुत्वा स्वमतिभ्रमं निश्चित्य
छागं त्यक्त्वा ब्राह्मणः स्नात्वा गृहं ययौ ।
Then hearing the words of the third villain, the Brahmana, concluding that his own understanding was in error, threw down the goat, bathed and went home.
स छागः तैर्धूर्तैर्नीत्वा भक्षितः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- आत्मौपम्येन यो
वेत्ति इत्यादि ॥ राजाह -- मेघवर्ण कथं शत्रुमध्ये त्वया
चिरमुषितम् । कथं वा तेषामनुनयः कृतः ।
The goat was taken by the three rogues and eaten. Hence I say -- He who from his own analogy considers a knave &c. The king asked -- Meghavarna, how could you live so long among the enemies, and how could you win their favour?
मेघवर्ण उवाच -- देव स्वामिकार्यार्थिना स्वप्रयोजनवशाद्
वा किं न क्रियते । पश्य ।
Meghavarna replied -- Sire, what can one seeking to execute his master's business or having his own interest at heart not do? Behold:
लोको वहति किं राजन्न मूर्ध्ना दग्धुमिन्धनम् ।
क्षालयन्त्यपि वृक्षाङ्घ्रिं नदीवेला निकृन्तति ॥ ६५॥
Do not people bear, O king, fuel on their heads for burning? The tide of a river, alhough washing the root of a tree, destroys it.
तथा चोक्तम् --
स्कन्धेनापि वहेच्छत्रून्कार्यमासाद्य बुद्धिमान् ।
यथा वृद्धेन सर्पेण मण्डूका विनिपातिताः ॥ ६६॥
Again it is said -- Having to achieve an object, a wise man should even bear his enemies on his shoulder, just as the frogs were destroyed by an old serpent (by doing so).
राजाह -- कथमेतत् ।
मेघवर्णः कथयति --
॥ कथा ११ ॥
The king demanded how it was, and Meghavarna related as follows. FABLE XI.
अस्ति जीर्णोद्याने मन्दविषो नाम सर्पः । सोऽतिजीर्णतया
आहारमप्यन्वेष्टुमक्षमः सरस्तीरे पतित्वा स्थितः ।
There was in Jirnodyana (an old garden) an old serpent, named Mandavisha. He, unable to look for his food even, on account of his extreme old age, stretched himself on the bank of a lake and so lay there.
ततो दूराद् एव केनचिन्मण्डूकेन
दृष्टः पृष्टश्च -- किमिति त्वमाहारं नान्विष्यसि ।
Then being seen by some frog from a distance he was asked -- Why don't you go in quest of your food?
सर्पोऽवदत् -- गच्छ भद्र मम मन्दभाग्यस्य प्रश्नेन किम् ।
ततः संजातकौतुकः स च भेकः सर्वथा कथ्यताम् इत्याह ।
The serpent replied -- Go your way, friend. What have you to do by questioning me, an unlucky creature? Thereupon, his curiosity being roused, the frog insisted on his telling it.
सर्पोऽप्याह -- भद्र भ्रह्मपुरवासिनः श्रोत्रियस्य
कौण्डिन्यस्य पुत्रो विंशतिवर्षदेशीयः सर्वगुणसंपन्नो
दुर्दैवान्मया नृशंसेन दष्टः ।
The serpent said -- Friend, I, wicked that I was, bit, as ill-luck would have it, the son of Kaundinya, a learned Brahmana, residing in Brahmapura, who was about twenty years old and endowed with all the virtues.
ततः सुशीलनामानं तं पुत्रं मृतमालोक्य मूर्छितः कौण्डिन्यः पृथिव्यां लुलोठ ।
अनन्तरं ब्रह्मपुरवासिनः सर्वे बान्धवास्तत्रागत्योपविष्टाः ।
Then seeing his son, whose name was Susila, dead, Kaundinya swooned away and rolled on the ground. Now all his relatives residing in Brahmapura came there and sat down. For it is said --
तथा चोक्तम् --
आहवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे राष्ट्रविप्लवे ।
राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः ॥ ६७॥
He is a relative who stands by one in a battle, in adversity, in times of famine, when a kingdom is subverted, at the royal gate, and in the cemetery.
तत्र कपिलो नाम स्नातकोऽवदत् --
अरे कौण्डिन्य मूढोऽसि । तेनैवं विलपसि । शृणु ।
Among them, one Kapila by name, who had just finished his course of Vedic studies, said -- Oh Kaundinya, your reason is gone and hence you lament thus. Hear --
क्रोडीकरोति प्रथमं यदा जातमनित्यता ।
धात्रीव जननी पश्चात्तदा शोकस्य कः क्रमः ॥ ६८॥
Since Frailty, like a midwife, takes on her lap a creature that is born first, and the mother afterwards, what occasion is there for sorrow?
क्व गताः पृथिवीपालाः ससैन्यबलवाहनाः ।
वियोगसाक्षिणी येषां भूमिरद्यापि तिष्ठति ॥ ६९॥
Where are those potentates gone, with their armies, bodyguards and equipages, the witness of whose exit (from her), the Earth stands as yet?
अपरं च । कायः संनिहितापायः सम्पदः पदमापदाम् ।
समागमाः सापगमाः सर्वमुत्पादि भङ्गुरम् ॥ ७०॥
The body is liable to accidents (lit. has accidents near to it), wealth is the abode of misfortunes, and unions are followed by separations -- everything created is fragile.
प्रतिक्षणमयं कायः क्षीयमाणो न लक्ष्यते ।
आमकुम्भ इवाम्भःस्थो विशीर्णः सन्विभाव्यते ॥ ७१॥
The body, decaying every moment, is not observed (to do so), but is perceived when dead like a raw earthen pot placed in water when dissolved.
आसन्नतरतामेति मृत्युर्जन्तोर्दिने दिने ।
आघातं नीयमानस्य वध्यस्येव पदे पदे ॥ ७२॥
Death approaches a creature nearer and nearer every day, just as it does at every step of the man who is being conducted to the place of execution.
अनित्यं यौवनं रूपं जीवितं द्रव्यसंचयः ।
ऐश्वर्यं प्रियसंवासो मुह्येत्तत्र न पण्डितः ॥ ७३॥
Transient are youth, beauty, life, hoarded wealth, progperity and the company of beloved persons: a wise man should not allow himself to be deluded by them.
यथा काष्ठं च काष्ठं च समेयातां महोदधौ ।
समेत्य च व्यपेयातां तद्वद् भूतसमागमः ॥ ७४॥
Just as two pieces of wood come together on the surface of the ocean, and, having met, part again, so (of a similar nature) is the association of creatures (they come together only to part again).
यथा हि पथिकः कश्चिच्छायामाश्रित्य तिष्ठति ।
विश्रम्य च पुनर्गच्छेत्तद्वद् भूतसमागमः ॥ ७५॥
As some traveller halts under a shade, and having taken rest proceeds on his journey again, such is the company of creatures.
अन्यच्च । पञ्चभिर्निर्मिते देहे पञ्चत्वं च पुनर्गते ।
स्वां स्वां योनिमनुप्राप्ते तत्र का परिदेवना ॥ ७६॥
Again, When the body which is composed of the five elements is reduced to those five again, each component part being resolved into its original element, where is the room for wailing?
यावतः कुरुते जन्तुः संबन्धान्मनसः प्रियान् ।
तावन्तोऽपि निखन्यन्ते हृदये शोकशङ्कवः ॥ ७७॥
As many darts of sorrow are driven into a man'a heart as the number of connexions, delightful to the heart, he forms.
नायमत्यन्तसंवासो लभ्यते येन केनचित् ।
अपि स्वेन शरीरेण किमुतान्येन केनचित् ॥ ७८॥
An eternal association, even with one's own body, is not obtained by any one; how little then with anything else?
अपि च । संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् ।
अनतिक्रमणीयस्य जन्म मृत्योरिवागमम् ॥ ७९॥
Moreover, Connexion certainly indicates the possibility of separation, as birth indicates the coming of death which is unavoidable.
आपातरमणीयानां संयोगानां प्रियैः सह ।
अपथ्यानामिवान्नानां परिणामोऽतिदारुणः ॥ ८०॥
The result of associations with beloved persons, which are pleasant only in the beginning (or, at the first sight), is exceedingly dreadful, like that of unwholesome victuals eaten.
अपरं च । व्रजन्ति न निवर्तन्ते स्रोतांसि सरितां यथा ।
आयुरादाय मर्त्यानां तथा रात्र्यहनी सदा ॥ ८१॥
Again, As the streams of rivers (ever) pass (flow) on, and never turn back, so do day and night, taking away with them men's lives.
सुखास्वादपरो यस्तु संसारे सत्समागमः ।
स वियोगावसानत्वाद्दुःखानां धुरि युज्यते ॥ ८२॥
The company of the good, which in this worldy life gives the best pleasure, is set at the head of miseries by reason of its ending in separation.
अत एव हि नेच्छन्ति साधवः सत्समागमम् ।
यद्वियोगासिलूनस्य मनसो नास्ति भेषजम् ॥ ८३॥
For this reason good men do not wish for the company of the good; for there is no medicine for (healing) the mind when wounded by the sword of their separation.
सुकृतान्येव कर्माणि राजभिः सगरादिभिः ।
अथ तान्येव कर्माणि ते चापि प्रलयं गताः ॥ ८४॥
Meritorious were the acts done by Bharata and other kings; but those very acts, and they too, have met their end (have been buried in oblivion).
संचिन्त्य संचिन्त्य तमुग्रदण्डं मृत्युं मनुष्यस्य विचक्षणस्य ।
वर्षाम्बुसिक्ता इव चर्मबन्धाः सर्वे प्रयत्नाः शिथिलीभवन्ति ॥ ८५ ॥
By his repeatedly thinking of death, of terrible punishment, all the efforts of a wise (thinking) man are relaxed, like leather (straps or) knots when besprinkled with rain-water.
यामेव रात्रिं प्रथमामुपैति गर्भे निवासं नरवीर लोकः ।
ततः प्रभृत्यस्खलितप्रयाणः स प्रत्यहं मृत्युसमीपमेति ॥ ८६॥
The very first night on which a man comes, O king, to reside in the womb, journeying steadily on (lit. without breaking his journey), from that night he approaches death nearer and nearer every day.
अतः संसारं विचारयतां शोकोऽयमज्ञानस्यैव प्रपञ्चः । पश्य ।
For this reason, to those who take a right view (or, understand the real nature) of this worldly existence, such sorrow is but the outcome (lit. expansion) of ignorance. Behold --
अज्ञानं कारणं न स्याद्वियोगो यदि कारणम् ।
शोको दिनेषु गच्छत्सु वर्धतामपयाति किम् ॥ ८७॥
If ignorance is not the cause, but separation is the cause, of sorrow, then as days pass on, it ought to increase: how does it abate?
तद्भद्रात्मानमनुसंधेहि । शोकचर्चां परिहर । यतः ।
Therefore, friend, think of yourself (or, compose yourself) and give up indulgence in sorrow. For,
अकाण्डपातजातानामार्द्राणां मर्मभेदिनाम् ।
गाढशोकप्रहाराणामचिन्तैव महौषधी ॥ ८८॥
Not to think of them at all is the great medicine for the deep wounds of sorrow which appear all of a sudden, which are fresh, and which cut the vital parts.
निशम्य प्रबुद्ध इव कौण्डिन्य उत्थायाब्रवीत् - तदलमिदानीं
गृहनरकवासेन । वनमेव गच्छामि । कपिलः पुनराह --
Now, hearing his words, Kaundinya rose up, appearing to be enlightened on the subject, and said -- Away with residence in the hell of a house. To the forest itself shall I retire. Kapila observed again --
वनेऽपि दोषाः प्रभवन्ति रागिणां
गृहेऽपि पञ्चेन्द्रियनिग्रहस्तपः ।
अकुत्सिते कर्मणि यः प्रवर्तते
निवृत्तरागस्य गृहं तपोवनम् ॥ ८९॥
Even in a forest impediments (or, temptations) overtake those who are affected by passion; even in a house restraining the five organs of sense constitutes penance: the home is a penance-grove to him, with passions subdued, who proceeds in an act which is irreproachable.
यतः । दुःखितोऽपि चरेद्धर्मं यत्र कुत्राश्रमे रतः ।
समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु न लिङ्गं धर्मकारणम् ॥ ९०॥
For, An afflicted man, in whatever Asrama (stage of life) he may choose to be, should do the duties of religion, treating all creatures equally: external signs (such as bearing the holy staff, wearing dyed garments &c.) are not the cause of the performance of religious rites.
उक्तं च । वृत्त्यर्थं भोजनं येषां संतानार्थं च मैथुनम् ।
वाक्सत्यवचनार्था च दुर्गाण्यपि तरन्ति ते ॥ ९१॥
It is also said -- Those, who eat just to support life, lead a married life for progeny, and have speech but to declare the truth, surmount difficulties.
तथा हि । आत्मा नदी संयमपुण्यतीर्था सत्योदका शीलतटा दयोर्मिः ।
तत्राभिषेकं कुरु पाण्डुपुत्र न वारिणा शुध्यति चान्तरात्मा ॥ ९२॥
So also, The soul is a river which has self-restraint for its holy stairs, truthfulness for its water, good disposition for its banks and mercy for its waves : bathe in this river, O son of Pandu : the inner soul is not purified by (physical) water.
विशेषतश्च । जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिवेदनाभिरुपद्रुतम् ।
संसारमिममत्यन्तमसारं त्यजतः सुखम् ॥ ९३॥
More especially, He enjoys happiness who renounces this exceedingly worthless worldly life which is overwhelmed with the pains of birth, death, old age and diseases.
यतः । दुःखमेवास्ति न सुखं यस्मात्तदुपलक्ष्यते ।
दुःखार्तस्य प्रतीकारे सुखसंज्ञा विधीयते ॥ ९४॥
For, Pain is the real thing (existing in this world), and not happiness, since that is observed : the term happiness is applied to the removal (of the pain) of one afflicted with sorrow.
कौण्डिन्यो ब्रूते -- एवमेव । ततोऽहं तेन शोकाकुलेन
ब्राह्मणेन शप्तः यदद्यारभ्य मण्डूकानां वाहनं भविष्यस् इति ।
Kaundinya said -- Just so. Then the Brahmana, afflicted with sorrow, cursed me, saying -- 'From to-day thou shalt be the carrier of <sic>serpents<sic> frogs.'
कपिलो ब्रूते -- संप्रत्युपदेशासहिष्णुर्भवान् ।
शोकाविष्टं ते हृदयम् । तथापि कार्यं शृणु ।
Kapila said -- Now you are incapable of listening to advice. Your heart is heavy with grief. Still, hear what is fit to be done.
सङ्गः सर्वात्मना त्याज्यः स चेत्त्यक्तुं न शक्यते ।
स सद्भिः सह कर्तव्यः सतां सङ्गो हि भेषजम् ॥ ९५॥
Association (with other persons) should be given up by all means; if it cannot be given up it should be made with the good; for the company of the good is a medicine (for the disease of attachment to worldly things).
अन्यच्च । कामः सर्वात्मना हेयः स चेद्धातुं न शक्यते ।
मुमुक्षां प्रति कर्तव्यः सैव तस्य हि भेषजम् ॥ ९६॥
Moreover, Desire should be abandoned by every effort; if it cannot be abandoned, it should be entertained with respect to final emancipation; for such a desire is the medicine for (removing) it (desire in general).
एतच्छ्रुत्वा स कौण्डिन्यः कपिलोपदेशामृतप्रशान्तशोकानलो
यथाविधि दण्डग्रहणं कृतवान् । अतो ब्राह्मणशापान्मण्डूकान्
On hearing this, that Kaundinya, the fire of whose sorrow was extinguished by the water of Kapila's advice, became an ascetic (lit. took the holy staff).
वोढुमत्र तिष्ठामि । अनन्तरं तेन मण्डूकेन गत्वा मण्डूकनाथस्य
जालपादनाम्नः अग्रे तत्कथितम् ।
So, owing to the Brahmana's curse, I lie here to carry the frogs. Now that frog went to the king of frogs, Jalapada by name, and informed him of that.
ततोऽसावागत्य मण्डूकनाथस्तस्य सर्पस्य पृष्ठमारूढवान् ।
स च सर्पस्तं पृष्ठे कृत्वा चित्रपदक्रमं बभ्राम ।
Then the chief of the frogs came there and mounted the serpent's back. The serpent, too, taking him on his back, moved about stepping beautifully.
परेद्युश्चलितुमसमर्थं तं मण्डूकनाथोऽअवदत् --
किमद्य भवान् मन्दगतिः ।
The next day, finding him unable to move about, the chief of <sic>serpents</sic> frogs asked him why he was slow to move.
सर्पो ब्रूते -- देव आहारविरहादसमर्थोऽस्मि ।
मण्डूकनाथोऽवदत् -- अस्मदाज्ञया मण्डूकान् भक्षय ।
The serpent replied -- My lord, I am weak on account of want of food. The frog-king replied -- We command you to eat frogs.
ततः गृहीतोऽयं महाप्रसादः
इत्युक्त्वा क्रमशो मण्डूकान्खादितवान् । अथ निर्मण्डूकं सरो विलोक्य
मण्डूकनाथोऽपि तेन खादितः । अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि --
Then saying, "This great favour is accepted," he ate up the frogs gradually. After that, finding the pond void of frogs, he devoured the frog-king also. Hence I say -–
स्कन्धेनापि वहेच्छत्रून् इत्यादि ॥ देव यात्विदानीं पुरावृत्ताख्यानकथनं ।
[Having to achieve an object, a wise man] should even bear his enemies &c. Now, my lord, let as have done with the narration of old stories.
सर्वथा संधेयोऽयं हिरण्यगर्भो राजा संधीयतामिति मे मतिः ।
My opinion is that we should make peace with this king, Hiranyagarbha, who is amply worthy of an alliance.
राजोवाच -- कोऽयं भवतो विचारः । यतो जितस्तावदयमस्माभिः
ततो यद्यस्मत्सेवया वसति तदास्ताम् । नो चेद् विगृह्यताम् ।
The king said -- What means this idea of yours? For we have beaten him in war. If, therefore, he lives as our vassal, let him do so; else we shall fight him again.
अत्रान्तरे जम्बूद्वीपाद् आगत्य शुकेनोक्तं -- देव
सिंहलद्वीपस्य सारसो राजा संप्रति जम्बूद्वीपमाक्रम्यावतिष्ठते ।
Just at the time a parrot coming from Jambudvipa said -- Lord, the Sarasa king of Ceylon has invaded Jambudvipa and continues to be there.
राजा ससम्भ्रमं ब्रूते -- किम् ।
शुकः पूर्वोक्तं कथयति ।
The king asked in great confusion-- What? The parrot told the same thing again.
गृध्रः स्वगतमुवाच -- साधु रे चक्रवाक मन्त्रिन् सर्वज्ञ साधु साधु ।
The Vulture said to himself -- Well done, minister Chakravaka: you, all-knowing one, excellent, excellent!
राजा सकोपमाह -- आस्तां तावदयं । गत्वा तमेव समूलमुन्मूलयामि ।
दूरदर्शी विहस्याह --
The king in anger -- Let this king be alone then. Him I will first go and destroy, root and branch. The minister, Far-seeing, having smiled, observed --
न शरन्मेघवत्कार्यं वृथैव घनगर्जितम् ।
परस्यार्थमनर्थं वा प्रकाशयति नो महान् ॥ ९७॥
One should not thunder in vain like the autumnal clouds : a great man does not disclose to another the object he seeks or does not seek (or the evil he meets with, or does not proclaim the good or evil he means to do another).
अपरं च । एकदा न विगृह्णीयाद्बहून्राजाभिघातिनः ।
सदर्पोऽप्युरगः कीटैर्बहुभिर्नाश्यते ध्रुवम् ॥ ९८॥
Moreover, A king should not engage many foes (lit. invaders) simultaneously; even the haughty (proud) cobra is certainly killed by many insects.
देव किमिति विना संधानं गमनमस्ति ।
यतस्तदास्मत्पश्चात्प्रकोपोऽनेन कर्तव्यः । अपरं च ।
My lord, why should we go (from here) without concluding a treaty? For, in that case, he (Hiranyagarbha) will raise an insurrection after we leave. Again,
योऽर्थतत्त्वमविज्ञाय क्रोधस्यैव वशं गतः ।
स तथा तप्यते मूढो ब्राह्मणो नकुलाद्यथा ॥ ९९॥
He, who without having ascertained the real truth about a thing (the true fact) yields himself up to anger, repents, as did the thoughtless Brahmana on account of his mongoose.
राजाह -- कथमेतत् ।
दूरदर्शी कथयति --
॥ कथा १२ ॥
The king asked how it was. Duradarsi thus related -- FABLE XII.
अस्त्युज्जयिन्यां माधवो नाम विप्रः । तस्य ब्राह्मणी प्रसूता ।
सा बालापत्यस्य रक्षार्थं ब्राह्मणमवस्थाप्य स्नातुं गता ।
There lived in Ujjayini a Brahmana, named Madhava. His wife who had been brought to bed left the Brahmana in charge of her infant child and went out to bathe.
अथ ब्राह्मणाय राज्ञः पार्वणश्राद्धं दातुमाह्वानमागतम् । तच्छ्रुत्वा
ब्राह्मणः सहजदारिद्र्यादचिन्तयत् -- यदि सत्वरं न
गच्छामि तत्रान्यः कश्चिछ्राद्धं ग्रहीष्यति । यतः ।
In the meantime the Brahmana received an invitation from the king to receive the presents to be given on the occasion of the Paryana Sraddha. On getting that the Brahmana, being naturally poor, thought to himself -- If I do not go quickly some other Brahmana will take the presents. For,
आदानस्य प्रदानस्य कर्तव्यस्य च कर्मणः ।
क्षिप्रमक्रियमाणस्य कालः पिबति तद्रसम् ॥ १००॥
If what is to be taken, what is to be given and what is to be done be not quickly attended to, time saps their best essence.
किंतु बालकस्यात्र रक्षको नास्ति । तत्किं करोमि । यातु ।
चिरकालपालितमिमं नकुलं पुत्रनिर्विशेषं बालकरक्षार्थं
व्यवस्थाप्य गच्छामि । तथा कृत्वा गतः ।
But there is no one here to take care of the child. What shall I do now? Or why care thus! I will appoint this mongoose here, which has been long tended by me and is just like a son to me, to look after the child, and go. He did so and went away.
ततस्तेन नकुलेन बालकसमीपमागच्छन्कृष्णसर्पो
दृष्वा व्यापादितः खण्डितश्च ।
After he had gone, the mongoose seeing a black serpent crawling to the child, killed it and cut it into pieces.
ततोऽसौ नकुलो ब्राह्मणमायान्तमवलोक्य रक्तविलिप्तमुखपादः
सत्वरमुपगम्य तच्चरणयोर्लुलोठ । ततः स विप्रस्तथाविधं तं
दृष्ट्वा बालकोऽनेन खादित इत्यवधार्य नकुलं व्यापादितवान् ।
Presently the mongoose, seeing the Brahmana coming, ran to him with its mouth and paws covered with blood and rolled at his feet. Then the Brahmana, seeing it in that condition and concluding that it had eaten the child, killed it.
अनन्तरं यावदुपसृत्यापत्यं पश्यति ब्राह्मणस्तावद्बालकः
सुस्थः सर्पश्च व्यापादितस्तिष्ठति । ततस्तमुपकारकं
नकुलं निरीक्ष्य भावितचेताः स परं विषादमगमत् ।
After that as soon as the Brahmana went in and looked at his child, he found it lying down comfortably (quite well), while a serpent lay there killed. Then looking at his mongoose that had done him a service, his heart was pervaded with emotion and he was smitten with bitterest sorrow.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि -- योऽर्थतत्त्वमविज्ञाय इत्यादि ॥
Hence I say--'He who without ascertaining the real truth' etc.
अपरं च । कामः क्रोधस्तथा मोहो लोभो मानो मदस्तथा ।
षड्वर्गमुत्सृजेदेनमस्मिंस्त्यक्ते सुखी नरः ॥ १०१॥
Moreover, One should give up the collection of these six, viz., lust, anger, want of judgement, greed, vanity and haughtiness: when these are abandoned a man becomes happy.
राजाह -- मन्त्रिन् एष ते निश्चयः ।
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- एवमेव । यतः ।
The king asked -- Minister, is this your resolve? The minister replied -- Just so. For,
स्मृतिश्च परमार्थेषु वितर्को ज्ञाननिश्चयः ।
दृढता मन्त्रगुप्तिश्च मन्त्रिणः परमा गुणाः ॥ १०२॥
Remembrance of important (weighty) affairs, clever guessing, decisive knowledge, firmness of purpose and secrecy of counsel are the most important qualities in a minister.
तथा च । सहसा विदधीत न क्रियामविवेकः परमापदां पदम् ।
वृणते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव संपदः ॥ १०३॥
Also, One should not do a thing rashly: want of due consideration is the most favourite abode of misfortunes: riches, of their own accord, seek (lit. choose) him who acts after due deliberation, being attracted by his merit.
यदीदानीमस्मद्वचनं क्रियते तदा संधाय गम्यताम् । यतः ।
So my lord, if you are to follow my advice you should go after concluding a treaty. For,
यद्यप्युपायाश्चत्वारो निर्दिष्टाः साध्यसाधने ।
सङ्ख्यामात्रं फलं तेषां सिद्धिः साम्नि व्यवस्थिता ॥ १०४॥
Although four means are pointed out (mentioned) for the accomplishment of the desired object, their use is simply to make up the number; real success rests firmly with peace.
राजाह -- कथमेवं संभवति ।
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- देव सत्वरं भविष्यति । यतः ।
He asked -- How can this (the concluding of a treaty) be possible? The minister -- My lord, this can be quickly brought about. For,
अज्ञः सुखमाराध्यः सुखतरमाराध्यते विशेषज्ञः ।
ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति ॥ १०५॥
An ignorant man can be easily satisfied; still more easily can one who is eminently learned: but even Brahma himself cannot please a man who is vainly proud of his little knowledge.
विशेषतश्चायं धर्मज्ञो राजा सर्वज्ञो मन्त्री च । ज्ञातमेतन्मया पूर्वं
मेघवर्णवचनात्तत्कृतकार्यसंदर्शनाच्च । यतः ।
Especially because the king knows his duty and the minister is all-knowing. I knew this from the words of Meghavarna as well as from the business accomplished by them. For,
कर्मानुमेयाः सर्वत्र परोक्षगुणवृत्तयः ।
तस्मात्परोक्षवृत्तीनां फलैः कर्मानुभाव्यते ॥ १०६ ॥
In all cases the virtuous tendencies (or, the virtues and tendencies) of those who are absent (lit. out of sight) are to be inferred from actions; therefore the proceedings of those whose actions are not to be observed are known from the ends achieved.
राजाह -- अलमुत्तरोत्तरेण ।
यथाभिप्रेतमनुष्ठीयताम् । एतन्मन्त्रयित्वा गृध्रो महामन्त्री
तत्र यथार्हं कर्तव्यमित्युक्त्वा दुर्गाभ्यन्तरं चलितः ।
The king -- enough of discussion (lit. answers and replies). You may follow the policy you approve of. After this talk the great minister, Vulture, saying, 'I will do what befits the occasion,' set out for the interior of the castle.
ततः प्रणिधिबकेनागत्य राज्ञो हिरण्यगर्भस्य निवेदितं -- देव
संधिं कर्तुं महामन्त्री गृध्रोऽस्मत्समीपमागच्छति ।
Now the crane, employed as a spy, came and said to Hiranyagarbha -- The great minister, Vulture, is coming to us to conclude a treaty.
राजहंसो ब्रूते -- मन्त्रिन् पुनः संबन्धिना केनचिदत्रागन्तव्यम् ।
सर्वज्ञो विहस्याह -- देव न शङ्कास्पदमेतत् । यतोऽसौ महाशयो दूरदर्शी ।
The royal Swan said -- Minister, some partisan (of the enemy) might be coming here. Sarvajna, smiling, observed My lord, there is no room for suspicion in this case. For this personage is the magnanimous Duradarsi.
अथवा स्थितिरियं मन्दमतीनां । कदाचिच्छङ्कैव
न क्रियते । कदाचित् सर्वत्र शङ्का । तथा हि ।
Or rather, such is the behaviour of the weak-mined (or dull-headed). Sometimes they have no suspicion at all; at others they would suspect everything. For,
सरसि बहुशस्ताराच्छाये क्षणात् परिवञ्चितः
कुमुदविटपान्वेषी हंसो निशास्वविचक्षणः ।
A swan, searching for lotus-sprouts (or stalks) in a lake at night, and therefore unable to discern (them) properly, being several times deceived by his seeing the reflections of stars (which he mistook for lotuses),
न दशति पुनस्ताराशङ्की दिवापि सितोत्पलं
कुहकचकितो लोकः सत्येऽप्यपायमपेक्षते ॥ १०७॥
[The swan] does not eat the white lotus even during day-time, suspecting it to be a star: a man when once surprised (deceived) by a fraud, suspects evil even in truth.
दुर्जनदूषितमनसः सुजनेष्वपि नास्ति विश्वासः ।
बालः पायसदग्धो दध्यपि फूत्कृत्य भक्षयति ॥ १०८॥
When a man's mind is vitiated by wicked men, he has no confidence even in good men. A child having got (his hand) burnt by payasa (milk boiled with sugar, rice &c.) eats curdled milk after having cooled it with his breath.
तद् देव यथाशक्ति तत्पूजार्थं रत्नोपहारादिसामग्री सुसज्जीक्रियताम् ।
Moreover, My lord, let us, therefore, hold in readiness presents of jewels and other things, the best that our means can allow, for his reception.
तथानुष्ठिते सति स गृध्रो मन्त्री
दुर्गद्वाराच्चक्रवाकेणोपगम्य सत्कृत्यानीय राजदर्शनं कारितो
दत्तासने उपविष्टः । चक्रवाक उवाच --
This being done, the minister Vulture, who was received with marks of respect at the castle-gate by Chakravaka, having advanced forth, was conducted in and presented to the king, after which he sat on the seat that was offered to him. Chakravaka said --
युष्मदायत्तं सर्वं । स्वेच्छयोपभुज्यतामिदं राज्यम् ।
राजहंसो ब्रूते -- एवमेव ।
You are the master of all things here. Enjoy this kingdom according to your pleasure. The royal Swan said -- Just so.
दूरदर्शी कथयति -- एवमेवैतत् ।
किन्त्विदानीं बहुप्रपञ्चवचनं निष्प्रयोजनम् । यतः ।
Duradarsi observed -- It is just so. A speech, at considerable length, is unnecessary now. For,
लुब्धमर्थेन गृह्णीयात्स्तब्धमञ्जलिकर्मणा ।
मूर्खं छन्दानुरोधेन याथातथ्येन पण्डितम् ॥ १०९॥
One should win over a covetous man by wealth, the stubborn by joining the hands (by submission), a fool by ministering to his whims (humouring him), and a learned man by truthfulness (by whatever is suitable to the particular case).
अन्यच्च । सद्भावेन हरेन्मित्रं सम्भ्रमेण तु बान्धवान् ।
स्त्रीभृत्यौ दानमानाभ्यां दाक्षिण्येनेतरान्जनान् ॥ ११०॥
A man should gain over a friend by honesty of purpose (sincerity of feeling), his relatives by ready reception, his wife and servants by gifts and an honourable treatment, and other people by a courteous behaviour,
तदिदानीं संधाय प्रस्थाप्यतामयं महाप्रतापश्चित्रवर्णो राजा ।
चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- यथा संधानं कार्यम् तदप्युच्यताम् ।
You should therefore conclude a peace with this king, Chitravarna, of mighty power, and send him away. Chakravaka said -- Kindly tell us also the conditions on which the (or how a) treaty is to be made.
राजहंसो ब्रूते -- कति प्रकाराः संधीनां संभवन्ति ।
गृध्रो ब्रूते -- कथयामि । श्रूयताम् ।
The royal Swan -- What are the possible kinds of treaties? The Vulture replied -- I will tell you. May you listen --
बलीयसाभियुक्तस्तु नृपो नान्यप्रतिक्रियः ।
आपन्नः संधिमन्विच्छेत्कुर्वाणः कालयापनम् ॥ १११॥
A king, distressed by being attacked by a more powerful (enemy) and having no other alternative left, should sue for peace, wishing to gain time.
कपाल उपहारश्च संतानः संगतस्तथा ।
उपन्यासः प्रतीकारः संयोगः पुरुषान्तरः ॥ ११२॥
Kapala, Upahara, Samtana, Samgata, Upanyasa, Pratikara, Samyoga, Parushantara, ...
अदृष्टनर आदिष्ट आत्मादिष्ट उपग्रहः ।
परिक्रयस्तथोच्छन्नस्तथा च परभूषणः ॥ ११३॥
Adrishtanara, Adishta, Atmadishta, Upagraha, Parikraya, Uchchhanna, Parabhushana,
स्कन्धोपनेयः संधिश्च षोडशैते प्रकीर्तिताः ।
इति षोडशकं प्राहुः संधिं संधिविचक्षणाः ॥ ११४॥
and Skandhopaneya -- these sixteen are enumerated as the varieties of Peace. Thus do those who are well acquainted with the subject of treaties declare the sixteen species.
कपालसंधिर्विज्ञेयः केवलं समसंधितः ।
संप्रदानाद् भवति य उपहारः स उच्यते ॥ ११५॥
That is known to be Kapala Samdhi which is formed on equal terms (or between equal parties), while that is called Upahara which is brought about by (one of the parties giving) gifts (to the other).
संतानसंधिर्विज्ञेयो दारिकादानपूर्वकः ।
सद्भिस्तु संगतः संधिर्मैत्रीपूर्व उदाहृतः ॥ ११६॥
The Samtana Samdhi is that in which the gift of a daughter in marriage precedes (is the preliminary condition), while Samgata is declared by the wise to be that which is formed on the foundation of friendship.
यावदायुः प्रमाणस्तु समानार्थप्रयोजनः ।
संपत्तौ वा विपत्तौ वा कारणैर्यो न भिद्यते ॥ ११७॥
Which lasts during life in which the interests of both the parties are equally represented, and which is not broken by accidents (or, causes) either in prosperous or adverse times,
संगतः संधिरेवायं प्रकृष्टत्वात्सुवर्णवत् ।
तथान्यैः संधिकुशलैः काञ्चनः स उदाहृतः ॥ ११८॥
It is this Samgata Samdhi, that is also called, on account of its superior excellence, like that of gold, Kanchana, by those adept in the science of forming alliances.
आत्मकार्यस्य सिद्धिं तु समुद्दिश्य क्रियेत यः ।
स उपन्यासकुशलैरुपन्यास उदाहृतः ॥ ११९॥
That which is made by having in view the accomplishment of one's own object is called Upanyasa by those versed in the doctrine of making overtures of peace (to an enemy).
मयास्योपकृतं पूर्वमयं प्रतिकरिष्यति ।
इति यः क्रियते संधिः प्रतीकारः स उच्यते ॥ १२०॥
I have conferred a favour upon him: he will repay it: the alliance which is formed on this principle is styled Pratikara.
उपकारं करोम्यस्य ममाप्येष करिष्यति ।
अयं चापि प्रतीकारो रामसुग्रीवयोरिव ॥ १२१॥
I will render a service to him, and he too will render a similar one to me -- that which is formed with such an intention is also denominated Pratikara, as in the case of Rama and Sugriva.
एकार्थां सम्यगुद्दिश्य क्रियां यत्र हि गच्छतः ।
सुसंहितप्रमाणस्तु स च संयोग उच्यते ॥ १२२॥
When, having definitely aimed at the achievement of one common object (one goal to be reached), (two parties) enter into an alliance duly ratified (or, the terms of enforcement being well-secured), it is called Samyoga.
आवयोर्योधमुख्यैस्तु मदर्थः साध्यतामिति ।
यस्मिन्पणस्तु क्रियते स संधिः पुरुषान्तरः ॥ १२३॥
That alliance in which a condition is made (by each party) that its interests can be safeguarded by its principal warriors, is Purushantara.
त्वयैकेन मदीयोऽर्थः संप्रसाध्यस्त्वसाविति ।
यत्र शत्रुः पणं कुर्यात्सोऽदृष्टपुरुषः स्मृतः ॥ १२४॥
That in which an enemy lays down the condition that a particular party alone will accomplish his purpose is said to be Adrishtapurusha.
यत्र भूम्येकदेशेन पणेन रिपुरूर्जितः ।
संधीयते संधिविद्भिः स चादिष्ट उदाहृतः ॥ १२५॥
That in which a powerful (victorious) enemy forms an alliance on condition that a portion of land is ceded (to him by the other party) is designated Adishta by those versed in the doctrine of peace-making.
स्वसैन्येन तु संधानमात्मादिष्ट उदाहृतः ।
क्रियते प्राणरक्षार्थं सर्वदानमुपग्रहः ॥ १२६॥
That is spoken of as Atmadishta in which common cause is made with one's own army. And when everything is relinquished to the enemy as the (only) means of saving one's life, that is called Upagraha.
कोषांशेनार्धकोषेण सर्वकोषेण वा पुनः ।
शिष्टस्य प्रतिरक्षार्थं परिक्रय उदाहृतः ॥ १२७॥
That is styled Parikraya which is made at the cost of a part of, or the half of, or even the whole of, the treasury, in order that the rest (other property) may be saved.
भुवां सारवतीनां तु दानादुच्छन्न उच्यते ।
भूम्युत्थफलदानेन सर्वेण परभूषणः ॥ १२८॥
That wherein very valuable lands are relinquished is called Uchchhanna ; and when the whole fruit (produce) of the land is given away, it is called Parabhushana (ornament to the enemy).
परिच्छिन्नं फलं यत्र प्रतिस्कन्धेन दीयते ।
स्कन्धोपनेयं तं प्राहुः संधिं संधिविचक्षणाः ॥ १२९॥
That alliance in which a specified quantity (part of the produce of the land) that can be borne on the shoulders is given, those conversant with the art of making peace call Skandhopaneya.3
परस्परोपकारस्तु मैत्रः संबन्धकस्तथा ।
उपहारश्च विज्ञेयाश्चत्वारश्चैव संधयः ॥ १३०॥
That in which there is reciprocal obligation (Pratikara), that which is based on friendship (Samgata), that based on relationship (Samtana) and Upahara (secured by gifts) -- these four should be known as the real varieties of Samdhi.
एक एवोपहारस्तु संधिरेव मतो मम ।
उपहारविभेदास्तु सर्वे मैत्रविवर्जिताः ॥ १३१॥
Or rather in my opinion Upahara is the only real kind of Peace, all the others (lit. those different from Upahara) are without friendship (i.e. they fail to secure real friendship).
अभियोक्ता बलीयस्त्वादलब्ध्वा न निवर्तते ।
उपहारादृते तस्मात्संधिरन्यो न विद्यते ॥ १३२॥
A (successful) invader (conqueror), on account of his being the more powerful, does not return without getting something; hence there is no other mode of Samdhi than Upahara.
चक्रवाको ब्रूते -- श्र्णु तावत् ।
Chakravaka said -- Just hear me.
अयं निजः परो वेति गणना लघुचेतसाम् ।
उदारचरितानां तु वसुधैव कुटुम्बकम् ॥ १३३ ॥
This is our relative, this is a stranger -- such a reckoning belongs to the low-minded; but the large-minded regard the world itself as their family.
अपरं च । मातृवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत् ।
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु यः पश्यति स पण्डितः ॥ १३४ ॥
Moreover, He is a wise man (has true insight into philosophy) who regards another's wife as his mother, another's wealth as a clod of earth, and all creatures as his own self.
राजाह -- भवन्तो
महान्तः पण्डिताश्च । तद् अत्रास्माकं यथाकार्यमुपदिश्यताम् ।
मन्त्री ब्रूते -- आः किमेवमुच्यते ।
The king said -- Your Honour is profoundly learned. You should therefore tell us what is best to be done. The minister replied -- Ah, why do you ask me this?
आधिव्याधिपरीतापादद्य श्वो वा विनाशिने ।
को हि नाम शरीराय धर्मापेतं समाचरेत् ॥ १३५॥
Who will act unrighteously for the sake of the body which, owing to mental or bodily affliction, must fall to-day or tomorrow (i. e. at any moment)?
जलान्तश्चन्द्रचपलं जीवितं खलु देहिनाम् ।
तथाविधमिति ज्ञात्वा शश्वत्कल्याणमाचरेत् ॥ १३६॥
The life of creatures is, indeed, as fleeting (lit. unsteady) as the reflection of the moon in water: knowing that it is such, one should always do what is (truly) beneficial.
मृगतृष्णासमं वीक्ष्य संसारं क्षणभङ्गुरम् ।
सज्जनैः संगतं कुर्याद्धर्माय च सुखाय च ॥ १३७॥
Seeing that worldly existence is as transitory as a mirage, one should associate with the good, both for the performance of duty and happiness.
तन्मम संमतेन तदेव क्रियताम् । यतः ।
Then according to my opinion let that alone (association with the good) be done. For,
अश्वमेधसहस्राणि सत्यं च तुलया धृतम् ।
अश्वमेधसहस्राद्धि सत्यमेवातिरिच्यते ॥ १३८॥
If a thousand horse-sacrifices and truth be weighed (against each other), truth would weigh heavier than a thousand Asvamedhas.
अतः सत्याभिधानदिव्यपुरःसरो द्वयोरप्यनयोर्भूपालयोः
काञ्चनाभिधानसंधिर्विधीयताम् । सर्वज्ञो ब्रूते -- एवमस्तु ।
Therefore let there be concluded between these two kings the Peace called Kanchana (the golden one) of which truth is the principal ordeal (binding authority). Sarvajna said -- Let it be so.
ततो राजहंसेन राज्ञा वस्त्रालंकारोपहारैः स मन्त्री दूरदर्शी पूजितः
प्रहृष्टमनाश्चक्रवाकं गृहीत्वा राज्ञो मयूरस्य संनिधानं गतः ।
Then the minister Duradarsi, who was duly honoured by the king, the royal Swan, was highly delighted at heart and returned, with Chakravaka, into the presence of the royal Peacock.
तत्र चित्रवर्णेन राज्ञा सर्वज्ञो गृध्रवचनाद्
बहुमानदानपुरःसरं संभाषितस्तथाविधं संधिं
स्वीकृत्य राजहंससमीपं प्रस्थापितः ।
There, at the instance of the Vulture, king Chitravarna conversed with Sarvajna in a manner in which great respect was shown to him and presents were given; and the latter, having ratified (lit. accepted) the Peace as mentioned, came back to the presence of the royal Swan.
दूरदर्शी ब्रूते -- देव सिद्धं नः समीहितम् ।
इदानीं स्वस्थानमेव विन्ध्याचलं व्यावृत्य प्रतिगम्यताम् ।
Duradarsi said -- Lord, we have gained our wishes. Now let us turn back and go to our residence, the mountain Vindhya.
अथ सर्वे स्वस्थानं प्राप्य मनोभिलषितं फलं प्राप्नुवन्निति ।
Thereupon all of them went home and enjoyed the fruit (happiness) their hearts had cherished.
विष्णुशर्मणोक्तं -- अपरं किं कथयामि । कथ्यताम् ।
राजपुत्रा ऊचुः -- तव
प्रसादाद्राज्यव्यवहाराङ्गं ज्ञातम् । ततः सुखिनो भूता वयम् ।
Vishnusharma said -- What more should I tell you? Declare that. The princes said -- By your favour we have known that branch of knowledge which relates to (or, to the various departments of) the administration of a state and have become happy thereby.
विष्णुशर्मोवाच -- यद्यप्येवं तथाप्यपरमपीदमस्तु --
Visnusarma observed -- Although it is so, let there be this much more also:
संधिः सर्वमहीभुजां विजयिनामस्तु प्रमोदः सदा
सन्तः सन्तु निरापदः सुकृतिनां कीर्तिश्चिरं वर्धताम् ।
नीतिर्वारविलासिनीव सततं वक्षःस्थले संस्थिता
वक्त्रं चुम्बतु मन्त्रिणामहरहर्भूयान्महानुत्सवः ॥ १३९॥
May peace be ever for the delight of all victorious kings; may the good be free from calamities; may the glory of the virtuous ever increase; may state-policy, like a harlot, abiding in the minds (or the bosom) of ministers, ever kiss their mouths; and may there be great rejoicing (among people) day by day!!
अन्यच्चास्तु --
And this much in addition --
प्रालेयाद्रेः सुतायाः प्रणयनिवसतिश्चन्द्रमौलिः स यावद्
यावल्लक्ष्मीर्मुरारेर्जलद इव तडिन्मानसे विस्फुरन्ती ।
यावत्स्वर्णाचलोऽयं दवदहनसमो यस्य सूर्यः स्फुलिङ्गः
तावन्नारायणेन प्रचरतु रचितः संग्रहोऽयं कथानाम् ॥ १४०॥
As long as the moon-crested god (Siva), the abode of the love of the Snow-mountain's daughter (Parvati) exists, as long as Lakshmi sports in the heart of Murari (Vishnu) like lightning flashing in the clouds; and as long as there exists the Gold-mountain (Meru) which resembles an (immense) wild fire and whose spark is the sun; so long may continue in circulation this collection of stories made by Narayana!!
अपरं च । श्रीमान्धवलचन्द्रोऽसौ जीयान्माण्डलिको रिपून् ।
येनायं संग्रहो यत्नाल्लेखयित्वा प्रचारितः ॥ १४१॥
And lastly, May the prosperous king, Dhavalachandra, be victorious over his enemies; -- he, who with an effort, got this compendium of stories to be made and published!
काळेवंशसमुत्पन्नेन रामचंद्रसूनुना मोरेश्वरेण कृता
मर्मप्रकाशिका नाम हितोपदेशव्याख्या समाप्ता ।
शुभं भूयादध्यापकानामध्येतॄणां च ।

इन्हें भी देखें